Theodore Tilton was an American newspaper editor and abolitionist. He was born in New York City to Eusebia Tilton. On his twentieth birthday, October 2, 1855, he married Elizabeth Richards, known as Libby Tilton. Tilton's newspaper work was supportive of abolitionism and the Northern cause in the American Civil War. Theodore Tilton was present at The Southern Loyalist Convention held in Philadelphia in September 1866. Frederick Douglass writes of him in his autobiography: “There was one man present, brave enough to meet the duty of the hour. Theodore Tilton, he came to me by the hand in a most brotherly way, proposed to walk with me in the procession.” From 1860 to 1871, Tilton was the assistant of Henry Ward Beecher. During this period, he was the 1869 commencement speaker for the Irving Literary Society. Following the acquittal of Beecher in the trial, Tilton moved to Paris, where he lived for the rest of his life. In the 1880s, Tilton played chess with fellow American exile Judah Benjamin, until the latter died in 1884.
Robert Plant put Tilton's 1858 poem "The King's Ring: Even This Shall Pass Away" to music, a recording of, on Band of Joy. Victoria C. Woodhull. A Biographical Sketch. 1871. Tempest-Tossed A Romance. 1874. The Complete Poetical Works of Theodore Tilton in One Volume With a Preface on Ballad-Making and an Appendix on Old Norse Myths & Fables. 1897. Fox, Richard Wightman. Trials of Intimacy Love and Loss in the Beecher-Tilton Scandal. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Applegate, Debby; the Most Famous Man in America: The Biography of Henry Ward Beecher. New York: Doubleday, 2006. Tilton's literary work Accessed January 25, 2008 Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, Chapter “Vast Changes”. Reference to Theodore TiltonSpecific Mr. Lincoln and New York: Theodore Tilton
In Norse mythology, Elli is a personification of old age who, in the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, defeats Thor in a wrestling match. In Gylfaginning and his companions Loki and Þjálfi are in the hall of the giant Útgarða-Loki where they meet difficult challenges testing their strength and skill. Thor wants to get even. Said Thor:'Little as ye call me, let any one come up now and wrestle with me. Útgarda-Loki answered, looking about him on the benches, spake:'I see no such man here within, who would not hold it a disgrace to wrestle with thee. She has thrown such men as have seemed to me no less strong than Thor.' Straightway there came into the hall an old woman, stricken in years. Útgarda-Loki said that she should grapple with Ása-Thor. There is no need to make a long matter of it: that struggle went in such wise that the harder Thor strove in gripping, the faster she stood, yet it was not long before Thor fell on one foot. Útgarda-Loki went up and bade them cease the wrestling, saying that Thor should not need to challenge more men of his body-guard to wrestling.
When Thor and his company are safely out of Útgarða-Loki's hall the giant explains that Thor's opponent was much more formidable than she appeared to be and that Thor's prowess was, in fact, astonishing. It was a great marvel concerning the wrestling-match, when thou didst withstand so long; the story of Thor's visit to Útgarða-Loki is only related in the Prose Edda and, Snorri does not quote any old poems to support it. His sources for the story are unknown and it has been suggested that he composed it himself. Elli is not mentioned in any other extant source but the notion that not the gods are immune to the effects of aging is supported by the fact that they must consume the apples of Iðunn to stay young
In Norse religion, Asgard is one of the Nine Worlds and home to the Æsir tribe of gods. It is surrounded by an incomplete wall attributed to a Hrimthurs riding the stallion Svaðilfari, according to Gylfaginning. Odin and his wife, are the rulers of Asgard. Asgard is home to many named locations; the primary sources regarding Asgard come from the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson, the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from a basis of much older Skaldic poetry. Völuspá, the first poem of the work, mentions many of the features and characters of Asgard portrayed by Snorri, such as Yggdrasil and Iðavöllr. Asgard is composed of 12 realms including Valhalla, Breidablik that are ruled by Odin and Baldr respectively; the Prose Edda presents two views regarding Asgard. In the Prologue Snorri offers a euhemerized and Christian-influenced interpretation of the myths and tales of his forefathers. Asgard, he conjectures, is the home of the Æsir in As-ia, making a folk etymological connection between the three "As-".
Snorri's interpretation of the 13th century foreshadows 20th-century views of Indo-European migration from the east. Snorri further writes that Asgard is a land more fertile than any other, blessed with a great abundance of gold and jewels. Correspondingly, the Æsir excelled beyond all other people in strength and talent. Snorri proposes the location of Asgard as the center of the earth. About it were 12 chiefs. One of them, Múnón, married Priam's daughter, Tróán, had by her a son, Trór, pronounced Thor in Old Norse; the latter was raised in Thrace. At age 12 he was whiter than ivory, had hair lighter than gold, could lift 10 bear skins at once, he explored wide. His father, led a migration to the northern lands, where they took wives and had many children, populating the entire north with Aesir. One of the sons of Odin was founder of the Ynglingar, an early royal family of Sweden; these accounts were written 200 years after the Christianization of Iceland. In Gylfaginning, Snorri presents the mythological version, taken no doubt from his sources.
Icelanders were still being converted at that time. He could not present the myths as part of any current belief. Instead he resorts to a debunking device: Gylfi, king of Sweden before the Æsir, travels to Asgard and finds there a large hall in Section 2. Within are three officials, whom Gylfi in the guise of Gangleri is allowed to question about the Asgard and the Æsir. A revelation of the ancient myths follows, but at the end the palace and the people disappear in a clap of thunder and Gylfi finds himself alone on the plain, having been deluded. In Gylfi's delusion, ancient Asgard was ruled by the senior god, the all-father, who had twelve names, he was the creator of heaven and earth. During a complex creation myth in which the cosmic cow Audhumbla licked Búri free from the ice, the sons of Buri's son, who were Odin, Vili and Vé, constructed the universe and put Midgard in it as a residence for the first human couple and Embla, whom they created from driftwood trees in Section 9; the sons of Bor constructed Asgard as a home for the Æsir, who were divinities.
Odin is identified as the all-father. Asgard is conceived as being on the earth. A rainbow bridge, Bifröst, connects it to heaven. In Asgard is a temple for the 12 gods and another for the 12 goddesses, Vingólf; the plain of Idavoll is the centre of Asgard. The gods hold court there every day at the Well of Urd, beneath an ash tree, debating the fates of men and gods; the more immediate destinies of men are assigned by the Norns. It states Thor is a god as well. Long descriptions of the gods follow. Among the more memorable details are the Valkyries, the battle maidens whom Odin sends to allot death or victory to soldiers. Section 37 names 13 states that the source as the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál. Odin's residence is Valhalla, to which he takes those slain in the Einherjar. Snorri quips: "There is a huge crowd there, there will be many more still....". They amuse themselves every day by fighting each other and going to drink in the big hall. Toward the end of the chapter Snorri becomes prophetic, describing Ragnarök, the twilight of the gods.
It will begin with no summers in between. Wars will follow earthquakes and tidal waves; the sky out will ride the sons of Muspell intent on universal destruction. They will try to enter heaven but Bifröst will break. Heimdall will blow his mighty horn Gjöll and the Æsir and Einherjar will ride out to battle. Most of the Æsir will Asgard be destroyed. Snorri quotes his own source saying: "The sun will go black, earth sink in the sea, heaven be stripped of its bright stars. Afterwards, the earth rises again from the sea, is fairer than before, where Asgard used to be a remnant of the Æsir gather, some coming up from Hel, talk and play chess all day with the golden chessmen of the ancient Æsir, which they find in the grass; the 10th century Skald Þorbjörn dísarskáld is quoted in Skáldskaparmál as stating: Thor has defended Asgard and Ygg's people with strength. B
In Norse mythology, Aurgelmir, Brimir, or Bláinn is the ancestor of all jötnar. Ymir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional material, in the Prose Edda, written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, in the poetry of skalds. Taken together, several stanzas from four poems collected in the Poetic Edda refer to Ymir as a primeval being, born from venom that dripped from the icy rivers Élivágar and lived in the grassless void of Ginnungagap. Ymir birthed a male and female from the pits of his arms, his legs together begat a six-headed being; the gods Odin, Vili and Vé fashioned the Earth from his flesh, from his blood the ocean, from his bones the mountains, from his hair the trees, from his brains the clouds, from his skull the heavens, from his eyebrows the middle realm in which mankind lives, Midgard. In addition, one stanza relates that the dwarfs were given life by the gods from Ymir's flesh and blood. In the Prose Edda, a narrative is provided that draws from, adds to, differs from the accounts in the Poetic Edda.
According to the Prose Edda, after Ymir was formed from the elemental drops, so too was Auðumbla, a primeval cow, whose milk Ymir fed from. The Prose Edda states that three gods killed Ymir. Scholars have debated as to what extent Snorri's account of Ymir is an attempt to synthesize a coherent narrative for the purpose of the Prose Edda and to what extent Snorri drew from traditional material outside of the corpus that he cites. By way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, scholars have linked Ymir to Tuisto, the Proto-Germanic being attested by Tacitus in his 1st century AD work Germania and have identified Ymir as an echo of a primordial being reconstructed in Proto-Indo-European mythology. Ymir is mentioned in four poems in the Poetic Edda. In Völuspá, in which an undead völva imparts knowledge in the god Odin, references are twice made to Ymir. In the first instance, the third stanza of the poem, Ymir is mentioned by name: In the above translations the name of the location Ginnungagap is translated as "chaotic chasm" and "yawning gap".
In the poem, a few other references are made to Ymir as Brimir and Bláinn: In this stanza Thorpe has treated Brimir and Blain as common nouns. Brimir and Blain are held to be proper names that refer to Ymir, as in Bellows's translation. In the poem Vafþrúðnismál, the god Odin engages the wise jötunn Vafþrúðnir in a game of wits. Odin asks Vafþrúðnir to tell him, if Vafþrúðnir's knowledge is sufficient, the answer to a variety of questions. In the first of which that refers to Ymir, Odin asks from where first came the sky; the jötunn responds with a creation account involving Ymir: As the verbal battle continues, a few more exchanges directly refer to or may allude to Ymir. Odin asks what ancient jötun is the eldest of "Ymir's kin", Vafþrúðnir responds that long, long ago it was Bergelmir, Þrúðgelmir's son and Aurgelmir's grandson. In the next stanza Odin asks where Aurgelmir came from so long ago, to which Vafþrúðnir responds that venom dropped from Élivágar, that these drops grew until they became a jötunn, from this being descends the jötnar.
Odin asks how this being begat children, as he did not know the company of a female jötunn, to which Vafþrúðnir responds that from beneath the ancient jötunn's armpits together a girl and a boy grew, his feet together produced a six-headed jötunn. In the poem Grímnismál, the god Odin imparts in the young Agnarr cosmological knowledge. In one stanza, Odin mentions Ymir as he recalls the fashioning of the world from his body: In a stanza of Völuspá hin skamma, Ymir receives one more mention. According to the stanza, völvas are descended from Viðòlfr, all seers from Vilmeiðr, all charm-workers from Svarthöfði, all jötnar descend from Ymir. Ymir is mentioned in two books of the Prose Edda. Ymir is first mentioned in chapter 5 of the prior, in which High, Just-As-High, Third tell Gangleri about how all things came to be; the trio explain that the first world to exist was Muspell, a glowing, fiery southern region consisting of flames, uninhabitable by non-natives. After "many ages" Niflheimr was made, within it lies a spring, from which flows eleven rivers.
Gangleri asks the three. High continues that these icy rivers, which are called Élivágar, ran so far from their spring source that the poisonous matter that flows with them became hard "like the clinker that comes from a furnace"—it turned to ice, and so, when this ice came to a halt and stopped flowing, the vapor that rose up from the poison went in the same direction and froze to rime. This rime increased, layer upon layer, across Ginnungagap. Just-As-High adds that the northern part of Ginnungagap was heavy with ice and rime, vapor and blowing came inward from this, yet the southern part of Ginunngagap was clear on account of the sparks and molten flecks flying from Muspell. Third assesses that "just as from Niflheim there was coldness and all things grim, so what was facing close to Muspell was hot and bright, but Ginunngagap was as mild as a windless sky". Third adds that when the rime and hot air met, it thawed and dripped, the liquid intensely dropped; this liquid fell into the shape of a man, so he was named Ymir and known among the jötnar as Aurgelmir, all
In Norse mythology, Rán is a goddess and a personification of the sea. Rán and her husband Ægir, a jötunn who personifies the sea, have nine daughters, who personify waves; the goddess is associated with a net, which she uses to capture sea-goers. According to the prose introduction to a poem in the Poetic Edda and in Völsunga saga, Rán once loaned her net to the god Loki. Rán is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Old Norse common noun rán means'plundering' or'theft, robbery'. In turn, scholars view the theonym Rán as meaning, for example,'theft, robbery'. On the etymology of the theonym, scholar Rudolf Simek says, "although the meaning of the name has not been clarified, Rán was understood as being'robber'... and has nothing to do with ráða'rule'. Because Rán is a personification of the sea, skalds employ her name in a variety of kennings to refer to the sea. Examples include Ránar-land, -salr, -vegr, rán-beðr and meaning'the bed of the sea'.
Rán receives mention in poem Sonatorrek composed by Icelandic skald Egill Skallagrímsson in the 10th century. In the poem, Egill laments the death of his son Böðvar. In doing so, he mentions Rán: Rán receives three mentions in the Prose Edda, twice in poetry and once in prose; the first mention occurs in a stanza in Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, when the valkyrie Sigrún assists the ship of the hero Helgi as it encounters ferocious waters: In the notes for her translation, Larrington says that Rán "seeks to catch and drown men in her net" and that "to give someone to the sea-goddess is to drown them."The second instance occurs in a stanza found in Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar. In this stanza, the hero Atli references Rán while flyting with Hrímgerðr, a female jötunn: Finally, in the prose introduction to Reginsmál, Loki visits Rán to borrow her net: sent Loki to get the gold. Translator Henry Adams Bellows notes how this version of the narrative differs from how it appears in other sources, where Loki catches the pike with his own hands.
The Prose Edda sections Skáldskaparmál and Háttatal contain several references to Rán. Section 25 of Skáldskaparmál manners in which poets may refer to the sea, including "husband of Ran" and "land of Ran and of Ægir's daughters", but "father of Ægir's daughters". In the same section, the author cites a fragment of a work by the 11th century Icelandic skald Hofgarða-Refr Gestsson, where Rán is referred to as'Gymir's... völva': Standardized Old Norse Ok sem kvað Refr: Fœrir bjǫrn, þar er bára brestr, undinna festa opt í Ægis kjǫpta *ursǫl Gymis vǫlva. Anthony Faulkes translation And as Ref said: Gymir's spray-cold spæ-wife brings the twisted-rope-bear into Ægir's jaws where the wave breaks; the section's author comments that the stanza" that they are all Ægir and Hler and Gymir. The author follows with a quote from another stanza by the skald that references Rán: But sea-crest-Sleipnir, spray-driven, tears his breast, covered with red paint, out of white Ran's mouth. Chapter 33 of Skáldskaparmál discusses why skalds may refer to gold as "Ægir's fire".
The section traces the kenning to a narrative surrounding Ægir, in which the jötunn employs "glowing gold" in the center of his hall to light it "like fire". The section explains that "Ran is the name of Ægir's wife, the names of their nine daughters are as was written above... The Æsir discovered that Ran had a net in which she caught everyone that went to sea... so this is the story of the origin of gold being called fire or light or brightness of Ægir, Ran or Ægir's daughters, from such kennings the practice has now developed of calling gold fire of the sea and of all terms for it, since Ægir and Ran's names are terms for the sea, hence gold is now called fire of lakes or rivers and of all river-names."In the Nafnaþulur section of Skáldskaparmál, Rán appears in a list of goddesses. Rán receives a single mention in Völsunga saga. Like in the prose introduction to the eddic poem Reginsmál, "they sent Loki to obtain the gold, he went to Ran and got her net."In the legendary saga Friðþjófs saga hins frœkna, Friðþjófr and his men find themselves in a violent storm, the protagonist mourns that he will soon rest in Rán's bed: The protagonist decides that as they are to "go to Rán" they would better do so in style with gold on each man.
He divides the gold and talks of her again: According to Rudolf Simek, "... Rán is the ruler of the realm of the dead at the bottom of the sea to which people who have drowned go." Simek says that "while Ægir personifies the sea as a friendly power, Rán embodies the sinister side of the sea, at least in the eyes of the late Viking Age Icelandic seafarers."
In Norse mythology, Ægir is a sea jötunn associated with the ocean. He is known for being a friend of the gods and hosting elaborate parties for them, he is the namesake for the exoplanet known as Epsilon Eridani b. Ægir's servants are Eldir. The Nafnaþulur attached to the Prose Edda list Ægir as a giant. Richard Cleasby and Guðbrandur Vigfússon saw his name as pre-Norse, derived from an ancient Indo-European root. Both Hversu Noregr byggðist and Snorri Sturluson in Skáldskaparmál state that Ægir is the same as the sea-giant Hlér, who lives on the Hlésey, this is borne out by kennings. Snorri uses his visiting the Æsir as the frame of that section of the Prose Edda. In Lokasenna, Ægir hosts a party for the gods where he provides the ale brewed in an enormous pot or cauldron provided by Thor and Týr; the story of their obtaining the pot from the giant Hymir is told in Hymiskviða. The prose introduction to Lokasenna and Snorri's list of kennings state that Ægir is known as Gymir, Gerðr's father, but this is evidently an erroneous interpretation of kennings in which different giant-names are used interchangeably.
According to Fundinn Noregr, Ægir is a son of the giant Fornjótr, the king of "Jotlandi, Kvænlandi and Finnlandi", brother of Logi and Kári.Ægir's wife is Rán. She is mother of the Nine Daughters of Ægir. Ler Trent Aegir Cleasby, Richard, Guðbrandur Vigfússon. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd ed. with supplement by William A. Craigie. Clarendon Press. Repr. 1975. ISBN 9780198631033 de Vries, Jan. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte Volume 1. 2nd ed. Berlin: de Gruyter. Repr. 1970. Faulkes, Anthony. Snorri Sturluson. Edda. Everyman Classics. Repr. 1998. ISBN 0-460-87616-3. Lindow, John. Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes and Beliefs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515382-0 Simek, Rudolf. Dictionary of Northern Mythology, tr. Angela Hall. Cambridge: Brewer. Repr. 2000. ISBN 0-85991-513-1
In Norse mythology, Þjazi was a giant. He was a son of the giant Ölvaldi, brother of giants Iði and Gangr, the father of Skaði, his most notable misdeed was the kidnapping of the goddess Iðunn, related in both the Prose Edda and the skaldic poem Haustlöng. According to Skáldskaparmál, the gods Odin, Loki and Hœnir set out one day on a journey, traveling through mountains and wilderness until they were in need of food. In a valley they saw a herd of oxen, they took one of the oxen and set it in an earth oven, but after a while they found that it would not cook; as they were trying to determine the reason for this, they heard someone talking in the oak tree above them, saying that he himself was the one responsible for the oven not cooking. They looked up and saw that it was Þjazi in the form of a great eagle, he told them that if they would let him eat from the ox he would make the oven cook. To this they agreed, so he came down from the tree and began devouring a large portion of the meal, he ate so much of it that Loki became angry, grabbed his long staff and attempted to strike him, but the weapon stuck fast to Þjazi's body and he took flight, carrying Loki up with him.
As they flew across the land Loki shouted and begged to be let down as his legs banged against trees and stones, but Þjazi would only do so on the condition that Loki must lure Iðunn out of Asgard with her apples of youth, which he solemnly promised to do. At the agreed time, Loki lured Iðunn out of Asgard into a forest, telling her he had found some apples that she might think worth having, that she should bring her own apples with her to compare them. Þjazi appeared in his eagle shape, grabbed Iðunn and flew away with her to his realm of Þrymheimr, located in Jötunheimr. The gods, deprived of Iðunn's apples, began growing grey; when they learned that Iðunn was last seen going out of Asgard with Loki, they threatened him with torture and death until he agreed to rescue her. Loki borrowed a magical coat from Freyja that would allow him to take the shape of a falcon flew to Jotunheim until he reached the hall of Þjazi. Finding Iðunn alone while Þjazi was out to sea on a boat, Loki transformed her into a nut and carried her back, flying as fast as he could.
When Þjazi returned home and discovered she was gone he flew after Loki. When the gods saw Loki flying toward them with Þjazi right behind they lit a fire which burned Þjazi's feathers, causing him to fall to the ground where he was set upon and killed. Þjazi's daughter Skadi put on her war gear and went to Asgard to seek vengeance, but the gods offered her atonement and compensation until she was placated. She was given the hand of Njord in marriage, as a further reparation Odin took Þjazi's eyes and placed them in the night sky as stars. According to Skáldskaparmál, Þjazi and his brothers Gangr and Idi had a father named Olvaldi. Olvaldi was rich in gold, when he died his three sons divided their inheritance between them by each in turn taking a mouthful. For this reason the expressions "speech of Þjazi, Gangr or Idi" and "Idi's shining talk" are kennings for gold, twice in the same book a kenning is given for Þjazi as "lady wolf", a reference to his abduction of Iðunn. Another is the father of the goddess who goes about on skis.
In Grímnismál, during Odin's visions of the various dwelling places of gods and giants he mentions that of Þjazi in stanza 11: "Thrymheim the sixth is called where Þjazi lived, the terrible giant, but now Skadi, shining bride of the gods, lives in her father's ancient courts" According to Hárbarðsljóð, it was not Odin but Thor who claimed to have made Þjazi's eyes into stars in stanza 19: Thor said: "I killed Þjazi, the powerful minded giant. I threw up the eyes of Olvaldi's son into the bright heavens, they are the greatest sign of those which all men can see afterwards. What were you doing meanwhile, Harbard?" In Lokasenna, it was neither Odin nor Thor but Loki himself who during his verbal sparring with Skadi lays claim to the death of her father in stanza 50: Loki said: "You know, if on a sharp rock, with my ice cold son's guts the gods shall bind me, first and foremost I was at the killing when we attacked Þjazi" According to the interpolated group of stanzas known as the Short Völuspá in Hyndluljóð, Þjazi is further described as "the giant who loved to shoot".
Þjazi, anglicized asThiazi Thjazi ThiassiTjatse Tjasse