James Joseph Brown was an American singer, dancer, record producer and bandleader. A progenitor of funk music and a major figure of 20th-century music and dance, he is referred to as the "Godfather of Soul". In a career that lasted 50 years, he influenced the development of several music genres. Brown began his career as a gospel singer in Georgia, he joined an R&B vocal group, the Gospel Starlighters founded by Bobby Byrd, in which he was the lead singer. First coming to national public attention in the late 1950s as a member of the singing group The Famous Flames with the hit ballads "Please, Please" and "Try Me", Brown built a reputation as a tireless live performer with the Famous Flames and his backing band, sometimes known as the James Brown Band or the James Brown Orchestra, his success peaked in the 1960s with the live album Live at the Apollo and hit singles such as "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag", "I Got You" and "It's a Man's Man's Man's World". During the late 1960s, Brown moved from a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms and styles to a profoundly "Africanized" approach to music-making that influenced the development of funk music.
By the early 1970s, Brown had established the funk sound after the formation of the J. B.s with records such as "Get Up Sex Machine" and "The Payback". He became noted for songs of social commentary, including the 1968 hit "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud". Brown continued to perform and record until his death from pneumonia in 2006. Brown was inducted into 1st class of the National Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame in 2013 as an artist and in 2017 as a songwriter. Brown recorded 17 singles, he holds the record for the most singles listed on the Billboard Hot 100 chart which did not reach No. 1. Brown has received honors from many institutions, including inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Songwriters Hall of Fame. In Joel Whitburn's analysis of the Billboard R&B charts from 1942 to 2010, Brown is ranked No. 1 in The Top 500 Artists. He is ranked No. 7 on Rolling Stone's list of its 100 greatest artists of all time. Rolling Stone has cited Brown as the most sampled artist of all time.
Brown was born on May 3, 1933, in Barnwell, South Carolina, to 16-year-old Susie née Behling, 22-year-old Joseph Gardner Brown, in a small wooden shack. Brown's name was supposed to have been Joseph James Brown Jr. but his first and middle names were mistakenly reversed on his birth certificate. He legally changed his name to remove "Jr." In his autobiography, Brown stated that he had Chinese and Native American ancestry. The Brown family lived in extreme poverty in Elko, South Carolina, an impoverished town at the time, they moved to Augusta, when James was four or five. His family first settled at one of his aunts' brothels, they moved into a house shared with another aunt. Brown's mother left the family after a contentious and abusive marriage and moved to New York. Brown spent long stretches of time on his own, hustling to get by, he managed to stay in school until the sixth grade. He began singing in talent shows as a young child, first appearing at Augusta's Lenox Theater in 1944, winning the show after singing the ballad "So Long".
While in Augusta, Brown performed buck dances for change to entertain troops from Camp Gordon at the start of World War II as their convoys traveled over a canal bridge near his aunt's home. He learned to play the piano and harmonica during this period, he became inspired to become an entertainer after hearing "Caldonia" by Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five. In his teen years, Brown had a career as a boxer. At the age of 16, he was sent to a juvenile detention center in Toccoa. There, he formed a gospel quartet including Johnny Terry. Brown met singer Bobby Byrd when the two played against each other in a baseball game outside the detention center. Byrd discovered that Brown could sing, after hearing of "a guy called Music Box", Brown's musical nickname at the prison. Byrd has since claimed he and his family helped to secure an early release, which led to Brown promising the court he would "sing for the Lord". Brown was paroled on June 14, 1952. Shortly thereafter, he joined the gospel group, the Ever-Ready Gospel Singers, featuring Byrd's sister Sarah.
Brown joined Byrd's group in 1954. The group had evolved from the Gospel Starlighters, an a cappella gospel group, to an R&B group with the name the Avons, he reputedly joined the band after one of Troy Collins, died in a car crash. Along with Brown and Byrd, the group consisted of Sylvester Keels, Doyle Oglesby, Fred Pulliam, Nash Knox and Nafloyd Scott. Influenced by R&B groups such as Hank Ballard and the Midnighters, the Orioles and Billy Ward and His Dominoes, the group changed its name, first to the Toccoa Band and to the Flames. Nafloyd's brother Baroy joined the group on bass guitar, Brown and Keels switched lead positions and instruments playing drums and piano. Johnny Terry joined, by which time Pulliam and Oglesby had long left. Berry Trimier became the group's first manager, booking them at parties near college campuses in Georgia and South Carolina; the group had gained a reputation as a good live act when they renamed themselves the Famous Flames. In 1955, the group had contacted Little Richard while performing in Macon.
Cinnamon Girl (Prince song)
"Cinnamon Girl" is a song by Prince, from his 2004 album Musicology. The single has been released in several formats. On September 6, 2004, the European CD single was released with four tracks: "Cinnamon Girl", "Dear Mr. Man" "United States of Division" and an MPEG video of the "Dear Mr. Man" performance. Two weeks a similar single was released, but without the video. In November of the same year, Prince's NPG Music Club online retail store sold an Enhanced CD including the audio track, its music video, the lyrics and a five-minute segment of interviews and behind-the-scenes footage. Despite not charting in the US, the single nearly cracked the Top 40 of the UK, reaching number 43. "Cinnamon Girl" – 3:56 "Dear Mr. Man" – 4:14 "United States of Division" – 6:18 "Dear Mr. Man" – 4:14 "Cinnamon Girl" – 3:56 "Cinnamon Girl" – 4:04 "Cinnamon Girl: Xposed" – 5:15 The music video for the song was controversial among conservatives in the United States. In the video, directed by Phil Harder, a Muslim girl is depicted as being victimized following the September 11 attacks in 2001 and dreaming of blowing up an airport with a bomb.
While the New York Post described the video as the most tasteless the American Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee has praised the video for bringing attention to the discrimination faced by Arab-Americans since the attacks. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Dirty Mind (Prince song)
"Dirty Mind" is the follow-up single in the U. S. and title track to Prince's third album, released in 1980. The song is built around a keyboard riff created by Doctor Fink; the demo-like song lacks a chorus, is a stark departure of the smooth R&B sound of Prince's first two albums. The lyrics concern sexual thoughts, which are representative of the other songs from the album; the single's B-side is the ballad "When We're Dancing Close and Slow", from the previous year's Prince. "Dirty Mind" reached number sixty-five on the soul chart. Along with the tracks "Uptown" and "Head", "Dirty Mind" reached number five on the dance chart. "Dirty Mind" – 3:23 "When We're Dancing Close and Slow" – 5:18
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Gotta Stop (Messin' About)
"Gotta Stop" was the follow-up single in the UK to support Prince's third album, Dirty Mind. The single was not an album track, though it was written at the same time, possessed a similar sound. "Gotta Stop Messin' About" marked the first time Prince released non-album tracks, which as B-sides, would become a prominent part of his career. The song is keyboard dominated, the lyrics speak of a woman who's "messin' about" with other men; the song contains familiar Prince themes of sexual frustration and sexual metaphors. The track consists of multiple repeats of the chorus, it was played live on the Dirty Mind Tour with an extended instrumental section at the end. "Gotta Stop" was released in the UK as two separate 7" singles, one with the Dirty Mind track "Uptown" as a B-side, the other with "I Wanna Be Your Lover", from Prince. Each single had an accompanying 12" single, both with the same tracks as the 7" and both including the song "Head", from Dirty Mind. Despite an extensive advertising campaign and promotion, coinciding with Prince's first UK gig, neither issue of the single charted.
The track would be released in the U. S. as the B-side of the 12" single for "Let's Work", become a sought-after collector's item. "Gotta Stop" was later released on The Hits/The B-Sides and Prince 4Ever
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Delirious (Prince song)
"Delirious" is a song by American musician Prince, from his 1982 album, 1999. It was the album's third single, Prince's second top 10 hit, reaching number 8 in the US during the fall of 1983; the success of the single was boosted by the runaway success of the previous single, "Little Red Corvette", because DJs played the first three album tracks in sequence, which just happened to be the order of the singles released from the album. "Delirious" is a standard 8-bar blues number that tells how Prince is being driven crazy by a beautiful woman. The song teases the listener with sexual metaphors, hidden enough to avoid being censored; the track begins with a trademark Linn drum machine loop and a bit of synth bass before the keyboard hook introduces the song. A rubbery bass guitar gives the track a rockabilly feel, which Prince had experimented earlier on "Jack U Off" from Controversy; the track ends with the sound effect of a baby cooing. In live performances over the years, Prince would add live horns to the song, making it into more of a swing number.
The 7" single release of the song included images of Prince. The B-side to the track is "Horny Toad", similar in rockabilly style and instrumentation; some of the sexually charged lyrics were interpreted as sadistic at the time and were the source of some controversy. The track was included on The Hits/The B-Sides in 1993; the sound effect of a baby cooing is sampled from Jac Holzman's "Happy Baby", was sampled in 1986's "Baby Love" by Regina and 1998's "Are You That Somebody?" by Aaliyah. The song was used in the 1983 Cheech and Chong film Still Smokin'; the song can heard at the beginning of MGM's 1991 film of the same name. The song is sampled in Girl Talk's 2010 album All Day; the instrumental parts of the song was used as the theme song to the Captain Kangaroo show-within-a-show, Hello America, in the 1980s. The sound effect of a baby cooing is featured in a techno song during the 2007 It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia episode "Frank Sets Sweet Dee on Fire". Uptown: The Vault – The Definitive Guide to the Musical World of Prince: Nilsen Publishing 2004, ISBN 91-631-5482-X Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics