India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Diethyl ether, or ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula 2O, sometimes abbreviated as Et2O. It is a colorless volatile flammable liquid, it is used as a solvent in laboratories and as a starting fluid for some engines. It was used as a general anesthetic, until non-flammable drugs were developed, such as halothane, it has been used as a recreational drug to cause intoxication. Most diethyl ether is produced as a byproduct of the vapor-phase hydration of ethylene to make ethanol; this process uses solid-supported phosphoric acid catalysts and can be adjusted to make more ether if the need arises. Vapor-phase dehydration of ethanol over some alumina catalysts can give diethyl ether yields of up to 95%. Diethyl ether can be prepared both in laboratories and on an industrial scale by the acid ether synthesis. Ethanol is mixed with a strong acid sulfuric acid, H2SO4; the acid dissociates in the aqueous environment producing hydronium ions, H3O+. A hydrogen ion protonates the electronegative oxygen atom of the ethanol, giving the ethanol molecule a positive charge: CH3CH2OH + H3O+ → CH3CH2OH2+ + H2OA nucleophilic oxygen atom of unprotonated ethanol displaces a water molecule from the protonated ethanol molecule, producing water, a hydrogen ion and diethyl ether.
CH3CH2OH2+ + CH3CH2OH → H2O + H+ + CH3CH2OCH2CH3This reaction must be carried out at temperatures lower than 150 °C in order to ensure that an elimination product is not a product of the reaction. At higher temperatures, ethanol will dehydrate to form ethylene; the reaction to make diethyl ether is reversible, so an equilibrium between reactants and products is achieved. Getting a good yield of ether requires that ether be distilled out of the reaction mixture before it reverts to ethanol, taking advantage of Le Chatelier's principle. Another reaction that can be used for the preparation of ethers is the Williamson ether synthesis, in which an alkoxide performs a nucleophilic substitution upon an alkyl halide, it is important as a solvent in the production of cellulose plastics such as cellulose acetate. Diethyl ether has a high cetane number of 85–96 and is used as a starting fluid, in combination with petroleum distillates for gasoline and Diesel engines because of its high volatility and low flash point.
Ether starting fluid is sold and used in countries with cold climates, as it can help with cold starting an engine at sub-zero temperatures. For the same reason it is used as a component of the fuel mixture for carbureted compression ignition model engines. In this way diethyl ether is similar to one of its precursors, ethanol. Diethyl ether is a common laboratory aprotic solvent, it has limited solubility in water and dissolves 1.5 g/100 g water at 25 °C. This, coupled with its high volatility, makes it ideal for use as the non-polar solvent in liquid-liquid extraction; when used with an aqueous solution, the diethyl ether layer is on top as it has a lower density than the water. It is a common solvent for the Grignard reaction in addition to other reactions involving organometallic reagents. Due to its application in the manufacturing of illicit substances, it is listed in the Table II precursor under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances as well as substances such as acetone and sulfuric acid.
William T. G. Morton participated in a public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846 at the Ether Dome in Boston, Massachusetts. However, Crawford Williamson Long, is now known to have demonstrated its use as a general anesthetic in surgery to officials in Georgia, as early as March 30, 1842, Long publicly demonstrated ether's use as a surgical anesthetic on six occasions before the Boston demonstration. British doctors were aware of the anesthetic properties of ether as early as 1840 where it was prescribed in conjunction with opium. Diethyl ether supplanted the use of chloroform as a general anesthetic due to ether's more favorable therapeutic index, that is, a greater difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose. Diethyl ether increases tracheobronchial secretions. Diethyl ether could be mixed with other anesthetic agents such as chloroform to make C. E. mixture, or chloroform and alcohol to make A. C. E. Mixture. In the 21st century, ether is used; the use of flammable ether was displaced by nonflammable fluorinated hydrocarbon anesthetics.
Halothane was the first such anesthetic developed and other used inhaled anesthetics, such as isoflurane and sevoflurane, are halogenated ethers. Diethyl ether was found to have undesirable side effects, such as post-anesthetic nausea and vomiting. Modern anesthetic agents reduce these side effects. Prior to 2005 it was on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines for use as an anesthetic. Ether was once used in pharmaceutical formulations. A mixture of alcohol and ether, one part of diethyl ether and three parts of ethanol, was known as "Spirit of ether", Hoffman's Anodyne or Hoffman's Drops. In the United States this concoction was removed from the Pharmacopeia at some point prior to June 1917, as a study published by William Procter, Jr. in the American Journal of Pharmacy as early as 1852 showed that there were differences in formulation to be found between commercial manufacturers, between international pharmacopoeia, from Hoffman's original recipe. The anesthetic and intoxicating effects of ether have made it a recreational drug.
Diethyl ether in anesthetic dosage is an inhalant which has a long history
Selinum is a Eurasiatic genus of flowering plants in the parsley family Apiaceae. The Plant List accepts the following eight species and one variety: Selinum capitellatum Benth. and Hook. f. Selinum capitellatum var. scabrum Munz Selinum carvifolia L. - Cambridge Milk-parsley or Little-leaf Angelica Selinum cryptotaenium Boissieu Selinum longicalycinum M. L. Sheh Selinum papyraceum C. B. Clarke Selinum pyrenaeum Gouan Selinum vaginatum C. B. Clarke - Bhoe, Mutoshal etc. Selinum wallichianum Raizada & H. O. Saxena syn. Selinum tenuifolium Wall. Ex C. B. Clarke - Bhootkeshi, Dhoopkesh etc. Selinum wallichianum is a handsome and long-lived, herbaceous perennial, suitable for woodland gardens and mixed borders. Several Himalayan species belonging to the genus are both taken internally and burnt as dhoop or incense as sedatives to soothe mental turmoil of various kinds in Tantric rituals. Given that aphrodisiac properties are reported they may be used in practices related to sex magic / sacred sexuality, they are aromatic and mildly psychoactive without being unduly toxic - some species are recorded as having been used both as human food and cattle fodder.
Biolib Plants Database
Adoxa moschatellina is an herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Adoxaceae. It grows throughout Europe and North America, in hedgerows, cool forests, at low altitudes in the far north, to high altitudes in mountains in the south of its range; the plant and its flowers have a musk-like scent. If the plant is bruised this scent disappears. In Europe, it flowers in May; the names "five-faced bishop" and "townhall clock" allude to the structure of its inflorescence. This consists of five flowers: one four-petalled flower facing upwards, four five-petalled flowers facing horizontally, as seen in the pictures. Moschatel, from "A Modern Herbal"
Albert Hofmann was a Swiss scientist known best for being the first person to synthesize and learn of the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide. Hofmann was the first person to isolate and name the principal psychedelic mushroom compounds psilocybin and psilocin, he authored numerous books, including LSD: Mein Sorgenkind. In 2007, he shared first place with Tim Berners-Lee in a list of the 100 greatest living geniuses, published by The Daily Telegraph newspaper. Hofmann was born in Baden, the first of four children to factory toolmaker Adolf Hofmann and his wife Elisabeth. Owing to his father's low income, Albert's godfather paid for his education; when his father became ill, Hofmann obtained a position as a commercial apprentice in concurrence with his studies. At the age of twenty, Hofmann began his chemistry degree at the University of Zürich, finishing three years in 1929, his main interest was the chemistry of plants and animals, he conducted important research on the chemical structure of the common animal substance chitin, for which he received his doctorate with distinction in 1929.
Regarding his decision to pursue a career as a chemist, Hofmann provided insight during a speech he delivered to the 1996 Worlds of Consciousness Conference in Heidelberg, Germany: One asks oneself what roles planning and chance play in the realization of the most important events in our lives. This decision was not easy for me. I had taken a Latin matricular exam, therefore a career in the humanities stood out most prominently in the foreground. Moreover, an artistic career was tempting. In the end, however, it was a problem of theoretical knowledge which induced me to study chemistry, a great surprise to all who knew me. Mystical experiences in childhood, in which Nature was altered in magical ways, had provoked questions concerning the essence of the external, material world, chemistry was the scientific field which might afford insights into this. Hofmann became an employee of the pharmaceutical/chemical department of Sandoz Laboratories, located in Basel as a coworker with professor Arthur Stoll and director of the pharmaceutical department.
He began studying the medicinal plant Drimia maritima and the fungus ergot, as part of a program to purify and synthesize active constituents for use as pharmaceuticals. His main contribution was to elucidate the chemical structure of the common nucleus of the Scilla glycosides. While researching lysergic acid derivatives, Hofmann first synthesized LSD on 16 November 1938; the main intention of the synthesis was to obtain a respiratory and circulatory stimulant with no effects on the uterus in analogy to nikethamide by introducing this functional group to lysergic acid. It was set aside until 16 April 1943, when Hofmann decided to reexamine it. While re-synthesizing LSD, he accidentally touched his hand to his mouth, nose or eye, ingesting a small amount, discovered its powerful effects, he described what he felt as being:... affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant intoxicatedlike condition, characterized by an stimulated imagination.
In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed, I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors. After some two hours this condition faded away. Three days on 19 April 1943, Hofmann intentionally ingested 250 micrograms of LSD; this day is now known as "Bicycle Day", because he began to feel the effects of the drug as he rode home on a bike. This was the first intentional LSD trip. Hofmann continued to take small doses of LSD throughout much of his life, always hoped to find a use for it. In his memoir, he emphasized it as a "sacred drug": "I see the true importance of LSD in the possibility of providing material aid to meditation aimed at the mystical experience of a deeper, comprehensive reality." Hofmann discovered 4-Acetoxy-DET a hallucinogenic tryptamine. He first synthesized 4-AcO-DET in 1958 in the Sandoz lab. Hofmann became director of Sandoz' natural products department and continued studying hallucinogenic substances found in Mexican mushrooms and other plants used by aboriginal people there.
This led to the synthesis of psilocybin, the active agent of many "magic mushrooms." Hofmann became interested in the seeds of the Mexican morning glory species Turbina corymbosa, which are called ololiuhqui by natives. He was surprised to find the active compound of ololiuhqui, ergine to be related to LSD. In 1962, Hofmann and his wife Anita Hofmann traveled to southern Mexico to search for the plant "Ska Maria Pastora" known as Salvia divinorum, he was able to obtain samples of this plant, but never succeeded in identifying its active compound, which has since been identified as the diterpenoid salvinorin A. In 1963, Hofmann attended the annual convention of the World Academy of Arts and Sciences in Stockholm. Hofmann, interviewed shortly before his hundredth birthday, called LSD "medicine for the soul" and was frustrated by the worldwide prohibition of it. "It was used successfully for ten years in psychoanalysis," he said, adding that the drug was misused b
Ferula is a genus of about 170 species of flowering plants in the carrot family, native to the Mediterranean region east to central Asia growing in arid climates. They are herbaceous perennial plants growing to 1–4 m tall, with stout, somewhat succulent stems; the leaves are tripinnate or more finely divided, with a stout basal sheath clasping the stem. The flowers are yellow white, produced in large umbels. Many plants of this genus F. communis are referred to as "giant fennel," although they are not fennel in the strict sense. The Roman spice laser or laserpicium came from a species of Ferula, either an extinct one or Ferula tingitana, though other identities have been suggested; the gummy resin of many species of Ferula is used for medical or culinary purposes: Ferula assafoetida is used to make the spice asafoetida, or hing Ferula gummosa makes galbanum Ferula hermonis makes zallouh, an aphrodisiac Ferula persica makes sagapenum Ferula moschata makes sumbul Ferula tingitana makes "African ammoniacum" Silphium was used to make laserpiciumThe Romans called the hollow light rod made from this plant a ferula.
Such rods were used for walking sticks, for stirring boiling liquids, for corporal punishment. The ferula shows up in mythological contexts; the main shaft of a thyrsus was traditionally made from this plant, Prometheus smuggled fire to humanity by hiding it in a ferula as well. The leaf aqueous-ethanol extract of Feruia foetida has shown antioxidant and antihemolytic activities