New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.
In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776.
The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
Howard Zinn was an American historian and social activist. He was a science professor at Boston University. Zinn wrote more than twenty books, including his best-selling and influential A Peoples History of the United States, in 2007, he published a version of it for younger readers, A Young People′s History of the United States. Zinn described himself as something of an anarchist, something of a socialist and he wrote extensively about the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement, and labor history of the United States. His memoir, You Cant Be Neutral on a Moving Train, was the title of a 2004 documentary about Zinns life, Zinn died of a heart attack in 2010, aged 87. Zinn was born to a Jewish immigrant family in Brooklyn on August 24,1922 and his father, Eddie Zinn, born in Austria-Hungary, immigrated to the U. S. with his brother Samuel before the outbreak of World War I. Howards mother, Jenny Zinn, emigrated from the Eastern Siberian city of Irkutsk and his parents first became acquainted as workers at the same factory.
His father worked as a digger and window cleaner during the Great Depression. His father and mother ran a candy store for a brief time. For many years his father was in the union and worked as a waiter for weddings. Both parents were workers with limited education when they met and married. Zinns parents introduced him to literature by sending ten cents plus a coupon to the New York Post for each of the 20 volumes of Charles Dickens collected works, as a young man, Zinn made the acquaintance of several young Communists from his Brooklyn neighborhood. They invited him to a rally being held in Times Square. Despite it being a rally, mounted police charged the marchers. Zinn was hit and knocked unconscious and this would have a profound effect on his political and social outlook. He studied creative writing at Thomas Jefferson High School in a program established by principal. After graduating high school in 1940, Zinn took up a trade as a shipfitter in the New York Navy Yard at the age of 18. Concerns about low wages and hazardous working conditions compelled Zinn and several other apprentices to form the Apprentice Association, at the time, apprentices were excluded from trade unions and thus had little in the way of bargaining power, the Apprentice Association was their answer
85th Street (Manhattan)
85th Street is a westbound-running street, running from East End Avenue to Riverside Drive in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. The street provides access to the 85th/86th Street Transverse, which runs east–west through Central Park, in 1839, the Board of Aldermen approved the opening of West 85th Street between Fifth Avenue and Ninth Avenue. By the 1840s, a short length designated as West 85th Street had been created as a narrow lane east of Eighth Avenue, most of West 85th Street was laid out following the American Civil War. However, until the 1880s the rate of development on the street was slow, at that time, following an improvement in public transportation, people began to speculate on the property on the street. In 1971, John Corry of the Times wrote a series of stories about life on West 85th Street between Central Park and Columbus Avenue, no New York City Subway stations are located on the street itself. The building at 100 East 85th Street, originally known as Lewis Gouverneur and it was designated a landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1973, and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.
The lower division of the Ramaz School, a coeducational, private Modern Orthodox Jewish prep school, Park Lane Tower, the 35-story L-shaped high-rise apartment building shown in the opening credits of the television show The Jeffersons, is located at 185 East 85th Street and Third Avenue. Designed by architect Hyman Isaac Feldman and completed in 1967, the structure features distinctive rounded balconies at its corners. The sidewalk clock at East 85th Street and Third Avenue, dating from the late 1800s, constructed to resemble a pocket watch, it is 15 feet high including its base. At 201–203 East 85th Street, the Yorkville Bank Building, a building designed by Robert Maynicke, was designated a landmark in 2012. Instrument maker Vincent Bach manufactured trumpets and trumpet mouthpieces at 204 East 85th Street in the early 20th Century, the building at 209 East 85th Street was constructed in 1919 aS the union hall of the Musical Mutual Protective Union. Minnie Marx and Sam Marx, the parents and manager of the Marx Brothers, the clapboard shingle house at 412 East 85th Street was built around 1855.
It was restored in 1988 by architect Alfredo De Vido, author Henry Miller, who wrote Tropic of Cancer, was born in 1891 on the top floor of and lived at 450 East 85th Street. Author Louise Fitzhugh lived at 524 East 85th Street, between East End and York Avenues, and her heroine Harriet in Harriet the Spy lived in the area, the glassy Modernist building at 525 East 85th Street was built in 1958. The 85th Street Transverse cuts through Central Park, and is directly below the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir, in the early 1880s, most of the cross-town traffic in the area traveled on it. In 1917, New York Railways ran across the traverse road 0.652 miles on 85th Street, from Eighth Avenue through Central Park to Madison Avenue. Southwest Reservoir Bridge, at 85th Street in Central Park, was designed by Calvert Vaux and is decorated with elegant iron floral scroll ornamentation along its 38 feet of railings, the site of Seneca Village is in Central Park near West 85th Street. The three lots on which the village was established were purchased in 1825 by Andrew Williams for $125, in the mid-19th century it was a shanty-town, and it may have been populated by free blacks in the early 1800s
Third Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Its southern end is at Astor Place and St and it transitions into Cooper Square, and further south, the Bowery, Chatham Square, and Park Row. The Manhattan side ends at East 128th Street, Third Avenue is two-way from Cooper Square to 24th Street, but since July 17,1960 has carried only northbound traffic while in Manhattan, in the Bronx, it is again two-way. S. It is one of the four streets that form The Hub, like most urban streets, Third Avenue was unpaved until the late 19th century. The business-like air with which they marched rapidly through the mud of the Third-avenue was the more remarkable. Portions of Third Avenue are served by several routes in Manhattan, buses serving Third Avenue include the Third and Lexington Avenues Line. Note that southbound M98, M101, M102, and M103 service operates on Lexington Avenue north of East 24th Street, it was served by the Third Avenue elevated line, which operated from 1878 until 1955 in Manhattan, and 1973 in the Bronx.
The Bx55 replaced the Third Avenue Line in the Bronx in 1973, at the time the El was being torn down in Manhattan, there was a movement to rename the whole of Third Avenue in Manhattan the Bouwerie, although it had never been part of the Bowery. Today, the Third Avenue – 149th Street station, Third Avenue – 138th Street station, and the Third Avenue stations all are served by the New York City Subway
Second Avenue (Manhattan)
Second Avenue is an avenue on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan extending from Houston Street at its south end to the Harlem River Drive at 128th Street at its north end. A one-way street, vehicular traffic on Second Avenue runs southbound only, south of Houston Street, the roadway continues as Chrystie Street south to Canal Street. A bicycle lane in the left hand portion from 55th to 34th Street closes a gap in the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway, the bike lane extends from 125th Street all the way down to Houston Street. Second Avenue passes through a number of Manhattan neighborhoods including the Lower East Side, East Village, Gramercy Park, Murray Hill, Upper East Side and Spanish Harlem. Although the theaters are gone, many traces of Jewish immigrant culture remain, such as kosher delicatessens and bakeries, and the famous Second Avenue Deli. The Second Avenue Elevated train line ran above Second Avenue the full length of the north of 23rd Street. South of Second Avenue, it ran on First Avenue and Allen, the elevated trains were noisy and often dirty.
This depressed land values along Second Avenue during the late 19th, partially because of the presence of the El, most buildings constructed during this era were working class tenements. The line was torn down in 1942 because it was deteriorated and obsolete. Second Avenue maintains its modest architectural character today, despite running through a number of high income areas, Second Avenue has carried one-way traffic since June 4,1951, before which it carried traffic in both the northbound and southbound directions. On March 26,2015, a gas explosion and resulting fire in the East Village destroyed three buildings at 119,121 and 123 Second Avenue, between East 7th Street and St. At least twenty-two people were injured, four critically, and two people were listed as missing. Later, two men were dead in the debris of the explosion and were confirmed to be the ones listed as missing. The illegal taps were serving some of the apartments in the building, Con Ed turned off the gas to the building for 10 days until the taps were removed and the plumber who did the work certified to the citys Building Department that it had been completed.
Neither the Building Department nor Con Ed was required by law to verify that the work had been done, in the days before the explosion, work was ongoing in the building for the installation of a new 4-inch gas line to service the apartments in 121. Con Ed workers inspected the installation just an hour before the explosion, There was no gas running through the new line. Shortly after, the owner of the restaurant smelled gas and called the landlord of the building, when the contractor in charge of the work being done and the landlords son opened the basement door, the explosion took place. Eleven other buildings were evacuated as a result of the explosion, several days later, some residents were allowed to return to some of the vacated buildings