The ARP Odyssey is an analog synthesizer introduced in 1972. Responding to pressure from Moog Music to create a portable, affordable "performance" synthesizer, ARP Instruments, Inc. scaled down its ARP 2600 synthesizer and created the Odyssey, which became their best-selling synthesizer model. There were several versions of the Odyssey over the years, it was reissued by Korg in early 2015, in cooperation with the original designer and ARP co-founder, David Friend; the ARP Odyssey was used as the lead for Peter Howell's incarnation of the Doctor. The Odyssey is a two-oscillator analog synthesizer, one of the first with duophonic capabilities. All parameters, including a resonant low-pass filter, a non-resonant high-pass filter, ADSR and AR envelopes, a sine and square wave LFO, a sample-and-hold function are controllable with sliders and switches on the front panel. Switchable between sawtooth and pulse waveforms with oscillator sync, a ring modulator, pink or white noise. Pulse-width can be modulated manually or with the ADSR envelope generator.
There is a high-pass filter, as well as a voltage controlled low-pass self-oscillating filter. The filter can be controlled by either of the two envelope generators, an ADSR and a simple AR and modulated by the LFO, sample-and-hold, the keyboard, or a separate CV input on the back panel; the Sample/Hold input mixer can be used to route the output of the VCOs to the FM input of VCO 2 and the VCF, enabling audio frequency FM. ARP Odysseys produced between 1972 and 1975, referred to as Mark I, were white-faced Odysseys that used a 2-pole voltage-controlled filter, which were similar to Oberheim SEM modules; some late models used a black and gold color scheme and include CV/gate jacks like the Mark II's. These earlier units contained a greater number of internal adjustments and were more difficult to calibrate. Odyssey Mark II's were produced between 1975 and 1978, they are similar to Mark I's. These models use a four-pole VCF, which were similar in design to Moog's four-pole filter. Subsequent models, use a different four-pole low-pass filter designed by ARP, the 4075 filter.
A filter with a similar design, the 4072, was used in the 2600, Axxe and other ARP instruments. The Mark III was introduced in 1978. Mark III's are the most common models of the Odyssey; the Mark III used ARP's four-pole "4075" filter. While earlier models had used a simple rotary knob to control pitch bend, The Mark III introduced proportional pitch control. PPC used pressure-sensitive buttons to control bend up, bend down, vibrato. ARP included PPC on other instruments, offered a kit to add PPC to earlier Odyssey synthesizers. Mark III Odysseys have unbalanced XLR outputs, in addition to unbalanced 1/4" outputs; the Mark III was cosmetically overhauled to feature a redesigned chassis and orange and black color scheme, consistent with other contemporary ARP instruments. Production of the Odyssey Mark III ceased when ARP Instruments declared bankruptcy in 1981; the ARP Odyssey was reissued by Korg in 2015. The new Odyssey's analog signal path is similar to the original, with some additional modern features: MIDI input and USB MIDI connectivity a separate headphone output and balanced XLR output a new "drive" switch to add distortion to the voltage-controlled amplifier.
Includes the three filter circuits from the original Odyssey models, with the ability to switch between them Ability to switch between two portamento behaviors from the original models. The color scheme is similar to the Mark III, although Mark I and II styles were available in limited editions. All of Korg's reissues use the PPC; the Korg ARP Odyssey is 86% of the size of the original ARP models. The keyboard is reduced in size, referred to as “Slim Keys” by Korg. Similar in size to the panel of Korg’s reissued Odyssey keyboard. Includes minor MIDI implementation improvements. A limited edition, full-size reproduction of the original Odyssey, available in all three classic ARP colour schemes. On Nov 1, 2016 Korg announced the Arp Odyssei for iOS. "The Odd One". Music Technology. Vol. 2 no. 3. January 1988. P. 68. ISSN 0957-6606. OCLC 24835173. Ultimate Odyssey Information Resource Web Site Odyssey entry at Synth Museum Odyssey entry at Vintage Synth Explorer RetroSound-ARP Odyssey Korg ARP Odyssey on the official ARP Synthesizers website Korg Unveils ARP Odyssey Analog Synthesizer
Return to Forever
Return to Forever is a jazz fusion group founded and led by pianist Chick Corea. Through its existence, the band has had many members, with the only consistent bandmate of Corea's being bassist Stanley Clarke. Along with Weather Report and Mahavishnu Orchestra, Return to Forever is cited as one of the core groups of the jazz-fusion movement of the 1970s. Several musicians, including Clarke, Flora Purim, Airto Moreira and Al Di Meola, first came to prominence through their performances on Return to Forever albums. After playing on Miles Davis's groundbreaking jazz-fusion albums In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew, Corea formed an avant-garde jazz band called Circle with Dave Holland, Anthony Braxton and Barry Altschul. However, in 1972, after having become a member of Scientology, Corea decided that he wanted to better "communicate" with the audience; this translated into his performing a more popularly accessible style of music, since avant-garde jazz enjoyed a small audience. The first edition of Return to Forever performed Latin-oriented music.
This initial band consisted of singer Flora Purim, her husband Airto Moreira on drums and percussion, Corea's longtime musical co-worker Joe Farrell on saxophone and flute, the young Stanley Clarke on bass. Within this first line-up in particular, Clarke played acoustic double bass in addition to electric bass. Corea's electric piano formed the basis of this group's sound. Clarke and Farrell were given ample solo space themselves. While Purim's vocals lent some commercial appeal to the music, many of their compositions were instrumental and somewhat experimental in nature; the music was composed by Corea with the exception of the title track of the second album, written by Stanley Clarke. Lyrics were written by Corea's friend Neville Potter, were quite Scientology-themed. Clarke himself became involved in Scientology through Corea, but left the religion in the early 1980s, their first album, titled Return to Forever, was recorded for ECM Records in 1972 and was released only in Europe. This album featured La Fiesta.
Shortly afterwards, Airto and Tony Williams formed the band for Stan Getz's album Captain Marvel, which featured Corea's compositions, including some from the first and second Return to Forever albums. Their second album, Light as a Feather, was released by Polydor and included the song "Spain", which became quite well known. After the second album, Farrell and Moreira left the group to form their own band, guitarist Bill Connors, drummer Steve Gadd and percussionist Mingo Lewis were added. However, Gadd was unwilling to risk his job as an in-demand session drummer. Lenny White replaced Gadd and Lewis on drums and percussion, the group's third album, Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy, was rerecorded; the nature of the group's music had by now changed into jazz-rock, had evolved into a similar vein as to that the Mahavishnu Orchestra, Weather Report, some progressive rock bands were performing at the time. Their music was still melodic, relying on strong themes, but the jazz element was by this time entirely absent, replaced by a more direct, rock oriented approach.
Over-driven, distorted guitar had become prominent in the band's new sound, Clarke had by switched completely to electric bass guitar. A replacement on vocals was not hired, all the songs were now instrumentals; this change did not lead to a decrease in the band's commercial fortunes however, Return to Forever's jazz rock albums instead found their way onto US pop album charts. In the September 1988 Down Beat magazine interview with Chick Corea by Josef Woodward, Josef says, "There is this general view... that... Miles crystallized electric jazz fusion and that he sent his emissaries out." Chick responds, "Nah. Miles is a leader... But there were other things that occurred that I thought were as important. What John McLaughlin did with the electric guitar set the world on its ear. No one heard an electric guitar played like that before, it inspired me.... John's band, more than my experience with Miles, led me to want to turn the volume up and write music, more dramatic and made your hair move."While their second jazz rock album, Where Have I Known You Before was similar in style to its immediate predecessor, Corea now played synthesizers in addition to electric keyboards, Clarke's playing had evolved considerably- now using flange and fuzz-tone effects, with his now signature style beginning to emerge.
After Bill Connors left the band to concentrate on his solo career, the group hired new guitarists. Although Earl Klugh played guitar for some of the group's live performances, he was soon replaced by the 19-year-old guitar prodigy Al Di Meola, who had played on the album recording sessions, their following album, No Mystery, was recorded with the same line-up as "Where Have I Known You Before", but the style of music had become more varied. The first side of the record consisted of jazz-funk, while the second side featured Corea's acoustic title track and a long composition with a strong Spanish influence. On this and the following album, each member of the group composed at least one of the tracks. No Mystery went on to win the Grammy Award for Best
A synthesizer or synthesiser is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that may be converted to sound. Synthesizers may imitate traditional musical instruments such as piano, vocals, or natural sounds such as ocean waves, they are played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, electronic drums. Synthesizers without built-in controllers are called sound modules, are controlled via USB, MIDI or CV/gate using a controller device a MIDI keyboard or other controller. Synthesizers use various methods to generate electronic signals. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Synthesizers were first used in pop music in the 1960s. In the late 1970s, synths were used in progressive rock and disco.
In the 1980s, the invention of the inexpensive Yamaha DX7 synth made digital synthesizers available. 1980s pop and dance music made heavy use of synthesizers. In the 2010s, synthesizers are used in many genres, such as pop, hip hop, metal and dance. Contemporary classical music composers from the 20th and 21st century write compositions for synthesizer; the beginnings of the synthesizer are difficult to trace, as it is difficult to draw a distinction between synthesizers and some early electric or electronic musical instruments. One of the earliest electric musical instruments, the Musical Telegraph, was invented in 1876 by American electrical engineer Elisha Gray, he accidentally discovered the sound generation from a self-vibrating electromechanical circuit, invented a basic single-note oscillator. This instrument used steel reeds with oscillations created by electromagnets transmitted over a telegraph line. Gray built a simple loudspeaker device into models, consisting of a vibrating diaphragm in a magnetic field, to make the oscillator audible.
This instrument was a remote electromechanical musical instrument that used telegraphy and electric buzzers that generated fixed timbre sound. Though it lacked an arbitrary sound-synthesis function, some have erroneously called it the first synthesizer. In 1897 Thaddeus Cahill was granted his first patent for an electronic musical instrument, which by 1901 he had developed into the Telharmonium capable of additive synthesis. Cahill's business was unsuccessful for various reasons, but similar and more compact instruments were subsequently developed, such as electronic and tonewheel organs including the Hammond organ, invented in 1935. In 1906, American engineer Lee de Forest invented the first amplifying vacuum tube, the Audion whose amplification of weak audio signals contributed to advances in sound recording and film, the invention of early electronic musical instruments including the theremin, the ondes martenot, the trautonium. Most of these early instruments used heterodyne circuits to produce audio frequencies, were limited in their synthesis capabilities.
The ondes martenot and trautonium were continuously developed for several decades developing qualities similar to synthesizers. In the 1920s, Arseny Avraamov developed various systems of graphic sonic art, similar graphical sound and tonewheel systems were developed around the world. In 1938, USSR engineer Yevgeny Murzin designed a compositional tool called ANS, one of the earliest real-time additive synthesizers using optoelectronics. Although his idea of reconstructing a sound from its visible image was simple, the instrument was not realized until 20 years in 1958, as Murzin was, "an engineer who worked in areas unrelated to music". In the 1930s and 1940s, the basic elements required for the modern analog subtractive synthesizers — electronic oscillators, audio filters, envelope controllers, various effects units — had appeared and were utilized in several electronic instruments; the earliest polyphonic synthesizers were developed in the United States. The Warbo Formant Orgel developed by Harald Bode in Germany in 1937, was a four-voice key-assignment keyboard with two formant filters and a dynamic envelope controller.
The Hammond Novachord released in 1939, was an electronic keyboard that used twelve sets of top-octave oscillators with octave dividers to generate sound, with vibrato, a resonator filter bank and a dynamic envelope controller. During the three years that Hammond manufactured this model, 1,069 units were shipped, but production was discontinued at the start of World War II. Both instruments were the forerunners of the electronic organs and polyphonic synthesizers. In the 1940s and 1950s, before the popularization of electronic organs and the introductions of combo organs, manufacturers developed various portable monophonic electronic instruments with small keyboards; these small instruments consisted of an electronic oscillator, vibrato effect, passive filters. Most were designed for conventional ensembles, rather than as experimental instruments for electronic music studios, but contributed to the evolution of modern synthesizers; these instruments include the Solovox, Multimonica and Clavioline.
In the late 1940s, Canadian inventor and composer, Hugh Le Caine invented the Electronic Sackbut, a voltage-controlled electronic musical instrument that provided the earliest real-time control of three aspects of sound —corresponding to today's touch-sensitive keyboard and modulation controllers. The controllers were impl
The double bass, or the bass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra. It is a standard member of the orchestra's string section, as well as the concert band, is featured in concertos and chamber music in Western classical music; the bass is used in a range of other genres, such as jazz, 1950s-style blues and rock and roll, psychobilly, traditional country music, bluegrass and many types of folk music. The bass is a transposing instrument and is notated one octave higher than tuned to avoid excessive ledger lines below the staff; the double bass is the only modern bowed string instrument, tuned in fourths, rather than fifths, with strings tuned to E1, A1, D2 and G2. The instrument's exact lineage is still a matter of some debate, with scholars divided on whether the bass is derived from the viol or the violin family; however the body shape where it curves into the neck matches the viol family whereas in the rest of the violin family, the body meets the neck with no blending curve.
The double bass is played by plucking the strings. In orchestral repertoire and tango music, both arco and pizzicato are employed. In jazz and rockabilly, pizzicato is the norm. Classical music uses the natural sound produced acoustically by the instrument, as does traditional bluegrass. In jazz and related genres, the bass is amplified; the double bass stands around 180 cm from scroll to endpin. However, other sizes are available, such as a 1⁄2 or 3⁄4, which serve to accommodate a player's height and hand size; these sizes do not reflect the size relative to 4⁄4 bass. It is constructed from several types of wood, including maple for the back, spruce for the top, ebony for the fingerboard, it is uncertain whether the instrument is a descendant of the viola da gamba or of the violin, but it is traditionally aligned with the violin family. While the double bass is nearly identical in construction to other violin family instruments, it embodies features found in the older viol family. Like other violin and viol-family string instruments, the double bass is played either with a bow or by plucking the strings.
In orchestral repertoire and tango music, both arco and pizzicato are employed. In jazz and rockabilly, pizzicato is the norm, except for some solos and occasional written parts in modern jazz that call for bowing. In classical pedagogy all of the focus is on performing with the bow and producing a good bowed tone. Bowed notes in the lowest register of the instrument produce a dark, mighty, or menacing effect, when played with a fortissimo dynamic. Classical bass students learn all of the different bow articulations used by other string section players, such as détaché, staccato, martelé, sul ponticello, sul tasto, tremolo and sautillé; some of these articulations can be combined. Classical bass players do play pizzicato parts in orchestra, but these parts require simple notes, rather than rapid passages. Classical players perform both bowed and pizz notes using vibrato, an effect created by rocking or quivering the left hand finger, contacting the string, which transfers an undulation in pitch to the tone.
Vibrato is used to add expression to string playing. In general loud, low-register passages are played with little or no vibrato, as the main goal with low pitches is to provide a clear fundamental bass for the string section. Mid- and higher-register melodies are played with more vibrato; the speed and intensity of the vibrato is varied by the performer for an emotional and musical effect. In jazz and other related genres, much or all of the focus is on playing pizzicato. In jazz and jump blues, bassists are required to play rapid pizzicato walking basslines for extended periods; as well and rockabilly bassists develop virtuoso pizzicato techniques that enable them to play rapid solos that incorporate fast-moving triplet and sixteenth note figures. Pizzicato basslines performed by leading jazz professionals are much more difficult than the pizzicato basslines that Classical bassists encounter in the standard orchestral literature, which are whole notes, half notes, quarter notes, occasional eighth note passages.
In jazz and related styles, bassists add semi-percussive "ghost notes" into basslines, to add to the rhythmic feel and to add fills to a bassline. The double bass player stands, or sits on a high stool, leans the instrument against their body, turned inward to put the strings comfortably in reach; this stance is a key reason for the bass's sloped shoulders, which mark it apart from the other members of the violin family—the narrower shoulders facilitate playing the strings in their higher registers. The double bass is regarded as a modern descendant of the string family of instruments that originated in Europe in the 15th century, as such has been described as a bass Violin. Before the 20th century many double basses had only three strings, in contrast to the five to six strings typical of instruments in the viol family or the four strings of instruments in the violin family; the double bass's proportions are di
Stereophonic sound or, more stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing, thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position ahead in the sound field. Stereo sound has been in common use since the 1970s in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio, TV, recorded music, computer audio, cinema; the word stereophonic derives from the Greek στερεός + φωνή and it was coined in 1927 by Western Electric, by analogy with the word "stereoscopic". Stereo sound systems can be divided into two forms: the first is "true" or "natural" stereo in which a live sound is captured, with any natural reverberation or ambience present, by an array of microphones.
The signal is reproduced over multiple loudspeakers to recreate, as as possible, the live sound. Secondly "artificial" or "pan-pot" stereo, in which a single-channel sound is reproduced over multiple loudspeakers. By varying the relative amplitude of the signal sent to each speaker an artificial direction can be suggested; the control, used to vary this relative amplitude of the signal is known as a "pan-pot". By combining multiple "pan-potted" mono signals together, a complete, yet artificial, sound field can be created. In technical usage, true stereo means sound recording and sound reproduction that uses stereographic projection to encode the relative positions of objects and events recorded. During two-channel stereo recording, two microphones are placed in strategically chosen locations relative to the sound source, with both recording simultaneously; the two recorded channels will be similar, but each will have distinct time-of-arrival and sound-pressure-level information. During playback, the listener's brain uses those subtle differences in timing and sound level to triangulate the positions of the recorded objects.
Stereo recordings cannot be played on monaural systems without a significant loss of fidelity. Since each microphone records each wavefront at a different time, the wavefronts are out of phase; this phenomenon is known as phase cancellation. Clément Ader demonstrated the first two-channel audio system in Paris in 1881, with a series of telephone transmitters connected from the stage of the Paris Opera to a suite of rooms at the Paris Electrical Exhibition, where listeners could hear a live transmission of performances through receivers for each ear. Scientific American reported: "Every one, fortunate enough to hear the telephones at the Palais de l'Industrie has remarked that, in listening with both ears at the two telephones, the sound takes a special character of relief and localization which a single receiver cannot produce.... This phenomenon is curious, it approximates to the theory of binauricular audition, has never been applied, we believe, before to produce this remarkable illusion to which may be given the name of auditive perspective."This two-channel telephonic process was commercialized in France from 1890 to 1932 as the Théâtrophone, in England from 1895 to 1925 as the Electrophone.
Both were services available by coin-operated receivers at hotels and cafés, or by subscription to private homes. Modern stereophonic technology was invented in the 1930s by British engineer Alan Blumlein at EMI, who patented stereo records, stereo films, surround sound. In early 1931, Blumlein and his wife were at a local cinema; the sound reproduction systems of the early "talkies" invariably only had a single set of speakers - which could lead to the somewhat disconcerting effect of the actor being on one side of the screen whilst his voice appeared to come from the other. Blumlein declared to his wife that he had found a way to make the sound follow the actor across the screen; the genesis of these ideas is uncertain, but he explained them to Isaac Shoenberg in the late summer of 1931. His earliest notes on the subject are dated 25 September 1931, his patent had the title "Improvements in and relating to Sound-transmission, Sound-recording and Sound-reproducing Systems"; the application was dated 14 December 1931, was accepted on 14 June 1933 as UK patent number 394,325.
The patent covered many ideas in some not. Some 70 claims include: A "shuffling" circuit, which aimed to preserve the directional effect when sound from a spaced pair of microphones was reproduced via stereo headphones instead of a pair of loudspeakers; these discs used the two walls of the groove at right angles in order to carry th
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Live (Return to Forever album)
Live is the final album by fusion band Return to Forever. It was recorded live at the Palladium in New York City on May 20 and 21 1977 as part of the Musicmagic tour to support the album of the same name; this was the only tour to feature the Musicmagic lineup, which included original members Chick Corea, Stanley Clarke, Joe Farrell, along with newly added member, Chick Corea's wife, Gayle Moran on vocals and organ, a six-piece horn section. Released as a single LP, the album was re-issued in 1978 as a 4-LP set called Return to Forever Live: The Complete Concert, which contained the full concert as heard by those who attended, including extended sections of dialogue and audience applause; the original release was a single LP with a cover featuring Picasso's Three Musicians. A expanded version of the album was released in 1978 on 4 LPs as Return to Forever Live: The Complete Concert, showcasing the entire two-hour-and-forty-minute concert; this Complete Concert release features a plain dark blue cover with a stylized "RTF" logo and contains the entireties of pieces, edited down for the original one LP release, including a version of "Spanish Fantasy".
Included are spoken introductions to songs by Clarke, including one in which he is heckled by the audience for announcing the concert's final piece. In June, 2011, Columbia released a 5-CD boxed set, Return to Forever, The Complete Columbia Albums Collection which includes the entire 1977 Live, The Complete Concert recording on 3 CDs together with 1976's Romantic Warrior and 1977's Musicmagic; the 3-CD version Return to Forever Live: The Complete Concert, 3-Record Set was released in Japan in September 2011 as a Blue-Spec CD limited boxset reproducing the original Japanese 1978 LP boxset. However, this 2011 reissue features "The Endless Night" and "Musicmagic" as one track each, instead of the original splits and fades of each song. All songs composed by Chick Corea, except where noted. Chick Corea – keyboards, vocals Stanley Clarke – electric bass, acoustic bass, vocals Gayle Moran – vocals, organ Joe Farrell – tenor and soprano saxophone, flute James Tinsley – trumpet, piccolo John Thomas – trumpet, flugelhorn Harold Garret – trombone Jim Pugh – trombone Ron Moss – trombone Gerry Brown – drums Columbia 35281 Columbia C4X 35350 Columbia/Legacy C2K 47479 Columbia 468923 2 Sony Records SRCS 7142 2 Sony Records SICP-20305~7