Congress of Paraguay
Paraguay's bicameral Congress consists of a 45-member Senate and an 80-member Chamber of Deputies. It serves as the legislative branch of the Paraguayan state. Both chambers of Congress are elected concurrently with the president by means of a proportional representation system. Deputies are elected by department and Senators on a nationwide basis. Chamber of Deputies of Paraguay Senate of Paraguay Politics of Paraguay List of legislatures by country http://www.senado.gov.py/ Senate http://www.diputados.gov.py/ Chamber of Deputies
The polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic; the polka remains a popular folk music genre in many European countries, is performed by folk artists in the Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland and Finland, to a lesser extent in Poland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Italy, Romania, Belarus and Slovakia. Local varieties of this dance are found in the Nordic countries, Spain's Basque Country, the United Kingdom, Latin America and the United States; the term polka comes from the Czech word "půlka", referring to the short half-steps featured in the dance. Czech cultural historian and ethnographer Čeněk Zíbrt, who wrote in detail about the origin of the dance, in his book, Jak se kdy v Čechách tancovalo cites an opinion of František Doucha that "polka" was supposed to mean "dance in half", both referring to the half-tempo 24 and the half-jump step of the dance.
Zíbrt dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich that "polka" comes from the Czech word "pole". On the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the "true Czech folk" origin of polka. Instead, he argues that according to Jaroslav Langr in the area of Hradec Králové, the tune Krakoviáky from the collection Slovanské národní písně of František Ladislav Čelakovský became popular so that it was used to dance třasák, břitva, kvapík, this way was called "polka". Nejedlý writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek claims the Hradec Králové roots of a polka; the OED suggests that the name may have been derived from the Czech Polka meaning "Polish woman". The word was introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s, it should not be confused with a Swedish 34-beat dance with Polish roots. A related dance is the redowa. Polkas always have a 24 time signature. Folk music of polka style appeared in written music about 1800; the beginning of the propagation of dance and accompanying music called polka is attributed to a young woman, Anna Slezáková.
The music teacher Josef Neruda noticed her dancing in an unusual way to accompany a local folk song called "Strýček Nimra koupil šimla", or "Uncle Nimra Bought a White Horse", in 1830. She is said to have called the dance Maděra because of its liveliness; the dance was further propagated by Neruda, who put the tune to paper and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt notices that a common claim that the events happened in Týnec nad Labem, Bohemia, in 1834 is incorrect. Zibrt writes that when he published this traditional story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper, he received a good deal of feedback from eyewitnesses. In particular, he wrote that according to further witness, the originating event happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem, where she worked as a housemaid. Zíbrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia, from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zíbrt wrote that simple Czech folk said they knew and danced polka long before the nobles got hold of it, i.e. it is a folk Czech dance.
By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague. From there, it spread to Vienna by 1839, in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor, it was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as "polkamania." The dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular ballroom dance until the late 19th century, when it would give way to the two-step and new ragtime dances. Polka dancing enjoyed a resurgence in popularity after World War II, when many Polish refugees moved to the US, adopting this Bohemian style as a cultural dance. Polka dances are still held on a weekly basis across many parts of the US with significant populations of central European origin, it was found in parts of South America. There are various styles of contemporary polka besides the original Czech dance, still the chief dance at any formal or countryside ball in the Czech Republic. One of the types found in the United States is the North American "Polish-style polka," which has roots in Chicago, with large Czech and Polish minorities.
North American "Slovenian-style polka" is fast and features piano accordion, chromatic accordion, and/or diatonic button box accordion. North American "Dutchmen-style" features an oom-pah sound with a tuba and banjo, has roots in the American Midwest. "Conjunto-style" polkas have roots in northern Mexico and Texas, are called "Norteño". Traditional dances from this region reflect the influence of polka-dancing European immigrants. In the 1980s and 1990s, several American bands began to combine polka with various rock styles, "alternative polka", or "San Francisco-style". There exist Curaçaoan polkas, Peruvian polkas. In the pampas of Argentina, the "polca" has a fast beat with a 34 time signature. Instruments used are: acoustic guitar (usually
Melancholia is a concept from ancient or pre-modern medicine. Melancholy was one of the four temperaments matching the four humours. In the 19th century, "melancholia" could be physical as well as mental, melancholic conditions were classified as such by their common cause rather than by their properties; the name "melancholia" comes from the old medical belief of the four humours: disease or ailment being caused by an imbalance in one or more of the four basic bodily liquids, or humours. Personality types were determined by the dominant humor in a particular person. According to Hippocrates and subsequent tradition, melancholia was caused by an excess of black bile, hence the name, which means "black bile", from Ancient Greek μέλας, "dark, black", χολή, "bile". In the complex elaboration of humorist theory, it was associated with the earth from the Four Elements, the season of autumn, the spleen as the originating organ and cold and dry as related qualities. In astrology it showed the influence of Saturn, hence the related adjective saturnine.
Melancholia was described as a distinct disease with particular mental and physical symptoms in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Hippocrates, in his Aphorisms, characterized all "fears and despondencies, if they last a long time" as being symptomatic of melancholia; when a patient could not be cured of the disease it was thought that the melancholia was a result of demonic possession. In his study of French and Burgundian courtly culture, Johan Huizinga noted that "at the close of the Middle Ages, a sombre melancholy weighs on people's souls." In chronicles, sermons in legal documents, an immense sadness, a note of despair and a fashionable sense of suffering and deliquescence at the approaching end of times, suffuses court poets and chroniclers alike: Huizinga quotes instances in the ballads of Eustache Deschamps, "monotonous and gloomy variations of the same dismal theme", in Georges Chastellain's prologue to his Burgundian chronicle, in the late fifteenth-century poetry of Jean Meschinot. Ideas of reflection and the workings of imagination are blended in the term merencolie, embodying for contemporaries "a tendency", observes Huizinga, "to identify all serious occupation of the mind with sadness".
Painters were considered by Vasari and other writers to be prone to melancholy by the nature of their work, sometimes with good effects for their art in increased sensitivity and use of fantasy. Among those of his contemporaries so characterised by Vasari were Pontormo and Parmigianino, but he does not use the term of Michelangelo, who used it not seriously, of himself. A famous allegorical engraving by Albrecht Dürer is entitled Melencolia I; this engraving has been interpreted as portraying melancholia as the state of waiting for inspiration to strike, not as a depressive affliction. Amongst other allegorical symbols, the picture includes a truncated rhombohedron; the image in turn inspired a passage in The City of Dreadful Night by James Thomson, and, a few years a sonnet by Edward Dowden. The most extended treatment of melancholia comes from Robert Burton, whose The Anatomy of Melancholy treats the subject from both a literary and a medical perspective. Burton wrote in the 17th century that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness melancholia.
But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise of divine music, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign remedy against despair and melancholy, will drive away the devil himself. Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, in Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, "That he would make a melancholy man merry, him, merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout." Ismenias the Theban, Chiron the centaur, is said to have cured this and many other diseases by music alone: as now they do those, saith Bodine, that are troubled with St. Vitus's Bedlam dance. In 10th century Persian physician Al-Akhawayni describes Melancholia as a chronic illness and relates it to brain, one of the main aspects of his view on Melancholia, he describes Melancholia’s initial clinical manifestations as "suffering from an unexplained fear, inability to answer questions or providing false answers, self-laughing and self-crying and speaking meaninglessly, yet with no fever"In the Encyclopédie of Diderot and d'Alembert, the causes of melancholia are stated to be similar to those that cause Mania: "grief, pains of the spirit, passions, as well as all the love and sexual appetites that go unsatisfied."
During the 16th and early 17th centuries, a curious cultural and literary cult of melancholia arose in England. In an influential 1964 essay in Apollo, art historian Roy Strong traced the origins of this fashionable melancholy to the thought of the popular Neoplatonist and humanist Marsilio Ficino, who replaced the medieval notion of melancholia with something new: Ficino transformed what had hitherto been regarded as the most calamitous of all the humours into the mark of genius. Small wonder that the attitudes of melancholy soon became an indispensable adjunct to all those with artistic or intellectual pretentions; the Anatomy of Melancholy (The Anatomy of Melancholy, What it is: With all the Kinds, Symptomes and Several Cures o
Paraguayan Civil War (1947)
The Paraguayan Civil War known as the Barefoot Revolution and the Second Paraguayan Civil War, was a conflict in Paraguay that lasted from March to August 1947. In 1940 President Higinio Morínigo banned political parties. Resistance to his rule took the form of general strikes and student riots. In 1946 Morínigo legalized political activity and formed a cabinet with the Febrerista Revolutionary Concentration and the Colorado Party; the Febreristas resigned from the coalition on January 11, 1947, angry that Morínigo seemed to be favoring the Colorados. The Febreristas made common cause with the Paraguayan Communist Party. Former Paraguayan president and founder of the Febrerista Party Rafael Franco led a rebellion that mushroomed into a civil war as the Paraguayan armed forces, which had remained loyal, split. On the rebels' side were all the political parties except the Colorados, most of the bankers and administrators and 80% of military officers. Out of 11 army divisions, four joined the rebels: on March 8 the two infantry divisions at Concepcion rebelled, joined by the two Chaco infantry divisions a few days later.
On the government's side were the Colorados, three cavalry divisions at Campo Grande. Most Argentina under Juan Perón gave vital support to the government without which they might well have fallen. On April 27 the navy shelled Asunción; the largest gunboats of the fleet and Humaita, were seized by the rebels in Buenos Aires while they were undergoing repairs. Morínigo fought back and gained the upper hand, had won back control by August 1947. A third of the population had fled. List of wars involving Paraguay Armed conflict database entry
Impeachment of Fernando Lugo
Fernando Lugo, elected President of Paraguay in 2008, was impeached and removed from office by the Congress of Paraguay in June 2012. On 21 June the Chamber of Deputies voted 76 to 1 to impeach Lugo, the Senate removed him from office the following day, by 39 votes to 4, resulting in Vice President Federico Franco, who had broken with Lugo, becoming President. Lugo contends. A number of Latin American governments declared the proceeding was a coup d'état. Lugo himself formally accepted the impeachment, but called it a "parliamentary coup"; the election of Lugo broke a 61-year period in office for the Colorado Party. Lugo was aided by the presence of Federico Franco of the traditional opposition party Authentic Radical Liberal Party on the ticket as its Vice Presidential candidate. Lugo's electoral coalition, Patriotic Alliance for Change, was able to elect him as President; however the Liberals and Colorados retained a majority of both houses of Congress. The Liberal Party a member of the Alliance, withdrew in 2009, leaving the Alliance with just a handful of Congressional seats.
A US Embassy cable from March 2009 discussed the intention of Lino Oviedo and ex-President Nicanor Duarte to organise the impeachment of Lugo as a means to gain power. The cable is quoted as saying "Duarte's and Oviedo's shared goal: Find a'cause celebre' to champion so as to change the current political equation, break the political deadlock in Congress, impeach Lugo and regain their own political relevance. Oviedo's dream scenario involves impeaching Lugo if on spurious grounds." The document goes on to suggest that Oviedo would be a leading candidate for the Vice Presidency, once Federico Franco had replaced Lugo as President, while Duarte might attain the Senate presidency. The document concludes "Farfetched? Perhaps, but not unprecedented in Paraguayan politics."In mid-May 2012 around 150 landless farmers occupied the Campos Morombi belonging to ex-Colorado Senator Blas Riquelme. The farmers said the land, in Curuguaty in the eastern Canindeyú Department, had been taken illegally during the dictatorship of Alfredo Stroessner.
On 15 June 2012 a police operation to evict landless farmers, enforcing a court order obtained by Riquelme, led to the death of 6 police officers and 11 farmers. The eviction involved over 300 police evicting over 150 farmers. According to some sources, the eviction involved both the Special Operations Group and police, the first persons to die were the chief and deputy of the GEO operation, leading the GEO to employ helicopters and tear gas against the farmers; the GEO chief and deputy had approached the farmers for dialogue without arms drawn, not expecting violence, were both shot in the head. Local witnesses said the farmers had been infiltrated by an unknown group of men using heavy weapons not employed by the occupying farmers, that these had been the shooters; some suspected the involvement of the Paraguayan People’s Army. On 16 June Lugo accepted the resignation of his interior minister Carlos Filizzola and of National Police chief General Paulino Rojas. On 16 June former National General Counsel Rubén Candia Amarilla, a controversial figure from the Colorado Party, took over the Ministry of Interior.
The PLRA requested the dismissal of Candia Amarilla and the new National Police chief Arnaldo Sanabria, who led the police operation that ended in the deaths of the farmers in Curuguaty. On 19 June "Emilio Camacho, auditor of the Paraguayan Land Institute, confirmed that Blas Riquelme did not have the title to the 2,000 hectares." On 20 June Lugo announced a special commission to investigate the incident. On 21 June, the Chamber of Deputies launched proceedings to impeach Lugo under Article 225 of the Constitution of Paraguay; the Chamber cited the 15 June incident as well as insecurity, nepotism and a controversial land purchase to vote 76 to 1 to impeach Lugo on 21 June 2012. The Senate took up the case the next day; the impeachment was attended by a delegation of Foreign Affairs ministers from the other nations of the Union of South American Nations. The vote ended with 39 votes for Lugo's removal and four for his continuity, which removed Lugo from office and made Vice President Federico Franco the new president of Paraguay.
Lugo announced that he would denounce the case to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, stating that the time to prepare a legal defence, just two hours, may be unconstitutional. The impeachment was endorsed by the Supreme Court of Paraguay and by the country's electoral court on 25 June; the next day, Lugo stated that while he still believed his impeachment amounted to a coup, nothing short of a "miraculous" reversal of course by Congress would allow him to regain office. Short of that, he said, "all my legal possibilities ended yesterday... There is no other way to reverse this situation." The electoral court declared that Lugo had been duly removed from office under Article 225, that Federico Franco had succeeded as President under Article 234. The presidents of Paraguay's neighbouring countries rejected Lugo's removal from office, compared it to a coup d'état. Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff proposed suspending Paraguay's membership in Mercosur and the Union of South American Nations.
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina, Evo Morales of Bolivia, Rafael Correa of E
The Paraguayan harp is the national instrument of Paraguay, similar instruments are used elsewhere in South America Venezuela. It is a diatonic harp with 32, 36, 38 or 40, 42 or 46 strings, made from tropical wood and cedar, with a rounded neck-arch, played with the fingernail, it accompanies traditional songs in the Guarani language. It weighs 8 -- 10 pounds; the Paraguayan harp is constructed in three parts which are never attached in fixed form. Characterized by a long cone shaped sound box constructed in three parts with face attached and with a flat oval base and two to three sound oval holes on the backside ranging 3–4 inches in diameter each, it has two legs on the bottom. The Paraguayan Harp weighs 8 pounds and is carried via the “arm” the center pole which creates tension between the sound box and the “head”. Traditionally, in harps older than 50 years, the strings were made of catgut twisted. However, modern harps made within the last 50 years are strung with nylon strings; the harmonic curve encompasses four ranges from brilliant at top to clear to soft to muted.
The head is made from native Palo Santo wood. The strings are strung up through the center of the head, a defining feature distinguishing Paraguayan Harps from other South American Harps, whose strings are strung on the side of the head. Tuning pegs were traditionally hand carved. High-end harps use sharping levers, which raise the tone of the affected string by a half step, allowing the harp to be played in a variety of keys; the strings are made from single strand imported nylon of varying dimension in the high octaves and double wrapped nylon in the lower octaves. The harps range from 4+ to nearly 8 octaves depending on the maker. There are 36, 38, 40 and 42, 46 strings, depending on the maker; each maker creates a proprietary and recognizable variant to the exterior hand carvings or lack thereof on the head and body sides as well as the quantity of strings. Harps from other parts of the world universally use red to denote C strings and blue to denote F strings, but placement of the red or blue strings and what note they represent varies among Paraguayan harp makers.
Dedicated players play only their variant of tuned string color codes, thereby creating two schools of harps, those with the red C and the ones with the blue C. In Brazil and Uruguay Portuguese Capuchin missions produced harps and violins, based on 16th- and 17th-century Portuguese and Spanish models, for import to European royal courts; these were handcrafted by native Tupi-Guarani workers who became respected in Europe for their fine woodworking skills. The Spanish Franciscan friars who established missions in Paraguay were less successful in subjugating the Tupi Guarani Indians to forced labor source so that the Guarani they became a more powerful culture in Paraguay, Guaraní became the country's official second language, making Paraguay the only nation in the Americas with an indigenous official national language. Guaraní and Mestizo instrument makers were entrepreneurs in Paraguay and the local music came to reflect Guarani folklore and legends and appreciation of their environment in songs about birds and Guarani lore.
The Paraguayan harp, the dominant instrument for campesinos, became the national instrument of Paraguay, its historical roots associated with liberation from the missionary systems of the more repressive neighboring countries. It is the national symbol of Paraguay. Between the 1930s to late 1950s Paraguayan had influence across the world and many famous Paraguayan performers began with the Paraguayan harp and guitar. Paraguayan harp is played solo or in duet with another Paraguayan harp, a guitar or a violin, it accompanies singing in Guarani or Spanish or a mixture of the two and is played by men. Traditionally women did not play at all until the late 20th century: Guarani traditions prohibited women from playing music for religious reasons. There is no traditional percussive accompaniment. Accomplished male harpists ventured out of Paraguay in the 20th century to Europe, Japan and, on occasion, the Middle East modifying musical styles to include western influences including classical harp, jazz and “elevator music”.
Modern Paraguayan harpists consider themselves more accomplished if they can play popular hits, while the true measure of accomplishment requires performance of a handful of national harp pieces. The Paraguayan harp, like all Latin American harps, is played with the fingernails, which are kept long; the right hand is used for the upper octaves and the left is used for the lower octaves. The right thumb is used for percussive rhythmic "thumping” on the bass strings and glissando on the upper strings; the left hand carries the rhythm on the bass strings. Players in all Latin American harp styles except the Venezuelan traditionally only use the first four fingers of each hand, starting with the thumb, although newer generation harpists are using all 10 fingers. Trademark fingering techniques are passed down from master to student only; the music is unwritten, is passed from master to student through oral tradition only. It is played by ear. Tuning for each octave is a seven-note natural diatonic scale
Paraguay the Republic of Paraguay, is a country of South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, Bolivia to the northwest. Although it is one of the only two landlocked countries in South America, the country has coasts and ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica. Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, up the Paraguay River. In 1537, they established the city of Asunción, the first capital of the Governorate of Paraguay and Río de la Plata. Paraguay was the epicenter of the Jesuit Missions, where the Guaraní people were educated and introduced to Christianity and European culture under the direction of the Society of Jesus in Jesuit reductions during the 17th century. However, after the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories in 1767, Paraguay became a peripheral colony, with few urban centers and settlers.
Following independence from Spain at the beginning of the 19th century, Paraguay was ruled by a series of authoritarian governments who implemented nationalist and protectionist policies. This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina and Uruguay. In the 20th century, Paraguay faced another major international conflict – the Chaco War – against Bolivia, from which the Paraguayans emerged victorious. Afterwards, the country entered a period of military dictatorships, ending with the 35 year regime of Alfredo Stroessner that lasted until he was toppled in 1989 by an internal military coup; this marked the beginning of the "democratic era" of Paraguay. With around 7 million inhabitants, Paraguay is a founding member of Mercosur, an original member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Lima Group; the city of Luque, in Asuncion's Metropolitan Area, is the seat of the CONMEBOL.
The Guarani culture is influential and more than 90% of the people speak different forms of the Guarani language on top of Spanish. Paraguayans are known for being a happy and easy-living people and many times the country topped the "world's happiest place" charts because of the "positive experiences" lived and expressed by the population; the indigenous Guaraní had been living in eastern Paraguay for at least a millennium before the arrival of the Spanish. Western Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, was inhabited by nomads of whom the Guaycuru peoples were the most prominent; the Paraguay River was the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not pacified until the late 19th century; these indigenous tribes belonged to five distinct language families, which were the bases of their major divisions. Differing language speaking groups were competitive over resources and territories.
They were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain; the first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516. The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537; the city became the center of a Spanish colonial province of Paraguay. An attempt to create an autonomous Christian Indian nation was undertaken by Jesuit missions and settlements in this part of South America in the eighteenth century, which included portions of Uruguay and Brazil, they developed Jesuit reductions to bring Guarani populations together at Spanish missions and protect them from virtual slavery by Spanish settlers and Portuguese slave raiders, the Bandeirantes. In addition to seeking their conversion to Christianity. Catholicism in Paraguay was influenced by the indigenous peoples; the reducciones flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years, until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish Crown in 1767.
The ruins of two 18th-century Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. In western Paraguay Spanish settlement and Christianity were resisted by the nomadic Guaycuru and other nomads from the 16th century onward. Most of these peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population in the 19th centuries. Paraguay overthrew the local Spanish administration on 14 May 1811. Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia who ruled Paraguay from 1814 until his death in 1840, with little outside contact or influence, he intended to create a utopian society based on the French theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. Rodríguez de Francia established new laws that reduced the powers of the Catholic church and the cabinet, forbade colonial citizens from marrying one another and allowed them to marry only blacks, mulattoes or natives, in order to break the power of colonial-era elites and to create a mixed-race or mestizo society.
He cut off the rest of South America. Because of Francia's restrictions of freedom, Fulgencio Yegros and several other Independence-era