Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Amorebieta-Etxano known as Zornotza, is a town and municipality located in Biscay in the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community in northern Spain. At the time of the 2014 census, the population of the municipality was 18,579, with 16,907 inhabitants living in Amorebieta; the mayor is Andoni Agirrebeitia. Amorebieta-Etxano is an inland town in the comarca of Duranguesado in the province of Biscay in northern Spain, it is about 25 km east of Bilbao and close to the European route E70 which runs along the north coast of Spain. It is located in the valley of the River Ibaizabal. Amorebieta-Etxano has a rich historical heritage; the municipality of Amorebieta-Etxano came into being on 26 January 1951 as the result of a merger between Amorebieta and Etxano, two communities in the historic administrative district of Merindad de Zornotza. The other parts of the district were merged into the neighbouring municipality of Muxika; the new coat of arms shows the union between Etxano. In the 2014 census, Amorebieta had a population of 16,907 while that of Etxano was 221.
The town is divided into several districts. The church of Santa María de la Asunción is in the centre of Amorebieta on the banks of the Ibaizaba, it is a large Renaissance building started in 1555 and opened for worship in 1608 and is noted for its altarpiece. Another Renaissance church is the Parroquia de San Juan Bautista de Larrea; this dates back to 1647, in 1704 it was given to the Carmelite Order to found a convent. In San Antonio is the hermitage of San Miguel de Dudea, nearby is the Neoclassical López Palace. A branch of the international company Tecnalia Research & Innovation is located here in the Parque Empresarial Boroa where the firm employs 1500 people. Xabier Etxeita Jon Aurtenetxe Beñat Intxausti, a professional cyclist. Amorebieta Etxano, Official web page Amorebieta-Etxano in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
A chimney is an architectural ventilation structure made of masonry, clay or metal that isolates hot toxic exhaust gases or smoke produced by a boiler, furnace, incinerator or fireplace from human living areas. Chimneys are vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, or chimney effect; the space inside a chimney is called the flue. Chimneys are adjacent to large industrial refineries, fossil fuel combustion facilities or part of buildings, steam locomotives and ships. In the United States, the term'Smokestack industry' refers to the environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels by industrial society including the electric industry during its earliest history; the term smokestack is used when referring to locomotive chimneys or ship chimneys, the term funnel can be used. The height of a chimney influences its ability to transfer flue gases to the external environment via stack effect. Additionally, the dispersion of pollutants at higher altitudes can reduce their impact on the immediate surroundings.
The dispersion of pollutants over a greater area can reduce their concentrations and facilitate compliance with regulatory limits. Romans used tubes inside the walls to draw smoke out of bakeries but chimneys only appeared in large dwellings in northern Europe in the 12th century; the earliest extant example of an English chimney is at the keep of Conisbrough Castle in Yorkshire, which dates from 1185 AD. However, they did not become common in houses until the 17th centuries. Smoke hoods were an early method of collecting the smoke into a chimney. Another step in the development of chimneys was the use of built in ovens which allowed the household to bake at home. Industrial chimneys became common in the late 18th century. Chimneys in ordinary dwellings were first built of plaster or mud. Since chimneys have traditionally been built of brick or stone, both in small and large buildings. Early chimneys were of a simple brick construction. Chimneys were constructed by placing the bricks around tile liners.
To control downdrafts, venting caps with a variety of designs are sometimes placed on the top of chimneys. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the methods used to extract lead from its ore produced large amounts of toxic fumes. In the north of England, long near-horizontal chimneys were built more than 3 km long, which terminated in a short vertical chimney in a remote location where the fumes would cause less harm. Lead and silver deposits formed on the inside of these long chimneys, periodically workers would be sent along the chimneys to scrape off these valuable deposits; as a result of the limited ability to handle transverse loads with brick, chimneys in houses were built in a "stack", with a fireplace on each floor of the house sharing a single chimney with such a stack at the front and back of the house. Today's central heating systems have made chimney placement less critical, the use of non-structural gas vent pipe allows a flue gas conduit to be installed around obstructions and through walls.
In fact, most modern high-efficiency heating appliances do not require a chimney. Such appliances are installed near an external wall, a noncombustible wall thimble allows a vent pipe to run directly through the external wall. On a pitched roof where a chimney penetrates a roof, flashing is used to seal up the joints; the down-slope piece is called an apron, the sides receive step flashing and a cricket is used to divert water around the upper side of the chimney underneath the flashing. Industrial chimneys are referred to as flue gas stacks and are external structures, as opposed to those built into the wall of a building, they are located adjacent to a steam-generating boiler or industrial furnace and the gases are carried to them with ductwork. Today the use of reinforced concrete has entirely replaced brick as a structural component in the construction of industrial chimneys. Refractory bricks are used as a lining if the type of fuel being burned generates flue gases containing acids. Modern industrial chimneys sometimes consist of a concrete windshield with a number of flues on the inside.
The 300 m chimney at Sasol Three consists of a 26 m diameter windshield with four 4.6 metre diameter concrete flues which are lined with refractory bricks built on rings of corbels spaced at 10 metre intervals. The reinforced concrete can be sliding formwork; the height is to ensure the pollutants are dispersed over a wider area to meet legal or other safety requirements. A flue liner is a secondary barrier in a chimney that protects the masonry from the acidic products of combustion, helps prevent flue gas from entering the house, reduces the size of an oversized flue. Since the 1950s, building codes in many locations require newly built chimneys to have a flue liner. Chimneys built without a liner can have a liner added, but the type of liner needs to match the type of appliance it services. Flue liners may be concrete tile, metal, or poured in place concrete. Clay tile flue liners are common in the United States, although it is the only liner that does not meet Underwriters Laboratories 1777 approval and they have problems such as cracked tiles and improper installation.
Clay tiles are about 2 feet long, available in various sizes and shapes, are installed in new construction as the chimney is built. A refractory cement is used between each tile. Metal liners may be stainless steel, aluminum, or galvanized iron and may be flexible or rigid pipes. Stainless stee
Basque Nationalist Party
The Basque Nationalist Party Basque National Party in English, is a Christian democratic and Basque nationalist party. It operates in all the territories comprising the Basque Country: the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre in Spain, in the French Basque Country, it has delegations in dozens of foreign nations those with a major presence of Basque immigrants. EAJ-PNV was founded by Sabino Arana in 1895, which makes it the second oldest party in Spain that remains active, after the PSOE, it is the largest Basque nationalist party, having led the Basque Government uninterruptedly since 1979. In Navarre, it is part of the coalition Geroa Bai, the party in the Navarrese regional government. At the national level, it has a presence in the Cortes Generales: the Congress of Deputies and the Senate. Since 1932, EAJ-PNV celebrates on Easter the Aberri Eguna'Homeland Day'. Since 1977, the party celebrates Alderdi Eguna'Party Day'; the party's social offices are called batzokis. A member of the European Democratic Party, the Basque Nationalist Party was a member of the European Free Alliance from 1999 to 2004.
Earlier it had been affiliated with the European People's Party from which it resigned before the European Parliament election of 1999, the Christian Democrat International until its expulsion in 2000. The current chairman of EAJ-PNV is Andoni Ortuzar; the youth wing of the Basque Nationalist Party is called EGI Euzko Gaztedi Indarra'Basque Youth Force'. The party was founded in 1895 by Sabino de Arana Goiri as a Catholic conservative party agitating for the restoration of self-government and the defense of Juramento de Larrazabal Basque traditional values and identity, it describes itself as Basque, participatory and humanist. It is a moderate nationalist party. EAJ-PNV opposes political violence. In its beginnings, the party established a requirement for its members to prove Basque ancestry by having a minimum number of Basque surnames. In 1921, the Arana movement split into the traditionalist Comunión Nacionalista Vasca and the independentist Aberri. During the single party dictatorship rule of general Miguel Primo de Rivera, the nationalist parties were outlawed and persecuted.
However, its activity continued under the guise of folklore clubs. At the end of 1930, Aberri and CNV reunited under the old name of EAJ-PNV. However, a small group formed Acción Nacionalista Vasca, it was on the moderate nationalist left, non-confessional and open to alliances with the republican and socialist parties fighting against the dictatorship. The division between autonomism and independentism appeared again during the second Spanish Republic. Headed by Eli Gallastegi, a small group of independentists, gathered around the weekly Jagi-Jagi and the Mountaineer Federation of Biscay, left the party, they rejected the autonomy. After the coup d'état of 18 July 1936, the party felt torn, it shared the rebel side's Catholicism and there was pressure from the Vatican to keep away from the Republic, but the promised autonomy and their anti-Fascist ideology led them to side with the republican government. The Biscayne and Gipuzkoan branches, the more important in number, declared support for the Republic and anti-Fascism in the ensuing Spanish Civil War and were key in balancing those provinces to the Republican side.
In the territory seized by the rebels, PNV members faced tough times. During the military uprising in Navarre, the Basque nationalist mayor of Estella-Lizarra Fortunato Aguirre was arrested by the Spanish nationalist rebels, killed in September; some Basque nationalists could flee north to Basque areas loyal to the Republic, or France. However, some members of the Alavese and Navarrese committees, ahead of an official decision, published notes refusing support to the Republic. Notwithstanding their initial ambiguous position in certain areas, the party premises and press in Álava and Navarre were closed in that month of July; some PNV sympathizers and members joined the Carlist battalions, either out of conviction or to avoid attacks. By October 1936, a war front had been established at the northern tip of Álava and to the west of Donostia; the Defence Committees in Biscay and Gipuzkoa were dominated by the Popular Front. After hard negotiations Basque autonomy was granted within the Second Spanish Republic in late 1936, the new autonomous government organized the Basque Army, consisting of militias recruited by each of the political organizations, including PNV.
The autonomous government avoided chaos in Biscay and western Gipuzkoa, took the reins of the coordination and provision of military resistance. On occupation of the territories loyal to the Republic, the Francoist repression was focused on leftists, but Basque nationalists were targeted, facing prison and death; as the rebel troops approached Biscay, the Carlist press in Pamplona called for the extermination of Basque nationalists. José Antonio Aguirre, the party leader, became in October 1936 the first lendakari of the wartime multipartite Basque Government, ruling the unconquered parts of Biscay and Gipuzkoa. In April 1937, the city of Guernica was bombed by German airplanes. Jose Antonio de Aguirre stated that "the German planes bombed us with a brutality that had never been seen before fo
Balmaseda is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country. Balmaseda is the capital city of the comarca of Enkarterri, in western Biscay and serves an important role in the province thanks to its proximity to the capital city of Bilbao and the regions of Cantabria and Castile and León, its toponomy comes from a union of the Spanish word val, meaning "valley", the Basque mahatseta, which means "vineyard", Val-Mahatseta would mean "valley of vineyards", which would evolve into Valmaseda in use in Spanish, Balmaseda, following the orthographic rules of the Basque language. The lands in which Balmaseda is located had been inhabited since centuries before its official foundation, with evidence of ancient pastoral activity. In the eastern end of the municipality there is a Roman milestone which belonged to the Pisorica-Flaviobriga road, which connected the present-day cities of Castro Urdiales and Herrera de Pisuerga; this road is believed to have been in use at least since the 1st Century, as the milestone is dated 238.
Though the town's old bridge could have been built there are not any evidences of its existence until some centuries later. The territory in which today is located Balmaseda belonged to the valley of Mena, included in the Kingdom of Castile in the 9th Century. Although it was conquered by the Kingdom of Navarre, the Castilians recovered it in 1175, moment when the king handed over the territory to Lope Sánchez de Mena, Lord of Bortedo and kin of the Lord of Biscay. Lope Sánchez founded the village on the same location of a previous settlement, in one of the banks of the river Kadagua, granting the village the fuero of Logroño. Among the reasons for the foundation of the village were its protected location between mountains and the existence of a commercial road connecting to Castile and Biscay; the village was incorporated to the lands of the Lord of Biscay when the Lord Lope Díaz II de Haro married the daughter of Alfonso IX, thus obtaining the territories of Balmaseda and Orduña. In 1234, Lope confirmed the municipal charter establishing Balmaseda as a town.
However, this first union with Biscay would not last much. In 1274 it was given back to Biscay to be once more handed back to Castile in 1288 after the murder of Lope Díaz III in Alfaro following the orders of Sancho IV. Diego López IV would once more reinstate Balmaseda into Biscay. In 1312, after the disputes between Biscay and Castile, Balmaseda was once more reintegrated into the kingdom; the town would be incorporated again in Biscay in 1388. On 5 November 1808 the city was the theatre of the Battle of Valmaseda, part of the Peninsular War, between French and Spanish armies; the municipality of Balmaseda is located in mountainous territory, in southwestern Biscay and 30 kilometers away from the province capital city Bilbao. Balmaseda is located in the comarca of Enkarterri and it borders Artzentales, in the west, with Sopuerta in the north and Zalla in the east. In the south Balmaseda borders with the autonomous community of León, it is surrounded by the Ordunte mountains. Nature park of Valley of Karrantza with Pozalagua Cave situated not far from Balmaseda.
The main river of the municipality is the river Kadagua, which forms the narrow valley where the town is located. The river is joined by several minor streams as the Acebo, Coliza and Angostura; the river Kadagua has had historical importance for the town and still today has an important symbolism, as it is present on the town's coat of arms. Amongst city's landmarks are Puente Viejo Roman Bridge, Ayuntmiento-Town Hall, Cathedral Iglesia de San Severino, Church of Sagrado Corazón, Iglesia San Juan, Iglesia de Santa Clara with museum, Palacio Horcasitas, Balmaseda historical museum, La Encartada beret factory museum, modern court of justice. Balmaseda carries Medieval market in San Severino festival on 23 October. Balmaseda has Sociedad Deportiva Balmaseda Fútbol Club with home La Baluga camp stadium. Balmaseda is connected with the rest of the province of Enkarterri region and the capital city of Bilbao by the BI-636 road and by the narrow-gauge railway Feve and by bus. Pedro Hurtado de Mendoza, an important Jesuit author of theological and philosophical textbooks.
Tifariti, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic San Severino Marche, Italy Balmaceda, Chile Balmaceda, an alternate spelling found in Spanish surnames. BALMASEDA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Ermua is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. In 2014, Ermua had 16,194 inhabitants. Ermua is a town in the Durangaldea comarca of the province of Biscay in northern Spain, it is situated in a steep-sided valley beside a tributary of the Deba River. Because of the steep, irregular terrain, building space is limited, Ermua is one of the most densely populated towns in the Basque country. To the north of Ermua lies the municipality of Mallabia, to the east lies Eibar and to the south lies Zaldibar. Eibar is a larger town which lies just across the provincial border, in the province of Gipuzkoa, the two towns forming a single urban area. Ermua has grown in size during the 1960s and 1970s and acts as a dormitory town to Eibar, both of them being industrial towns. Ermua and Eibar are linked by the N-634 and share a common exit from the Autopista AP-8, the toll road that crosses the Basque Country, connects Bilbao with the French Border.
Ermua and Eibar are connected by the narrow gauge railway that runs from Bilbao to San Sebastián. Historic buildings in Ermua include the Church of Santiago Apóstol, an unusual Renaissance building with a fine bell tower, the Baroque Valdespina Palace, now the Town Hall, the sixteenth century Lobiano Palace. On 10 July 1997, Miguel Ángel Blanco, a town councillor in Ermua, was kidnapped by ETA, the Basque separatist organization. ETA demanded that the Spanish government transfer members of the organization imprisoned outside the Basque Country to prisons in the Basque Country, when the Spanish government did not accede to their demands, their hostage was executed, his kidnapping and death had a great impact on both Spanish and Basque society and sparked the formation of an anti-terrorism organisation, a peace movement known as "Foro de Ermua". It aimed to promote political and civil liberties but was limited in popular appeal, being handicapped by being supported by the Basque elite and Spanish nationalists.
ERMUA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia ERMUA. Football championship – Ermua Libertario
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn, palm fruit or sugar cane; the two most common petrochemical classes are aromatics. Oil refineries produce aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents and adhesives. Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, fibers, elastomers and gels. Global ethylene and propylene production are about 115 million tonnes and 70 million tonnes per annum, respectively. Aromatics production is 70 million tonnes; the largest petrochemical industries are located in the Western Europe. There is substantial inter-regional petrochemical trade.
Primary petrochemicals are divided into three groups depending on their chemical structure: Olefins includes Ethene, Propene and butadiene. Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industrial plastics products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber. Aromatics includes Benzene and xylenes, as a whole referred to as BTX and obtained from petroleum refineries by extraction from the reformate produced in catalytic reformers using Naphtha obtained from petroleum refineries. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making polyurethanes. Manufacturers use xylenes to produce synthetic fibers. Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate. Steam crackers are not to be confused with steam reforming plants used to produce hydrogen and ammonia. Methane, ethane and butanes obtained from natural gas processing plants.
Methanol and formaldehyde. In 2007, the amounts of ethylene and propylene produced in steam crackers were about 115 Mt and 70 Mt, respectively; the output ethylene capacity of large steam crackers ranged up to as much as 1.0 – 1.5 Mt per year. The adjacent diagram schematically depicts the major hydrocarbon sources and processes used in producing petrochemicals. Like commodity chemicals, petrochemicals are made on a large scale. Petrochemical manufacturing units differ from commodity chemical plants in that they produce a number of related products. Compare this with specialty chemical and fine chemical manufacture where products are made in discrete batch processes. Petrochemicals are predominantly made in a few manufacturing locations around the world, for example in Jubail & Yanbu Industrial Cities in Saudi Arabia, Texas & Louisiana in the US, in Teesside in the Northeast of England in the United Kingdom, in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, in Jamnagar & Dahej in Gujarat, India. Not all of the petrochemical or commodity chemical materials produced by the chemical industry are made in one single location but groups of related materials are made in adjacent manufacturing plants to induce industrial symbiosis as well as material and utility efficiency and other economies of scale.
This is known in chemical engineering terminology as integrated manufacturing. Speciality and fine chemical companies are sometimes found in similar manufacturing locations as petrochemicals but, in most cases, they do not need the same level of large scale infrastructure and therefore can be found in multi-sector business parks; the large scale petrochemical manufacturing locations have clusters of manufacturing units that share utilities and large scale infrastructure such as power stations, storage tanks, port facilities and rail terminals. In the United Kingdom for example, there are 4 main locations for such manufacturing: near the River Mersey in Northwest England, on the Humber on the East coast of Yorkshire, in Grangemouth near the Firth of Forth in Scotland and in Teesside as part of the Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster. To demonstrate the clustering and integration, some 50% of the United Kingdom's petrochemical and commodity chemicals are produced by the NEPIC industry cluster companies in Teesside.
In 1835, Henri Victor Regnault, a French chemist left vinyl chloride in the sun and found white solid at the bottom of the flask, polyvinyl chloride. In 1839 Eduard Simon, discovered polystyrene by accident by distilling storax. In 1856, William Henry Perkin discovered Mauveine. In 1888, Friedrich Reinitzer, an Austrian plant scientist observed cholesteryl benzoate had two different melting points. In 1909, Leo Hendrik Baekeland invented bakelite made from formaldehyde. In 1928 synthetic fuels invented using Fischer-Tropsch process. In 1929, Walter Bock invented synthetic rubber Buna-S, made up of styrene and butadiene and used to make car tires. In 1933, Otto Röhm polymerized the first acrylic glass methyl methacrylate. In 1935, Michael Perrin invented polyethylene. After World War II, polypropylene was discovered in the early 1950s. In 1937, Wallace Hume Carothers invented nylon. In 1946, he invented Polyester. Polyethylene terephthalate bottles are made from paraxylene. In 1938, Otto Bayer invented polyurethane.
In 1941, Roy Plu