Suzanne Nadine Vega is an American singer-songwriter and record producer, best known for her eclectic folk-inspired music. Vega's music career spans more than 30 years, she came to prominence in the mid 1980s, releasing four singles that entered the Top 40 charts in the UK during the 1980s and 1990s, including "Marlene on the Wall", "Left of Center", "Luka" and "No Cheap Thrill". "Tom's Diner,", released as an a cappella recording on Vega's second album, Solitude Standing, was remixed in 1990 as a dance track by English electronic duo DNA with Vega as featured artist, it became a Top 10 hit in over five countries. The song was used as a test during the creation of the MP3 format. Vega has released nine studio albums to date, the latest of, Lover, Beloved: Songs from an Evening with Carson McCullers, released in 2016. Suzanne Nadine Vega was born on July 1959, in Santa Monica, California, her mother, Pat Vega, is a computer systems analyst of German-Swedish heritage. Her father, Richard Peck, is of Scottish-English-Irish origin.
They divorced soon after her birth. Her stepfather, Edgardo Vega Yunqué known as Ed Vega, was a writer and teacher from Puerto Rico; when Vega was two and a half, her family moved to New York City. She grew up in the Upper West Side, she was not aware of having a different biological father, Richard Peck, until she was nine years old. They met for the first time in her late 20s, they remain in contact, she attended the High School of Performing Arts, now renamed Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, where she studied modern dance and graduated in 1977. While majoring in English literature at Barnard College, she performed in small venues in Greenwich Village, where she was a regular contributor to Jack Hardy's Monday night songwriters' group at the Cornelia Street Cafe and had some of her first songs published on Fast Folk anthology albums. In 1984, she received a major label recording contract, making her one of the first Fast Folk artists to break out on a major label. Vega's self-titled debut album was released in 1985 and was well received by critics in the U.
S.. Produced by Lenny Kaye and Steve Addabbo, the songs feature Vega's acoustic guitar in straightforward arrangements. A video was released for the album's song "Marlene on the Wall", which went into MTV and VH1's rotations. During this period Vega wrote lyrics for two songs on Songs from Liquid Days by composer Philip Glass. Vega's song "Left of Center" co-written with Steve Addabbo for the 1986 John Hughes film Pretty in Pink reached No. 32 on the UK Singles Chart in 1986. Her next effort, Solitude Standing, garnered critical and commercial success, selling over 1 million copies in the U. S, it includes the international hit single Luka, written about, from the point of view of, an abused child—at the time an uncommon subject for a pop hit. While continuing a focus on Vega's acoustic guitar, the music is more pop-oriented and features fuller arrangements; the a cappella Tom's Diner from this album was a hit, remixed by two British dance producers under the name DNA, in 1990. The track was a bootleg, until Vega allowed DNA to release it through her record company, it became her all-time biggest hit.
Vega's third album, Days of Open Hand, continued in the style of her first two albums. In 1992 she released the album 99.9F°. It consists of a mixture of dance beats and industrial music; this record was awarded Gold status by the RIAA in recognition of selling over 500,000 copies in the U. S; the single "Blood Makes Noise" from this album peaked at number-one on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks. Vega married the album's producer Mitchell Froom, her fifth album, Nine Objects of Desire, was released in 1996. The music varies between a frugal, simple style and the industrial production of 99.9F°. This album contains "Caramel", featured in the movie The Truth About Cats & Dogs, the trailer for the movie Closer. A song not included on that album, "Woman on the Tier," was featured on the soundtrack of the movie Dead Man Walking. In 1997 she took a singing part on the concept album Heaven and Hell, a musical interpretation of the seven deadly sins by her colleague Joe Jackson, with whom she had collaborated in 1986 on "Left of Center" from the Pretty in Pink soundtrack.
In 1999, Avon Books published Vega's book The Passionate Eye: The Collected Writings of Suzanne Vega, a volume of poems, lyrics and journalistic pieces. In September 2001, Vega released a new album entitled Songs in Gray. Three songs deal with Vega's divorce from Mitchell Froom. At the memorial concert for her brother Tim Vega in December 2002, Vega began her role as the subject of the direct-cinema documentary, Some Journey, directed by Christopher Seufert of Mooncusser Films; the documentary has not been completed. Underground hip hop duo Felt named a track on their album Felt: A Tribute to Christina Ricci released in 2002 "Suzanne Vega". In 2003, the 21-song greatest hits compilation Retrospective: The Best of Suzanne Vega was released. In the same year she was invited by Grammy Award-winning jazz guitarist Bill Frisell, to play at the Century of Song concerts at the famed Ruhrtriennale in Germany. In 2003, she hosted the American Public Media radio series American Mavericks, about 20th century American composers, which received the Peabody Award for Excellence in Broadcasting.
On August 3, 2006, Vega became the first major recording artist to perform live in the Internet-based virtual world, S
History of Gibraltar
The history of Gibraltar, a small peninsula on the southern Iberian coast near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, spans over 2,900 years. The peninsula has evolved from a place of reverence in ancient times into "one of the most densely fortified and fought-over places in Europe", as one historian has put it. Gibraltar's location has given it an outsized significance in the history of Europe and its fortified town, established in medieval times, has hosted garrisons that sustained numerous sieges and battles over the centuries. Gibraltar was first inhabited over 50,000 years ago by Neanderthals and may have been one of their last places of habitation before they died out around 24,000 years ago. Gibraltar's recorded history began around 950 BC with the Phoenicians; the Carthaginians and Romans worshipped Hercules in shrines said to have been built on the Rock of Gibraltar, which they called Mons Calpe, the "Hollow Mountain", which they regarded as one of the twin Pillars of Hercules. Gibraltar became part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania following the collapse of the Roman Empire and came under Muslim Moorish rule in 711 AD.
It was permanently settled for the first time by the Moors and was renamed Jebel Tariq – the Mount of Tariq corrupted into Gibraltar. The Christian Crown of Castile annexed it in 1309, lost it again to the Moors in 1333 and regained it in 1462. Gibraltar became part of the unified Kingdom of Spain and remained under Spanish rule until 1704, it was captured during the War of the Spanish Succession by an Anglo-Dutch fleet in the name of Charles VI of Austria, the Habsburg contender to the Spanish throne. At the war's end, Spain ceded the territory to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. Spain tried to regain control of Gibraltar, which Britain had declared a Crown colony, through military and economic pressure. Gibraltar was besieged and bombarded during three wars between Britain and Spain but the attacks were repulsed on each occasion. By the end of the last siege, in the late 18th century, Gibraltar had faced fourteen sieges in 500 years. In the years after Trafalgar, Gibraltar became a major base in the Peninsular War.
The colony grew during the 19th and early 20th centuries, becoming a key British possession in the Mediterranean. It was a key stopping point for vessels en route to India via the Suez Canal. A large British naval base was constructed there at great expense at the end of the 19th century and became the backbone of Gibraltar's economy. British control of Gibraltar enabled the Allies to control the entrance to the Mediterranean during the Second World War, it was attacked on several occasions by German and Vichy French forces, though without causing much damage. The Spanish dictator General Francisco Franco declined to join a Nazi plan to occupy Gibraltar but revived Spain's claim to the territory after the war; as the territorial dispute intensified, Spain closed its border with Gibraltar between 1969 and 1985 and communications links were severed. Spain's position was supported by Latin American countries but was rejected by Britain and the Gibraltarians themselves, who vigorously asserted their right to self-determination.
Discussions of Gibraltar's status have continued between Britain and Spain but have not reached any conclusion. Since 1985, Gibraltar has undergone major changes as a result of reductions in Britain's overseas defence commitments. Most British forces have left the territory, no longer seen as a place of major military importance, its economy is now based on tourism, financial services and Internet gambling. Gibraltar is self-governed, with its own parliament and government, though the UK maintains responsibility for defence and foreign policy, its economic success has made it one of the wealthiest areas of the European Union. The history of Gibraltar has been driven by its strategic position near the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, it is a narrow peninsula at the eastern side of the Bay of Gibraltar, 6 kilometres from the city of Algeciras. Gibraltar is on the far south coast of Spain at one of the narrowest points in the Mediterranean, only 24 kilometres from the coast of Morocco in North Africa.
Its position on the bay makes it an advantageous natural anchorage for ships. As one writer has put it, "whoever controls Gibraltar controls the movement of ships into and out of the Mediterranean. In terms of military and naval power, few places have a more strategic location than Gibraltar."The territory's area measures only 6.7 square kilometres. Most of the land area is occupied by the steeply sloping Rock of Gibraltar which reaches a height of 426 metres; the town of Gibraltar lies at the base of the Rock on the west side of the peninsula. A narrow, low-lying isthmus connects the peninsula to the Spanish mainland; the North Face of the Rock is a nearly vertical cliff 396 metres high overlooking the isthmus. Gibraltar's geography has thus given it considerable natural defensive advantages, it is impossible to scale the eastern or northern sides of the Rock, which are either vertical or nearly so. To the south, the flat area around Europa Point is surrounded by cliffs which are up to 30 metres high.
The western side is the only practicable area for a landing, but here the steep slopes on which the town is built work to the advantage of a defender. These factors have given it an enormous military significance over the centuries. Gibraltar's appearance in prehistory was different. Whereas today it is surrounded by sea, th
History of the Jews in Gibraltar
There has been a Jewish presence in Gibraltar for more than 650 years. There have been periods of persecution, but for the most part the Jews of Gibraltar have prospered and been one of the largest religious minorities in the city, where they have made contributions to the culture and Government of Gibraltar; the Jews of Gibraltar have faced no official anti-Semitism during their time in the city. During Gibraltar's tercentenary celebration, Jonathan Sacks, the Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Commonwealth, was quoted as saying, "In the dark times of expulsion and inquisition, Gibraltar lit the beacon of tolerance," and that Gibraltar "is the community where Jews have been the most integrated." The first record of Jews in Gibraltar comes from the year 1356, under Muslim rule, when the community issued an appeal asking for the ransom of Hannah Pike taken captive by barbary pirates. In 1474, twelve years after the Christian takeover, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, sold Gibraltar to a group of Jewish conversos from Cordova and Seville led by Pedro de Herrera in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time the 4,350 Jews were expelled by the Duke.
Their fate is unknown. It is that many returned to Cordova where they had to face the persecution of the Inquisition under the infamous Torquemada from 1488. Jews were expelled from Spain under the Alhambra decree of 1492 and from Portugal by order of King Manuel I in 1497 ending all Jewish activity there, except in the cases of conversos or possible Crypto-Jews. After the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, Gibraltar came under the rule of the Kingdom of Great Britain, which made the area a British dependency. In the Treaty, the Spanish added the following clause barring Jews and Moors from the city: However, the British ignored this provision. Although the Jews had been expelled from England in 1290, Oliver Cromwell had consented to their readmission in 1655; the admission of Jews was one of the infractions against the Treaty of Utrecht that the Spanish used to consider that the British had abrogated the Treaty. In 1727, the Spanish unsuccessfully laid siege to the city. In 1729, the British and the Sultan of Morocco reached an agreement whereby the sultan's Jewish subjects were permitted to reside in the colony.
Jews were given the right to permanent settlement in 1749, when Isaac Nieto, the new community's first Rabbi, came to the colony from London and established congregation Sha'ar HaShamayim, the oldest synagogue in Gibraltar, otherwise known as the Great Synagogue. At that date there were 600 Jews in Gibraltar, who constituted one third of the civilian population. Three more synagogues, all of which still function on Shabbat and feast days, were built as years went by: Nefutsot Yehuda and Ets Hayim in 1781, as well as the Abudarham Synagogue in 1820, named after Solomon Abudarham; the Jewish population continued reaching its peak in the mid-19th century. The Jews of Gibraltar preserved some old customs. For example, in 1777, Issac Aboab, a Gibraltarian Jew born in Tetuan, was listed as having two wives, Hannah Aboab and Simah Aboab. Bigamy was illegal in the Kingdom of Great Britain at the time, but the law was not operative in Gibraltar, though polygamy had been banned by Rabbenu Gershom Meor Hagola since 1000 CE, this ban was only accepted by Ashkenazi communities.
During the sieges of the city by the Spanish and during the Peninsular War, Jewish civilians valiantly helped defend Gibraltar from invaders. Tito Benady, a historian on Gibraltar Jewry, noted that when some 200 Jews of the 2000 evacuees from Gibraltar were evacuated as non combatants to Funchal, Madeira, at the start of World War II, they found a Jewish cemetery that belonged to the Abudarham family; the same family after whom the Abudarham Synagogue in Gibraltar was named. On the 28 May 1944 the first repatriation party departed Madeira for Gibraltar and by the end of 1944 only 520 non-priority evacuees remained on the island. In 2008, a monument was made in Gibraltar and shipped to Madeira where it has been erected next to a small chapel at Santa Caterina park, Funchal; the monument is a gift and symbol of ever-lasting thanks given by the people of Gibraltar to the island of Madeira and its inhabitants. The city of Funchal and Gibraltar were twinned on 13 May 2009 by their Mayors, the Mayor of Funchal Miguel Albuquerque and the mayor of Gibraltar, an Evacuee from Gibraltar to Madeira Solomon Levy, respectively.
The mayor of Gibraltar had a meeting with the President of Madeira Alberto João Jardim. Most of Gibraltar's Jews evacuated to the United Kingdom during the Second World War, when the Allies used Gibraltar as a base of operations; some Jews opted to stay in the United Kingdom, but most returned, although there was a slackening in some of their religious practices. The efforts of the Spanish sephardic Italian born Rabbi Josef Pacifici, who assumed the Gibraltar rabbinate and took control of Jewish education in Gibraltar, helped reverse this tendency. In 1984 Rabbi Ron Hassid became Chief Rabbi. Several Gibraltarian Jews have served in important positions in the Government there in the 20th century Sir Joshua Hassan, who served as Chief Minister of Gibraltar for two separate terms before his death. Solomon Levy served in the ceremonial role of Mayor of Gibraltar from 2008 to 2009; the city maintains five kosher institutions, a Jewish primary school and two Jewish secondary schools. In 2004, at a celebration of the 300 years since the British takeover, the congregants at the Great Synagogue (Shaar Hash
Football in Gibraltar
Football has been a popular part of sport in Gibraltar since its introduction by British military personnel in the 19th century. The Gibraltar Football Association, founded in 1895, is one of the ten oldest active football associations in the world. Football was introduced to the civilian population of Gibraltar by the British Armed Forces in the late 19th century, it is not known when the first civilian football teams were formed, but the earliest records mention that the Prince of Wales F. C. existed in 1892, the Gibraltar F. C. was formed in November 1893. Between 1895 and 1907, the only known football competition organised by the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association was the Merchants Cup; the cup was donated each year by the Merchants of Gibraltar. The first Cup Final was between the Gibraltar F. C. and the Jubilee F. C. and was witnessed by 1,500 spectators. In 1902, the military authorities in Gibraltar designated one of their four football grounds at North Front as a civilian ground. Before this there was no civilian football grounds in Gibraltar, so the only way the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association could practice outside the annual Merchants Cup was by playing friendly matches against the military teams whenever possible.
The Gibraltar Football League was set up in October 1907. The military had well-established league and cup competitions before this, but local civil teams were not allowed to compete in them; the first league competition saw eight teams competing, with Prince of Wales F. C. being the winner. The growing success of the league and cup competitions was reflected in the increasing number of new teams that were registering with the association; such was the increase in participating teams that a Second Division was added in 1909, in 1910 the association was organising separate leagues and cup competitions for senior and junior divisions. This continuously growing interest in football in Gibraltar was reflected in the association's affiliation with The Football Association in 1909. Up until 2005-06, the league operated a Third Division, however the loss of several reserve teams that dominated the Second Division led to the two divisions merging. Years the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association changed its name to the Gibraltar Football Association.
The period between 1949 and 1955 is regarded as the "Golden era" for football in Gibraltar. It was during this time that world-renowned teams such as Real Madrid C. F. Atlético Madrid, Real Valladolid and Admira Wacker among many others were arriving on The Rock to play against the national team who acquitted themselves admirably against professionals despite being amateurs; the Gibraltar national football team has a long history competing against teams of visiting British military personnel. The highlight of their existence to date was a draw with Real Madrid C. F. in 1949 at a time when the Spanish club were about to enter a period of European dominance. On the most part though, they compete in smaller matches against non-sovereign national teams. Gibraltar won the championship at the 2007 Island Games, held in Rhodes; the Gibraltar national team play their matches, as do most of the clubs in the territory, at the 5,000 capacity FIFA approved and licensed Victoria Stadium. On 8 January 1997 the GFA applied for FIFA membership, in March 1999 FIFA confirmed that the GFA fulfilled the requirements of Article 4.7 of the FIFA Statutes and passed their file onto UEFA.
On 12 April 1999 the GFA applied for membership in UEFA. This would have allowed them to join the qualifiers for the European Football Championships and enter teams in European club competition; this drew a hostile reception from the Royal Spanish Football Federation, whose government opposes any suggestion that Gibraltar is in fact a separate territory and not part of Spain. Spanish authorities waged a campaign of virulent opposition to their application, causing it to be rejected by officials on the grounds that it did not meet their criteria. In 2002 UEFA had stipulated that future members would have to be sovereign nations, despite a number of their existing members failing to meet this requirement. After a legal challenge, a ruling by the Court of Arbitration for Sport in 2006 insisted that UEFA had to accept the GFA as any other member, as the application had come before the new criteria had been put in place and the rejection had political overtones, which are discouraged in sport. UEFA awarded the GFA associate member status along with Montenegro and deferred the matter to the 2007 Congress in Düsseldorf, Germany.
Spanish delegates had for some months, by attempting to secure support for their position been threatening to withdraw Spanish teams from UEFA competitions if Gibraltar was approved. This tactic was successful - winning the vote 45 to 3, with 5 abstentions. Gibraltar's application was at this point thrown out, while Montenegro was unanimously granted membership. On 3 October 2012, UEFA again granted Gibraltar provisional membership and deferred the matter about full membership to the next Congress, to be held in London in May 2013; the decision was taken to admit Gibraltar to UEFA. On 24 May 2013, Gibraltar became the 54th member of UEFA, with a team in the UEFA Champions League from the 2014/15 season. UEFA confirmed that due to the political dispute with Spain, the two countries would be kept apart in qualifying competitions. On 23 February 2014, Gibraltar were drawn against Germany, Scotland, the Republic of Ireland and Georgia in the qualifying rounds for UEFA Euro 2016 On the 13 May 2016, Gibraltar was granted FIFA membership so they can enter for the World Cup.
They were placed in G
Flag of Gibraltar
The flag of Gibraltar is an elongated banner of arms based on the coat of arms of Gibraltar, granted by Royal Warrant from Queen Isabella I of Castile on 10 July 1502. "An escutcheon on which the upper two thirds shall be a white field and on the said field set a red castle, below the said castle, on the other third of the escutcheon, which must be a red field in which there must be a white line between the castle and the said red field, there shall be a golden key which hangs by a chain from the said castle, as are here figured". The flag was regularised in 1982 and is formed by two horizontal bands of white and red with a three-towered red castle in the centre of the white band; the flag differs from that of other British overseas territories, in that it is not a British ensign. The castle does not resemble any in Gibraltar, but is supposed to represent the fortress of Gibraltar; the key is said to symbolise the fortress' significance as Gibraltar was seen to be the key to Spain by the Moors and Spanish and as the key to the Mediterranean by the British.
The flag is flown throughout Gibraltar, sometimes alongside the Union Flag and flag of Europe. Prominent places which fly the flag include the frontier with Spain, at the top of The Rock and on the Parliament Building; the flag is a symbol of Gibraltarian nationalism, is popular among Gibraltarians. For the Gibraltar National Day, many Gibraltar homes and offices hang the flag from their windows and balconies, some individuals wear and dress their vehicles with the flag for national day celebrations; this was seen during the 2004 celebrations of the tercentenary of British Gibraltar. Gibraltarian students attending university abroad have been known to take Gibraltarian flags with them, putting them up in university accommodation rooms and hanging them from windows. A Lego flag of Gibraltar 4 metres high and 8 metres long can be seen at the John Mackintosh Hall, a cultural centre housing the public library as well as exhibition rooms and a theatre. At the time of its construction, the Lego flag of Gibraltar was the largest flag to be made from Lego bricks with a total of 393,857 bricks being used.
List of flags of Gibraltar List of British flags List of coats of arms of the United Kingdom and dependencies Gibraltar at Flags of the World Gibraltar Government Website Information On Flag
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch, rhythm and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. Different styles or types of music may de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; the word derives from Greek μουσική. See glossary of musical terminology. In its most general form, the activities describing music as an art form or cultural activity include the creation of works of music, the criticism of music, the study of the history of music, the aesthetic examination of music. Ancient Greek and Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."The creation, performance and the definition of music vary according to culture and social context.
Indeed, throughout history, some new forms or styles of music have been criticized as "not being music", including Beethoven's Grosse Fuge string quartet in 1825, early jazz in the beginning of the 1900s and hardcore punk in the 1980s. There are many types of music, including popular music, traditional music, art music, music written for religious ceremonies and work songs such as chanteys. Music ranges from organized compositions–such as Classical music symphonies from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously played improvisational music such as jazz, avant-garde styles of chance-based contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries. Music can be divided into genres and genres can be further divided into subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, controversial. For example, it can be hard to draw the line between heavy metal. Within the arts, music may be classified as a fine art or as an auditory art.
Music may be played or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work, or it may be recorded and listened to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, smartphone or as film score or TV show. In many cultures, music is an important part of people's way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies, social activities and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or work as a professional musician or singer; the music industry includes the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces, individuals who perform music, individuals who record music, individuals who organize concert tours, individuals who sell recordings, sheet music, scores to customers. The word derives from Greek μουσική. In Greek mythology, the nine Muses were the goddesses who inspired literature and the arts and who were the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, song-lyrics, myths in the Greek culture.
According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the term "music" is derived from "mid-13c. Musike, from Old French musique and directly from Latin musica "the art of music," including poetry." This is derived from the "... Greek mousike " of the Muses," from fem. of mousikos "pertaining to the Muses," from Mousa "Muse". Modern spelling from 1630s. In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, but music and lyric poetry." Music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. When music was only available through sheet music scores, such as during the Classical and Romantic eras, music lovers would buy the sheet music of their favourite pieces and songs so that they could perform them at home on the piano. With the advent of sound recording, records of popular songs, rather than sheet music became the dominant way that music lovers would enjoy their favourite songs. With the advent of home tape recorders in the 1980s and digital music in the 1990s, music lovers could make tapes or playlists of their favourite songs and take them with them on a portable cassette player or MP3 player.
Some music lovers create mix tapes of their favorite songs, which serve as a "self-portrait, a gesture of friendship, prescription for an ideal party... an environment consisting of what is most ardently loved."Amateur musicians can compose or perf
Hinduism in Gibraltar
Hinduism is a minority faith in Gibraltar followed by 2% of the population. Most of the Hindus in Gibraltar are of Sindhi origin. According to 2000 census Hindus made up 1.8 % of the population of Gibraltar. According to an estimate from 2012, the population of Hindus made up 2%; the demographics of Hindus from 1970 to 2012: The first people in Gibraltar from British India are thought to have arrived in 1870 from the area around Hyderabad taking advantage of the new Suez Canal. The new Sindhi merchants were able to establish businesses with local managers that they could manage remotely. Indians faced some resistance from Gibraltarians and in 1921 the seven Hindu traders required licences to operate. By 1950 the number of licences had tripled but the real demand for assistance was when the border was closed by the Spanish and there were no Spanish shop assistants. There were nearly 300 trading licences by 1970. There was resistance to the Hindu community but arranged marriages were reducing and the community shared common schools with the other groups in Gibraltar.
It was said that the date for deciding whether a person was a true Gibraltarian was designed to exclude as many Indians as possible but by 1973 the local Hindu lawyer Haresh Budhrani assessed that Hindus were able to join in with the community. On the day of Divali in 1993 the community started using the Gibraltar Hindu Temple. By 1999 the decoration was complete and the Prana pratishta ceremony was formally performed by a priest from India; the wider community celebrated the new temple when the Governor of Gibraltar Richard Luce formally opened the temple on 1 March 2000. In 2004 Budhrani was elected the Speaker in the House of Assembly and he became the first speaker of the Gibraltar Parliament. In 2012 the Mayor of Gibraltar made the news when he announced that he was inviting the Hindu community into Gibraltar City Hall to celebrate the Hindu festival of Divali. Hindus have the highest proportion of pupils achieving 5 or more GCSE's, the highest percentage of people of working age with a degree, the lowest crime rate in Gibraltar.
Hinduism in Guadeloupe Hinduism in Reunion Gibraltar Hindu Temple Haller, Dieter: Let it Flow – Economy and Gender in the Sindhi Network. Anthropological Theory 2005 5: 154-175 Haller, Dieter: Space and Ethnicity in Two Merchant Diasporas: a Comparison of the Sindhis and the Jews of Gibraltar, in: GLOBAL NETWORKS: a journal of transnational affairs 2003, Vol 3. No 1: 75-96