International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Horse is the geological technical term used for any block of rock separated from the surrounding rock either by mineral veins or fault planes. In mining the term refers to a block of country rock encased within a mineral lode. In structural geology the term was first used to describe the thrust-bounded imbricates found within a thrust duplex. In literature it has become a general term for any block bounded by faults, whether the overall deformation type is contractional, extensional or strike-slip in nature. "Horse. A miner's term". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
John Angus McPhee is an American writer considered one of the pioneers of creative nonfiction. He is a four-time finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in the category General Nonfiction, he won that award on the fourth occasion in 1999 for Annals of the Former World. In 2008, he received the George Polk Career Award for his "indelible mark on American journalism during his nearly half-century career". Since 1974, McPhee has been the Ferris Professor of Journalism at Princeton University. McPhee has lived in Princeton, New Jersey, for most of his life, he was born in Princeton, the son of the Princeton University athletic department's physician, Dr. Harry McPhee, he was educated at Princeton High School spent a postgraduate year at Deerfield Academy, before graduating from Princeton University in 1953, spending a year at Magdalene College, University of Cambridge. While at Princeton, McPhee went to New York once or twice a week to appear as the juvenile panelist on the radio and television quiz program Twenty Questions.
One of his roommates at Princeton was 1951 Heisman Trophy winner Dick Kazmaier. Twice married, McPhee is the father of four daughters: the novelists Jenny McPhee and Martha McPhee, photographer Laura McPhee, architecture historian Sarah McPhee. McPhee's writing career began at Time magazine, led to a long association with the weekly magazine The New Yorker from 1963 to the present. Many of his twenty-nine books include material written for this latter periodical. Unlike Tom Wolfe and Hunter Thompson, who helped kick-start the "new journalism" of the 1960s, McPhee produced a gentler, more literary style of writing that more incorporated techniques from fiction. McPhee avoided the streams of consciousness styles of Wolfe and Thompson, but used detailed description of characters and appetite for details to make his writing lively and personal when it focuses on obscure or difficult topics, he is regarded by fellow writers for the quality and diversity of his literary output. Reflecting his personal interests, McPhee's subjects are eclectic.
He has written pieces on lifting body development, the psyche and experience of a nuclear engineer, a New Jersey wilderness area, the United States Merchant Marine, farmers' markets, the movement of coal across America, the shifting flow of the Mississippi River, geology, as well as a short book on the subject of oranges. One of his most read books, Coming into the Country, is about the Alaskan wilderness. McPhee has profiled a number of famous people, including conservationist David Brower in Encounters with the Archdruid, the young Bill Bradley, whom McPhee followed during Bradley's four-year basketball career at Princeton University. McPhee is a renowned nonfiction writing instructor at Princeton University, having taught generations of aspiring undergraduate writers. McPhee teaches his writing seminar every year in the spring semester. Many of McPhee's students have achieved their own distinction for writing: David Remnick, Pulitzer Prize-winning author and current editor-in-chief of The New Yorker Richard Stengel, former managing editor of Time magazine Jim Kelly, former managing editor of Time magazine Robert Wright, former senior editor at The New Republic and columnist for Time and the New York Times, author of award-winning books Eric Schlosser, author of Fast Food Nation and other books Richard Preston, author of The Hot Zone and other books about infectious disease epidemics and bioterrorism Peter Hessler, contributor to The New Yorker and author of three books about China Timothy Ferriss and author of New York Times bestsellers The 4-Hour Workweek and The 4-Hour Body Joel Achenbach, writer for the Washington Post and author of seven books Jennifer Weiner, best-selling author of Good In Bed, In Her Shoes, other novels McPhee has received many literary honors, including the Award in Literature from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the 1999 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction, awarded for Annals of the Former World.
In 1978 McPhee received a LittD from Bates College, in 2009 he received an honorary Doctorate of Letters from Yale University, in 2012 he received an honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Amherst College. Pulitzer Prize for Annals of the Former World Award in Literature from the American Academy of Arts and Letters finalist, National Book Award for The Curve of Binding Energy nominated, National Book Award for Encounters with the Archdruid Wallace Stegner Award for "sustained contribution to the cultural identity of the West through literature, history, lore, or an understanding of the West". National Book Critics Circle Award Ivan Sandrof Lifetime Achievement Award McPhee, John. "The Orange Trapper: compulsions are hard to explain". The Sporting Scene; the New Yorker. 89: 30–34. Weltzein, O. Alan and Susan N. Maher. Coming into McPhee Country: John McPhee and the Art of Literary Criticism. ISBN 978-0-87480-746-2. Publisher's official web site Peter Hessler. "John McPhee, The Art of Nonfiction No. 3".
The Paris Review. John McPhee interviewed on WPRB Princeton 103.3 FM's Discourse on YouTube
San Francisco Peninsula
The San Francisco Peninsula is a peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area that separates San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. On its northern tip is the City and County of San Francisco, its southern base is in northern Santa Clara County, including the cities of Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos. Most of the Peninsula is occupied by San Mateo County, between San Francisco and Santa Clara counties, including the cities and towns of Atherton, Brisbane, Colma, Daly City, East Palo Alto, El Granada, Foster City, Half Moon Bay, La Honda, Loma Mar, Los Altos, Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Portola Valley, Redwood City, San Bruno, San Carlos, San Mateo, South San Francisco and Woodside. Whereas the term peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local jargon, "The Peninsula" does not include the city of San Francisco. In 1795, Governor Diego de Borica gave José Darío Argüello a Spanish land grant known as Rancho de las Pulgas; this rancho was the largest grant on the peninsula consisting of 35,260 acres.
As a local geographic term, the area referred to as "The Peninsula" is distinct from that denoted by "The City", refers to the portion south of San Francisco. The appellation may date to the period, prior to 1856, when the City of San Francisco and the County of San Francisco were separate entities, the latter coextensive with contemporary San Mateo County and San Francisco City-County; the City-County owns several disjunct properties along the whole of the Peninsula. The remaining suburban area of the Peninsula is on the east side of the Santa Cruz Mountains, along San Francisco Bay. A substantial portion of Silicon Valley is located on the peninsula. In Silicon Valley are the headquarters of some of the largest tech companies in the world, such as Google, Yahoo and Apple. Over the last decade or so there has been an influx of immigration into the Bay Area from places like India and China to work in the technology industry. There are well over 6,600 tech startups in the Valley and new ones are created every day.
The east side of the peninsula is a densely populated and urban and suburban area that includes portions of Silicon Valley. It forms a commuter area between San Francisco to San Jose to the south. A number of major thoroughfares run north-south: El Camino Real and US 101 on the east side along the bay, Interstate 280 down the center, Skyline Boulevard along the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains, SR 1 on the west along the Pacific, SR 85 which forms the southern end of the Peninsula; the Caltrain commuter rail line runs parallel to the El Camino Real and Highway 101 corridors. The bridges in the Peninsula include the Dumbarton Bridge, the San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge, the San Mateo-Hayward Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge. Along the center line of the Peninsula is the northern half of the Santa Cruz Mountains, formed by the action of plate tectonics along the San Andreas Fault. In the middle of the Peninsula along the fault is the Crystal Springs Reservoir. Just north of the Crystal Springs reservoir is San Andreas Lake, after which the geologic fault was named.
The San Francisco Peninsula contains a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savanna. There are numerous species of wildlife present along the San Francisco Bay estuarine shoreline, San Bruno Mountain, Fitzgerald Marine Reserve and the forests on the Montara Mountain block; the county is home to several endangered species including the San Francisco garter snake, the Mission blue butterfly and the San Bruno elfin butterfly, all of which are endemic to San Mateo County. The endangered California clapper rail is found on the shores of San Francisco Bay, in the cities of Belmont and San Mateo. A number of noteworthy parks and nature preserves are found on the San Francisco Peninsula, including: Edgewood Park, San Mateo County Golden Gate National Recreation Area - several units are located on the Peninsula Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District - several preserves Sanborn Park, Santa Clara County There are a number of well-known structures and complexes on the San Francisco Peninsula: Landforms of the San Francisco Bay Area List of peninsulas Peninsulas of California
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun