Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats. These groups have in common a shell whose outline is elongated and asymmetrical compared with other edible clams, which are more or less rounded or oval; the word "mussel" is used to mean the bivalves of the marine family Mytilidae, most of which live on exposed shores in the intertidal zone, attached by means of their strong byssal threads to a firm substrate. A few species have colonised hydrothermal vents associated with deep ocean ridges. In most marine mussels the shell is longer than it is wide, being asymmetrical; the external colour of the shell is dark blue, blackish, or brown, while the interior is silvery and somewhat nacreous. The common name "mussel" is used for many freshwater bivalves, including the freshwater pearl mussels. Freshwater mussel species inhabit lakes, rivers, creeks and they are classified in a different subclass of bivalves, despite some superficial similarities in appearance.
Freshwater zebra mussels and their relatives in the family Dreissenidae are not related to mentioned groups though they resemble many Mytilus species in shape, live attached to rocks and other hard surfaces in a similar manner, using a byssus. They are classified with the Heterodonta, the taxonomic group which includes most of the bivalves referred to as "clams"; the mussel's external shell is composed of two hinged halves or "valves". The valves are joined together on the outside by a ligament, are closed when necessary by strong internal muscles. Mussel shells carry out a variety of functions, including support for soft tissues, protection from predators and protection against desiccation; the shell has three layers. In the pearly mussels there is an inner iridescent layer of nacre composed of calcium carbonate, continuously secreted by the mantle; the periostracum is composed of a protein called conchin, its function is to protect the prismatic layer from abrasion and dissolution by acids.
Like most bivalves, mussels have a large organ called a foot. In freshwater mussels, the foot is large and hatchet-shaped, it is used to pull the animal through the substrate in which it lies buried. It does this by advancing the foot through the substrate, expanding the end so it serves as an anchor, pulling the rest of the animal with its shell forward, it serves as a fleshy anchor when the animal is stationary. In marine mussels, the foot is smaller, tongue-like in shape, with a groove on the ventral surface, continuous with the byssus pit. In this pit, a viscous secretion is exuded, entering the groove and hardening upon contact with sea water; this forms tough, elastic, byssal threads that secure the mussel to its substrate allowing it to remain sessile in areas of high flow. The byssal thread is sometimes used by mussels as a defensive measure, to tether predatory molluscs, such as dog whelks, that invade mussel beds, immobilising them and thus starving them to death. In cooking, the byssus of the mussel is known as the "beard" and is removed before the mussels are prepared.
Both marine and freshwater mussels are filter feeders. A mussel draws water in through its incurrent siphon; the water is brought into the branchial chamber by the actions of the cilia located on the gills for ciliary-mucus feeding. The wastewater exits through the excurrent siphon; the labial palps funnel the food into the mouth, where digestion begins. Marine mussels are found clumping together on wave-washed rocks, each attached to the rock by its byssus; the clumping habit helps hold the mussels firm against the force of the waves. At low tide mussels in the middle of a clump will undergo less water loss because of water capture by the other mussels. Both marine and freshwater mussels are gonochoristic, with separate male and female individuals. In marine mussels, fertilization occurs outside the body, with a larval stage that drifts for three weeks to six months, before settling on a hard surface as a young mussel. There, it is capable of moving by means of attaching and detaching byssal threads to attain a better life position.
Freshwater mussels reproduce sexually. Sperm is released by the male directly into the water and enters the female via the incurrent siphon. After fertilization, the eggs develop into a larval stage called a glochidium, which temporarily parasitizes fish, attaching themselves to the fish's fins or gills. Prior to their release, the glochidia grow in the gills of the female mussel where they are flushed with oxygen-rich water. In some species, release occurs when a fish attempts to attack the mussel's minnow or other mantle flaps shaped like prey. Glochidia are species-specific, will only live if they find the correct fish host. Once the larval mussels attach to the fish, the fish body reacts to cover them with cells forming a cyst, where the glochidia remain for two to five weeks, they grow, break free from the host, drop to the bottom of the water to begin an independent life. Marine mussels are eaten by humans, seabirds, by numerous
Minamoto no Yoriie was the second shōgun of Japan's Kamakura shogunate, the first son of first shōgun Yoritomo. His buddhist name was Hokke-in-dono Kingo Da'i Zengo. Born to Tokimasa's daughter Hōjō Masako at Hiki Yoshikazu's residence in Kamakura, Yoriie had as wet nurses the wives of powerful men such as Hiki himself and Kajiwara Kagetoki, Hiki's younger sister. Before he was born, his father Yoritomo had Hōjō Tokimasa and his men carry stones to build the Dankazura on Wakamiya Ōji to pray for the child's safe delivery; when Yoriie himself had an heir, the child was born at the Hiki mansion to Hiki's daughter Wakasa no Tsubone, a fact which further consolidated an strong emotional bond. From this relationship Hiki gained considerable influence when Yoriie became shōgun, incurring the hostility of Hōjō Tokimasa, instead close to Yoriie's younger brother Senman, and, in his turn trying to leverage that relationship for political advantage, his childhood name was Manju. Yoriie showed when still young great interest in military arts like fencing, horse-riding.
After his father's death in 1199, the 17-year-old became head of the Minamoto clan and was appointed sei-i taishōgun in 1202. He was, criticized for his abandonment of his father's policies, his mother forbade him from any involvement political activity. On June 30, 1203 his remaining powers were formally taken from him and assumed by a council of 13 elders, headed by his grandfather Hōjō Tokimasa, he ordained as a Buddhist monk. Yoriie, in turn, plotted with the Hiki to subjugate the Hōjō clan. Yoriie was succeeded by his younger brother Sanetomo, the last of the Seiwa Genji line to rule, at least nominally, over Kamakura. Ill, Yoriie proposed to name both his younger brother Sanetomo, his young son Minamoto no Ichiman to succeed him, it seemed natural to them that Hiki would be the regent if unofficially, of young Ichiman. Hiki suggested to Yoriie, who would be assassinated shortly afterwards by a separate faction, that they arrange to have Sanetomo killed. Hōjō Masako, Yoriie's mother and wife of the first shōgun Yoritomo overheard the conversation.
On a pretext, Hōjō Tokimasa assassinated him. A battle between the clans ensued, the Hiki were defeated by a coalition of the Hōjō, Wada and Hatakeyama clans and were exterminated. Yoriie died in Shuzenji, a small town in what was called Izu Province, assassinated by his uncle Hōjō Tokimasa. Yoriie had three sons, Kugyō, Senju-maru and he had one daughter, Minamoto no Yoshiko married to fourth shōgun of Kamakura, Kujō Yoritsune, but all of his son died violent deaths, victims of the power struggle that followed Yoritomo's sudden death. Ichiman was the eldest, his mother Wakasa no Tsubone was Hiki Yoshikazu's daughter, the child was brought up by the Hiki clan. There are contrasting versions of his death, but in any case, he died in the fire that destroyed the Hiki residence, his second son Yoshinari, the only one of the three to reach adulthood, was forced to become a Buddhist monk and in 1219 murdered his uncle Sanetomo on the stone stairs at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū in the shogunal capital of Kamakura, an act for which he was himself slain on the same day.
Third son Senju-maru was 12. After Chikahira's defeat, the child was forced to become a Buddhist monk like his older brother Yoshinari. A year Wada Yoshimori rebelled but, like Chikahira, was defeated and Senju-maru died with the others of the Wada clan. Father: Minamoto no Yoritomo Mother: Hōjō Masako Wife: Wakasa no Tsubone Concubine: Ishina no Tsubone Asuke no Tsubone Children: Minamoto no Ichiman By Wakasa Minamoto no Yoshiko or Take no Gosho married Kujō Yoritsune by Wakasa Eijitsu by Ishina no Tsubone Zengyo by Ishina no Tsubone Kugyō by Asuke no Tsubone The years in which Yoriie was shōgun are all within only one era name or nengō: Kennin. Kamiya, Michinori. Fukaku Aruku: Kamakura Shiseki Sansaku Vol. 1 & 2. Kamakura: Kamakura Shunshūsha. ISBN 4-7740-0340-9. OCLC 169992721. Kusumoto, Katsuji. Kamakura Naruhodo Jiten. Tokyo: Jitsugyō no Nihonsha. ISBN 978-4-408-00779-3. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie du japon.
Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha... Click link for digitized 1906 Nobiliaire du japon Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691. Yasuda, Motohisa. Kamakura, Muromachi Jinmei Jiten. Tokyo: Shin Jinbutsu Ōraisha. ISBN 978-4-404-01757-4. OCLC 24654085. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Ōmachi, by the Kamakura Citizen's Net, accessed on September 30, 2008
Mujahedeen KOMPAK or KOMPAC is a Darul Islam organisation based in Indonesia's Sulawesi province. Formed in 1988 with the stated aim of helping victims of conflict and disaster, it has been linked to providing funding for terrorist organisations such as Jemaah Islamiyah as well as carrying out attacks on local Christian groups; the organisation has been accused of diverting relief funds from mainstream Muslims in Australia and abroad to fund terrorist activities. KOMPAK, an acronym for Komite Aksi Penanggulangan Akibat Krisis or "the Crisis Management/Prevention Committee" is based in Central Sulawesi, a poor region midway between the Christian north and Muslim south; the Sulawesi regency of Poso has experienced sectarian conflict of various levels since at least 1998, when it was claimed a Muslim was attacked by a drunken Christian. Following this random checks on public venues were performed by vigilante religious groups, destroying alcohol when it was found; this escalated to violence in 1999, following another reported attack on a Muslim by a Christian at Lombogia bus terminal.
Several churches in were burned, many Christian residents moved to the predominantly Christian district of North Pamona. In April 2000 "Christian youth leaders" came from outside Poso to assist students in a Catholic dormitory after they reported being threatened by Muslims, it was reported that dozens of armed Christians marched in the street, calling themselves the "Bat Paramilitary Troops." Many KOMPAK recruits have family members killed during the a May/June 2000 series of attacks on Muslims that followed this. In December 2001 following hundreds of deaths, local leaders drew up a peace agreement, the Malino II Accord, leading to a large reduction in such violence. KOMPAK formed as a splinter group of leaders from Jemaah Islamiyah who grew impatient with the perceived bureaucratic nature of that organisation. In contrast to JI’s focus on religious indoctrination, Mujahidin KOMPAK is focused on members being able to fight as as possible, its members train in militant camps in Mindanao and Afghanistan.
It is seen as "leaner and quicker."Central to the creation of KOMPAK was to build the ability of local groups to campaign without external assistance. In this manner KOMPAK serves as a force multiplier, with locals trained and equipping to fight independently, but at the direction of external leadership when required. While KOMPAK functions as the local agent of JI, the leadership reflects differences over longer-term strategies on waging jihad as well as shorter-term impatience. Al-Qaeda’s 1998 fatwa regarding attacks on Western targets was taken up by followers of Riduan Isamuddin, including those involved in the 2002 Bali bombing and 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing; these high-profile events are seen by the majority of Indonesia jihadists as a mistake for the region, undermining the goal of building a fundamentalist state through religious conversion. The major source of funding for South East Asian jihadist groups are donations. While some are from individuals who overtly support a group's extra-legal activities, charitable donations intended for disaster relief or for the building of mosques are often diverted.
For KOMPAK and Majelis Mujahideen Indonesia, these types of donations are the main source of funds, as there is little accountability or audit trail. In 2000, Muslim Aid Australia based in Lakemba, Australia raised $10,000 for earthquake appeal initiated by KOMPAK, had sent half before KOMPAK refused to provide details on how the donation were to be used. In Sydney, the Dee Why mosque donated money to KOMPAK after being Visited by Abu Bakar Bashir in 1990, which Imam Zainal Arifin, the former head of the mosque, states was for the "poor and needy." Part of the money was used KOMPAK in the production of videos that, according to the organisation’s deputy chairman, "document the events that took place." These show Jemaah Islamiah members in activities against local Christians, were used in JI recruitment drives, the KOMPAK logo still in place. In 2003, Kuwaiti Omar al-Faruq was arrested by Indonesia authorities after serving as an intermediary for Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiah. During his interrogation, he stated that money from the Saudi charity Al Haramayn was given to the Jakarta branch and diverted to KOMPAK.
The next year, following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, KOPMAC moved into the Aceh region and called out for donations to support its efforts there. Although smaller in number and with less political clout JI, KOMPAK's members willingness to engage in direct violence has made them a threat to the region's stability. In November 2001, two KOMPAK members of used a nail bomb in an attack on the Petra Church in North Jakarta during an evening service with over 400 worshippers present. Although the church’s windows were destroyed, there were no reported casualties. Two years in August 2003, a local KOMPAK member died in his father’s home while constructing a bomb. In October of that same year, a series of attacks were staged in the Poso and Morowali districts and left thirteen dead Christian villagers; these attacks were the first serious breach of the existing peace accord and signaled a possible return to sectarian violence for the province. In October 2005, KOMPAK made its highest profile single attack to date, in which three Christian schoolgirls were beheaded and another injured.
The attacks were reported internationally drawing criticism from the Papacy in Rome. Large scale police presence was raised in the region in an attempt to stop revenge attacks escalating the violence