Musical composition

Musical composition, music composition, or composition, can refer to an original piece or work of music, either vocal or instrumental, the structure of a musical piece, or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers. Composers of songs are called songwriters. In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music "score,", performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers. In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out the melody and chord progression. In classical music, orchestration is done by the composer, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration. In some cases, a pop or traditional songwriter may not use written notation at all, instead compose the song in their mind and play, sing or record it from memory.

In jazz and popular music, notable sound recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written or printed scores play in classical music. Although a musical composition uses musical notation and has a single author, this is not always the case. A work of music can have multiple composers, which occurs in popular music when all members of a band collaborate to write a song, or in musical theatre, when one person writes the melodies, a second person writes the lyrics, a third person orchestrates the songs. A piece of music can be composed with words, images, or, since the 20th century, with computer programs that explain or notate how the singer or musician should create musical sounds. Examples range from 20th century avant-garde music that uses graphic notation, to text compositions such as Karlheinz Stockhausen's Aus den sieben Tagen, to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces. Music that makes heavy use of randomness and chance is called aleatoric music, is associated with contemporary composers active in the 20th century, such as John Cage, Morton Feldman, Witold Lutosławski.

A more known example of chance-based music is the sound of wind chimes jingling in a breeze. The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include the creation of popular music and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces, to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers. Although in the 2000s, composition is considered to consist of the manipulation of each aspect of music, according to Jean-Benjamin de Laborde: Composition consists in two things only; the first is the ordering and disposing of several such a manner that their succession pleases the ear. This is; the second is the rendering audible of two or more simultaneous sounds in such a manner that their combination is pleasant. This is what we call harmony, it alone merits the name of composition. Since the invention of sound recording, a classical piece or popular song may exist as a recording.

If music is composed before being performed, music can be performed from memory, by reading written musical notation, or through a combination of both methods. For example, the principal cello player in an orchestra may read most of the accompaniment parts in a symphony, where she is playing tutti parts, but memorize an exposed solo, in order to be able to watch the conductor. Compositions comprise a huge variety of musical elements, which vary from between genres and cultures. Popular music genres after about 1960 make extensive use of electric and electronic instruments, such as electric guitar and electric bass. Electric and electronic instruments are used in contemporary classical music compositions and concerts, albeit to a lesser degree than in popular music. Music from the Baroque music era, for example, used only acoustic and mechanical instruments such as strings, woodwinds and keyboard instruments such as harpsichord and pipe organ. A 2000s-era pop band may use electric guitar played with electronic effects through a guitar amplifier, a digital synthesizer keyboard and electronic drums.

Piece is a "general, non-technical term applied to instrumental compositions from the 17th century onwards....other than when they are taken individually'piece' and its equivalents are used of movements in sonatas or symphonies....composers have used all these terms in compound forms.... In vocal music...the term is most used for operatic ensembles..." These techniques draw parallels from visual art's formal elements. Sometimes, the entire form of a piece is through-composed, meaning that each part is different, with no repetition of sections; some pieces are composed around a set scale, where the compositional technique might be considered the usage of a particular scale. Others are composed during performance, whe

Puttalam railway station

Puttalam railway station is a railway station in the Puttalam District, North Western Province, Sri Lanka. The station is served by Sri Lanka Railways, the state-run railway operator; the station is located 2.04 m above sea level. The station was the original terminus of what was known as the North West line, it was opened on 12 May 1926. In 1943 the track from Bangadeniya to Puttalam was removed, as the rails were required on other strategically important routes due to shortages caused by World War II, it was re-laid in 1946 with a number of new stations added to the line. As a result, a new railway station was constructed 1.6 km south-east of the town centre, with the old station becoming redundant. List of railway stations in Sri Lanka List of railway stations in Sri Lanka by line Rail transport in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Railways

Sam Stanley (rugby player)

Sam Stanley is a British rugby union player. He played rugby sevens for England during the 2014/15 World Rugby Sevens Series. At club level, he played for Saracens F. C. and the Bedford Blues. In 2015, he signed with the Ealing Trailfinders, he can play at fly-half. Stanley comes from a rugby playing family, his brother is Michael Stanley, who plays for Samoa, his uncle is Joe Stanley, who played rugby for New Zealand. In August 2015, Stanley became the first English rugby union player to come out as gay. In 2017, he announced his engagement to his long term boyfriend, Laurence Hicks: they had met seven years on a dating website