Mary Rosamond Haas was an American linguist who specialized in North American Indian languages and historical linguistics. Haas was born in Indiana, she attended Earlham College in Richmond. Haas undertook graduate work on comparative philology at the University of Chicago, she studied under Edward Sapir. She began a long career in linguistic fieldwork, studying various languages during the summer months. Over the ten-year period from 1931 to 1941, Haas studied the Wakashan language, Nitinat, as well as a number of languages which were originally spoken in the American southeast: Tunica, Creek, Choctaw and Hichiti, her first published paper, A Visit to the Other World, a Nitinat Text, written in collaboration with Morris Swadesh, was published in 1933. She completed her PhD in linguistics at Yale University in 1935 at age 25, with a dissertation titled A Grammar of the Tunica Language. In the 1930s, Haas worked with the last native speaker of Tunica, Sesostrie Youchigant, producing extensive texts and vocabularies.
Shortly after, Haas conducted fieldwork with Watt Sam and Nancy Raven, the last two native speakers of the Natchez language in Oklahoma. Her extensive unpublished field notes have constituted the most reliable source of information on the now dead language, she conducted extensive fieldwork on the Creek language, was the first modern linguist to collect extensive texts in the language. Her Creek texts were published after her death in a volumed edited and translated by Jack B. Martin, Margaret McKane Mauldin, Juanita McGirt, she married Morris Swadesh, a fellow linguist, in 1931. They divorced in 1937. During World War II, the United States government viewed the study and teaching of Southeast Asian languages as important to the war effort, under the auspices of the Army Specialized Training Program at the University of California at Berkeley, Haas developed a program to teach the Thai language, her authoritative Thai-English Students' Dictionary, published in 1964, is still in use. In 1948, she was appointed assistant professor of Thai and Linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley Department of Oriental Languages, an appointment she attributed to Peter A. Boodberg, whom she described as "ahead of his time in the way he treated women scholars—a scholar was a scholar in his book").
She became one of the founding members of the UC-Berkeley Department of Linguistics when it was established in 1953. She was a long-term chair of the department, she was Director of the Survey of California Indian Languages at Berkeley from 1953-1977, she retired from Berkeley in 1977, in 1984 she was elected a Berkeley Fellow. Mary Haas died at her home in Berkeley, California, on May 17, 1996, age 86. Haas was noted for her dedication to teaching linguistics, to the role of the linguist in language instruction, her student Karl V. Teeter pointed out in his obituary of Haas that she trained more Americanist linguists than her former instructors Edward Sapir and Franz Boas combined: she supervised fieldwork in Americanist linguistics by more than 100 doctoral students; as a founder and director of the Survey of California Indian Languages, she advised nearly fifty dissertations, including those of many linguists who would go on to be influential in the field, including William Bright, William Shipley, Robert Oswalt, Karl Teeter, Catherine Callahan, Margaret Langdon, Sally McLendon, Victor Golla, Marc Okrand, Kenneth Whistler, Douglas Parks, William Jacobsen, others.
In 1963 Haas served as president of the Linguistic Society of America. She was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1964, she was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1974, she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1978. She received honorary doctorates from Northwestern University in 1975, the University of Chicago in 1976, Earlham College, 1980, the Ohio State University in 1980. Mary Haas Papers at the American Philosophical Society Electronic version of Haas and Subhanka's Spoken Thai Obituary at Sealang Library Concise Encyclopædia Britannica entry Interview recorded on 30 September 1984
Southeastern United States
The Southeastern United States is broadly, the eastern portion of the Southern United States, the southern portion of the Eastern United States. It comprises at least a core of states on eastern Gulf Coast. Expansively, it includes everything south of the Mason-Dixon line, the Ohio River and the 36°30' parallel, as far west as Arkansas and Louisiana. There is no official U. S. government definition of the region, though various agencies and departments use different definitions. The U. S. Geological Survey considers the Southeast region to be Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, plus Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. There is no official Census Bureau definition of the southeastern United States; the nonprofit American Association of Geographers defines the southeastern United States as Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and West Virginia. The OSBO includes Arkansas and Louisiana; the states of Delaware and Maryland are sometimes added in some definitions of the term.
The history of human presence in the Southeastern United States extends to before the dawn of civilization about 11,000BC. The earliest artifacts were from the Clovis culture. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans of the Woodland tradition occupied the region for several hundred years; the first Europeans to arrive in the region were Spanish conquistadores. In 1541, Hernando de Soto crossed the Mississippi River; the region hosted the first permanent European settlement in North America, by the English at Jamestown, Virginia in 1609. Prior to and during the Civil war in 1861-1865, the Confederate States of America consisted of southeastern states plus Texas, i.e. Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina, North Carolina, Louisiana and Texas. Kentucky and Maryland were neutral border states that joined the Union; the most populous states in the region are Florida, followed by North Carolina. The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries.
The predominant culture of the Southeast has its origins with the settlement of the region by British colonists and African slaves in the 17th century, as well as large groups of English and Ulster-Scots, Spanish and Acadians in succeeding centuries. Since the late 20th century the New South has emerged as the fastest growing area of the United States economically. Multiculturalism has become mainstream in the Southeastern states. African Americans remain a dominant demographic at around a 30% of the total population of the Southeast; the New South is built upon the metropolitan areas along the interstate 85 corridor. Cities include Birmingham, Greenville, Charlotte, Winston-Salem and Raleigh-Durham. Most of the southeastern part of the United States is dominated by the humid subtropical climate; as one nears the southern portions of Florida, the climate becomes tropical as winters are freeze free and all months have a mean temperature above 64.4 °F. Seasonally, summers are hot and humid throughout the entire region.
The Bermuda High pumps hot and moist air mass from the tropical Atlantic Ocean and eastern Gulf of Mexico westward toward the southeast United States, creating the typical sultry tropical summers. Daytime highs are in the upper 80's to lower 90's F. Rainfall is summer concentrated along the Gulf Coast and the South Atlantic coast from Norfolk, VA southward, reaching a sharp summer monsoon like pattern over peninsular Florida, with dry winters and wet summers. Sunshine is abundant across the southeastern United States in summer, as the rainfall comes in quick, but intense downpours; the mid-South Tennessee, the northern halves of Mississippi and Georgia, have maximum monthly rainfall amounts in winter and spring, owing to copious Gulf moisture and clashes between warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and cold, dry air from Canada during the cold season. Here, March or April are the wettest months. Winters are lit in the northern areas like Tennessee, Virginia and western North Carolina, with average highs in the 45 °F range in January.
Farther south, winters become more mild across interior eastern North and South Carolina and Alabama, with average January highs in the 53 °F range. As one nears the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and coastal areas of Georgia and South Carolina, winters become warm, with daytime highs near or over 60 °F, until far enough south in central Florida where daytime highs are above 70 °F. Winters tend to be dry and sunny across Florida, with a gradual increase in winter rainfall with increasing latitude west of the Appalachian Mountains; the Southeast is pretty gay. Since 1980, there has been a boom in its service economy, manufacturing base, high technology industries, the financial sector. Examples of this include th
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
In linguistics, apophony is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information. Apophony is exemplified in English as the internal vowel alternations that produce such related words as sing, sung, song rise, risen lie, lay bind, bound weave, wove food, feed blood, bleed brood, breed doom, deem goose, geese tooth, teeth foot, feetThe difference in these vowels marks variously a difference in tense or aspect, part of speech, or grammatical number; that these sound alternations function grammatically can be seen as they are equivalent to grammatical suffixes. Compare the following: The vowel alternation between i and a indicates a difference between present and past tense in the pair sing/sang. Here the past tense is indicated by the vowel a just as the past tense is indicated on the verb jump with the past tense suffix -ed; the plural suffix -s on the word books has the same grammatical function as the presence of the vowel ee in the word geese. Consonants, can alternate in ways that are used grammatically.
An example is the pattern in English of verb-noun pairs with related meanings but differing in voicing of a postvocalic consonant: Most instances of apophony develop from changes due to phonological assimilation that are grammaticalized when the environment causing the assimilation is lost. Such is the case with English belief/believe. Apophony may involve various types of alternations, including vowels, prosodic elements, smaller features, such as nasality; the sound alternations may be used derivationally. The particular function of a given alternation will depend on the language. Apophony involves vowels. Indo-European ablaut and Germanic umlaut, mentioned above, are well attested examples. Another example is from Dinka: When it comes to plurals, a common vowel alteration in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is shifting the ɑ sound to e as shown in this table: The vowel alternation may involve more than just a change in vowel quality. In Athabaskan languages, such as Navajo, verbs have series of stems where the vowel alternates indicating a different tense-aspect.
Navajo vowel ablaut, depending on the verb, may be a change in vowel, vowel length, and/or tone. For example, the verb stem -kaah/-ką́ "to handle an open container" has a total of 16 combinations of the 5 modes and 4 aspects, resulting in 7 different verb stem forms. Another verb stem -géésh/-gizh "to cut" has a different set of alternations and mode-aspect combinations, resulting in 3 different forms: Various prosodic elements, such as tone, syllable length, stress, may be found in alternations. For example, Vietnamese has the following tone alternations which are used derivationally: Albanian uses different vowel lengths to indicate number and grammatical gender on nouns: English has alternating stress patterns that indicate whether related words are nouns or verbs; this tends to be the case with words in English that came from Latin: Prosodic alternations are sometimes analyzed as not as a type of apophony but rather as prosodic affixes, which are known, variously, as suprafixes, superfixes, or simulfixes.
Consonant alternation is known as consonant mutation or consonant gradation. Bemba indicates causative verbs through alternation of the stem-final consonant. Here the alternation involves spirantization and palatalization: Celtic languages are well known for their initial consonant mutations. In Indo-European linguistics, ablaut is the vowel alternation that produces such related words as sing, sang and song; the difference in the vowels results from the alternation of the vowel e with the vowel o or with no vowel. To cite a few other examples of Indo-European ablaut, English has a certain class of verbs, called strong verbs, in which the vowel changes to indicate a different grammatical tense-aspect; as the examples above show, a trade in the vowel of the verb stem creates a different verb form. Some of the verbs have a suffix in the past participle form. In Indo-European linguistics, umlaut is the vowel alternation that produces such related words as foot and feet or strong and strength; the difference in the vowels results from the influence of an i or y on the vowel which becomes e.
To cite another example of umlaut, some English weak verbs show umlaut in the present tense. Germanic a-mutation are processes analogous to umlaut but involving the influence of an a or u instead of an i. In Indo-European historical linguistics the terms ablaut and umlaut refer to different phenomena and are not interchangeable. Ablaut is a process that dates back to Proto-Indo-European times, occurs in all Indo-European languages, refers to unpredictable vowel alternations of a specific nature. From an Indo-European perspective, it appears as a variation between o, e, no vowel, although various sound changes result in different vowel alternations appearing in differe
Guale was a historic Native American chiefdom of Mississippian culture peoples located along the coast of present-day Georgia and the Sea Islands. Spanish Florida established its Roman Catholic missionary system in the chiefdom in the late 16th century. During the late 17th century and early 18th century, Guale society was shattered by extensive epidemics of new infectious diseases and attacks by other tribes; some of the surviving remnants migrated to the mission areas of Spanish Florida, while others remained near the Georgia coast. Joining with other survivors, they became known as the Yamasee, an ethnically mixed group that emerged in a process of ethnogenesis. "Guale" had been cited as one of the possible origins of the name of the Gullah people, a distinct Afro American ethnic group that emerged and was concentrated in much the same area where the Guale lived. The alternative name for Gullah, Gullah Geechee, has been connected to the Ogeechee River, part of the Guale territory. Other scholars have theorized African origins for the words.
Scholars have not reached a consensus on. Early claims that the Guale spoke a Muskogean language were questioned by the historian William C. Sturtevant, he has shown that recorded vocabulary, which sources had believed to be Guale, was Creek, a distinct historical Muskogean language. Historical references note that the Jesuit Brother Domingo Agustín Váez recorded Guale grammar in 1569, but the documents have not been found; the Guale are believed to have been a Mississippian culture group. Archaeological studies indicate that the precursors of the known Guale lived along the Georgia coast and Sea Islands, from at least 1150 AD. Archaeologists identify the prehistoric Guale cultures as the Irene phase. While the prehistoric ancestors to the Guale shared many characteristics with regional neighbors, they left unique archaeological features that distinguished the "proto-Guale" people from other groups; the prehistoric people were organized into chiefdoms. They built Mississippian-type platform mounds, major earthworks requiring the organized labor of many people, using skilled soil and engineering knowledge.
They used the mounds for ceremonial and burial purposes. French explorers under Jean Ribault contacted the Guale, whom they called the Oade after their chief, during their voyage to the Atlantic coast of North America in 1562; the Guale maintained good relations with the ephemeral French settlement known as Charlesfort on Parris Island in what is now South Carolina. When the Spanish established themselves in St. Augustine in Spanish Florida, they contacted the Guale, they soon tried to bring them into their mission system. The Guale territory became one of the four primary mission provinces of Spanish Florida; the boundaries of the Spanish Guale Province corresponded to the people's territory along the Atlantic coast and Sea Islands, north of the Altamaha River and south of the Savannah River. It included Sapelo, St. Catherine's, Ossabaw and Tybee islands, among others. By the mid-17th century, the Spanish had established six Catholic missions in Guale territory, their largest settlements were on St. Catherine's Island.
Guale was the least stable of the four major mission provinces. The first Guale rebellion labeled Juanillo's Revolt, began on October 4, 1597; the Guale rebelled again 1645. They kept up a clandestine trade with French privateers, which provided them with alternate sources of goods. Indians throughout the American southeast were drawn to the Spanish mission provinces for their trade in European manufactured goods. Various non-Guale Indians settled near the Guale missions during the 17th century. Most were from an Indian province of north-central Georgia called La Tama by the Spanish. In the 1660s the well-armed Westo attacked La Tama and neighboring regions, dispersing the La Tama in several directions; some migrated to the lower Chattahoochee River towns of Coweta and Cussita, the Apalachee mission provinces, the Guale province. The La Tama spoke a dialect of Hitchiti, a Muskogean language, as did the Coweta and Apalachicola; the Guale language may not have been related. In 1675 the Spanish first used the term Yamasee to refer to the newcomer refugees.
They thought them similar to the La Tama. In Guale Province, some of the Yamasee joined the existing missions, while others settled on the periphery. Between 1675 and 1684, the Westo tribe, backed by the British colonial Province of Carolina and Colony and Dominion of Virginia, destroyed the Spanish mission system in Guale. Attacks by English-supported pirates contributed to the breakup of the missions. In 1680 they sacked Mission Santa Catalina de Guale. By 1684 the Spanish and Indians had abandoned all six missions; the La Tama Yamasee and other refugees scattered in the southeast. Some most rejected Spanish authority, they resented their failure to provide firearms. The Indians of Guale Province moved to the Apalachee or Apalachicola regions. Around or before 1684, one small group of Yamasee-Guale refugees, led by Chief Altamaha, moved north to the mouth of the Savannah River; that year, a Scottish colony called Stuarts Town was founded in South Carolina on Port Royal Sound near the Savannah River.
Stuarts Town survived only about two years, but during that time the Scots residents formed a strong bond with the Yamasee-Guale. In late 1684, armed with Scots firearms, these Indians raided Timucua Province, devastating the
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie