Muslim holidays

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There are two official holidays in Islam: Eid Al-Fitr and Eid Al-Adha. Eid Al-Fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan (a month of fasting during daylight hours), and Muslims usually give zakat (charity) on the occasion. Eid Al-Adha is celebrated on the tenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah and lasts for four days, during which Muslims usually sacrifice a sheep and distribute its meat in 3 parts: among family, friends, and the poor.

Both of the holidays occur on dates in the Arabic (Islamic) calendar, which is lunar, and thus their dates in the Gregorian calendar, which is solar, change each year, the Gregorian calendar is based on the orbital period of the Earth's revolution around the Sun, approximately 36514 days, while the Islamic calendar is based on the synodic period of the Moon's revolution around the Earth, approximately 2912 days. The Islamic calendar alternates months of 29 and 30 days (which begin with the new moon). Twelve of these months constitute an Islamic year, which is 11 days shorter than the Gregorian year.

Islamic Eid holidays[edit]

Religious practices[edit]

Fasting[edit]

Muslims fast from dawn to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar when the Quran was revealed to Muhammad.[1] Fasting is a purifying experience so that Muslims can gain compassion and deepen their faith in Allah.[2]

Although the idea of fasting is done so people feel what the poor and the hungry go through, the needy must also fast for Ramadan. Muslims fast by denying themselves food, water and all related sexual activity with their spouses, but also many things religiously forbidden but socially forgotten can void the person's fast, such as Ghibah (backbiting others) and deceiving others. However, people with chronic diseases or unhealthy conditions such as diabetes for example, and those who have not reached the age of puberty are exempt from fasting. Travelers, and women who are menstruating or nursing a baby, are exempt from fasting as well during their special situation but are required to fast later.[citation needed]

Pilgrimage[edit]

Hajj[edit]

Umrah[edit]

Dates of holidays and other days of note[edit]

Hijri date 1438 AH 1439 AH 1440 AH 1441 AH 1442 AH
Islamic New Year 1 Muḥarram 2 Oct. 2016 21 Sep. 2017 11 Sep. 2018 31 Aug. 2019 20 Aug. 2020
Ashura 10 Muḥarram 11 Oct. 2016 30 Sep. 2017 20 Sep. 2018 9 Sep. 2019 29 Aug. 2020
Arba'een[a] 20 or 21 Ṣafar[b] 20 Nov. 2016 9 Nov. 2017 30 Oct. 2018 19 Oct. 2019 8 Oct. 2020
Mawlid an-Nabī[c] 12 Rabī‘ al-Awwal (Sunni) 11 Dec. 2016 30 Nov. 2017 20 Nov. 2018 9 Nov. 2019 29 Oct. 2020
17 Rabī‘ al-Awwal (Shia) 16 Dec. 2016 5 Dec. 2017 25 Nov. 2018 14 Nov. 2019 3 Nov. 2020
Birthday of ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib[a] 13 Rajab 10 Apr. 2017 30 Mar. 2018 20 Mar. 2019 8 Mar. 2020 25 Feb. 2021
Laylat al-Mi'raj 27 Rajab[d] 24 Apr. 2017 13 Apr. 2018 3 Apr. 2019 22 Mar. 2020 11 Mar. 2021
Laylat al-Bara'at 15 Sha‘bān 11 May 2017 1 May 2018 20 Apr. 2019 8 Apr. 2020 28 Mar. 2021
Birthday of Muhammad al-Mahdī[e] 15 Sha‘bān 11 May 2017 1 May 2018 20 Apr. 2019 8 Apr. 2020 28 Mar. 2021
First day of Ramaḍān 1 Ramaḍān 27 May 2017 16 May 2018 6 May 2019 24 Apr. 2020 13 Apr. 2021
Laylat al-Qadr 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, or 29 Ramaḍān[f] between
14 & 24 June 2017
between
3 & 13 June 2018
between
24 May & 3 June 2019
between
12 & 22 May 2020
between
1 & 11 May 2021
Chaand Raat[g] 29 or 30 Ramaḍān[h] 24 June 2017 14 June 2018 3 June 2019 23 May 2020 12 May 2021
Eid al-Fitr 1 Shawwāl 25 June 2017 15 June 2018 4 June 2019 24 May 2020 13 May 2021
Hajj 8–13 Dhū al-Ḥijja 30 Aug. – 4 Sep. 2017 19–24 Aug. 2018 9–14 Aug. 2019 29 July – 3 Aug. 2020 18–23 July 2021
Day of Arafah 9 Dhū al-Ḥijja 31 Aug. 2017 20 Aug. 2018 10 Aug. 2019 30 July 2020 19 July 2021
Eid al-Adha 10 Dhū al-Ḥijja 1 Sep. 2017 21 Aug. 2018 11 Aug. 2019 31 July 2020 20 July 2021
Eid al-Ghadeer[a] 18 Dhū al-Ḥijja 9 Sep. 2017 29 Aug. 2018 19 Aug. 2019 8 Aug. 2020 28 July 2021
Eid al-Mubahalah[a] 24 Dhū al-Ḥijja 15 Sep. 2017 4 Sep. 2018 25 Aug. 2019 14 Aug. 2020 3 Aug. 2021

[3][4]

  1. ^ a b c d Primarily observed by Shias.
  2. ^ Observed 40 days after Ashura.
  3. ^ Not observed by some Sunnis.
  4. ^ There is some disagreement about this date; see Isra and Mi'raj.
  5. ^ Primarily observed by Twelver Shias.
  6. ^ Most often observed on 23 Ramaḍān by Shias and 27 Ramaḍān by Sunnis; see Laylat al-Qadr.
  7. ^ Primarily observed in South Asia.
  8. ^ Observed on the last evening of Ramaḍān; see Chaand Raat.

Some Gregorian dates may vary slightly from those given, and may also vary by country. See Islamic calendar.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reza, Aslan, (2011). No god but God : the origins and evolution of Islam (1st ed.). New York: Delacorte Press. pp. 118–119. ISBN 9780385739757. OCLC 614990718. 
  2. ^ Molly., Aloian, (2009). Ramadan. New York: Crabtree. ISBN 0778742857. OCLC 227911610. 
  3. ^ "Special Islamic Days". IslamicFinder. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  4. ^ "Islamic Calendar". IslamicFinder. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Leaman, Oliver, "Festivals of Love", in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I, pp. 197–199.

External links[edit]