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In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore likely to be carcinogens, although not always so. All mutagens have characteristic mutational signatures with some chemicals becoming mutagenic through cellular processes. Not all mutations are caused by mutagens: so-called "spontaneous mutations" occur due to spontaneous hydrolysis, errors in DNA replication and recombination; the first mutagens to be identified were carcinogens, substances that were shown to be linked to cancer. Tumors were described more than 2,000 years before the discovery of chromosomes and DNA. C. the Greek physician Hippocrates named tumors resembling a crab karkinos. In 1567, Swiss physician Paracelsus suggested that an unidentified substance in mined ore caused a wasting disease in miners, in England, in 1761, John Hill made the first direct link of cancer to chemical substances by noting that excessive use of snuff may cause nasal cancer.

In 1775, Sir Percivall Pott wrote a paper on the high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps, suggested chimney soot as the cause of scrotal cancer. In 1915, Yamagawa and Ichikawa showed that repeated application of coal tar to rabbit's ears produced malignant cancer. Subsequently, in the 1930s the carcinogen component in coal tar was identified as a polyaromatic hydrocarbon, benzopyrene. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are present in soot, suggested to be a causative agent of cancer over 150 years earlier; the association of exposure to radiation and cancer had been observed as early as 1902, six years after the discovery of X-ray by Wilhelm Röntgen and radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. Georgii Nadson and German Filippov were the first who created fungi mutants under ionizing radiation in 1925; the mutagenic property of mutagens was first demonstrated in 1927, when Hermann Muller discovered that x-rays can cause genetic mutations in fruit flies, producing phenotypic mutants as well as observable changes to the chromosomes, visible due to presence of enlarged'polytene' chromosomes in fruit fly salivary glands.

His collaborator Edgar Altenburg demonstrated the mutational effect of UV radiation in 1928. Muller went on to use x-rays to create Drosophila mutants, he found that X-rays not only mutate genes in fruit flies, but have effects on the genetic makeup of humans. Similar work by Lewis Stadler showed the mutational effect of X-rays on barley in 1928, ultraviolet radiation on maize in 1936; the effect of sunlight had been noted in the nineteenth century where rural outdoor workers and sailors were found to be more prone to skin cancer. Chemical mutagens were not demonstrated to cause mutation until the 1940s, when Charlotte Auerbach and J. M. Robson found that mustard gas can cause mutations in fruit flies. A large number of chemical mutagens have since been identified after the development of the Ames test in the 1970s by Bruce Ames that screens for mutagens and allows for preliminary identification of carcinogens. Early studies by Ames showed around 90% of known carcinogens can be identified in Ames test as mutagenic, ~80% of the mutagens identified through Ames test may be carcinogens.

Mutagens are not carcinogens, vice versa. Sodium azide for example may be mutagenic. Mutagens are therefore genotoxic, they can affect the transcription and replication of the DNA, which in severe cases can lead to cell death. The mutagen produces mutations in the DNA, deleterious mutation can result in aberrant, impaired or loss of function for a particular gene, accumulation of mutations may lead to cancer. Mutagens may therefore be carcinogens. However, some mutagens exert their mutagenic effect through their metabolites, therefore whether such mutagens become carcinogenic may be dependent on the metabolic processes of an organism, a compound shown to be mutagenic in one organism may not be carcinogenic in another. Different mutagens act on the DNA differently. Powerful mutagens may result in chromosomal instability, causing chromosomal breakages and rearrangement of the chromosomes such as translocation and inversion; such mutagens are called clastogens. Mutagens may modify the DNA sequence.

Although some of these mutations are lethal or cause serious disease, many have minor effects as they do not result in residue changes that have significant effect on the structure and function of the proteins. Many mutations are silent mutations, causing no visible effects at all, either because they occur in non-coding or non-functional sequences, or they do not change the amino-acid sequence due to the redundancy of codons; some mutagens can change the number of chromosomes in the cell. They are known as aneuploidogens. In Ames test, where the varying concentrations of the chemical are used in the test, the dose response curve obtained is nearly always linear, suggesting that there may be no threshold for mutagenesis. Similar results are obtained in studies with radiations, indicating that there may be no safe threshold for mutagens. However, the no-threshold model is disputed with some arguing for a dose rate dependen

Huangpu Road station

Huangpu Road Station serves as an interchange station of Line 1 of Wuhan Metro and Line 8. It entered revenue service along with the completion of Line 1, Phase 1 on July 28, 2004. Only the elevated station for Line 1 was constructed; the station situates at the intersection of Lugouqiao Road. Before Phase 2, Huangpu Road Station was the northernmost terminus on Line 1. A single crossover was installed just south of the station to accommodate for trains entering terminus prior to 2010; the underground platforms for Line 8 has not been built yet. Huangpu Road Station for Line 1 is a two-story elevated station erected at the northern end of Jinghan Avenue; the station has two side platforms accommodating a pair of tracks, with a single crossover at the southern end of the station. The station is equipped with attended customer service concierges, automatic ticket vending machines, accessible ramps. There are two exits in service: Exit A: Northwestern side of Jinghan Avenue, Lugouqiao Road, Xiahuapo Road.

Accessible to Jiefang Park. Exit B: Southeastern side of Jinghan Avenue, Lugouqiao Road. Accessible to Wuhan No.2 High School and Wuhan Tiandi. Bus transfers to Route 30, 60, 212, 402, 520, 526, 548, 583, 588, 606, 707, 721 and 727 are available at Huangpu Road Station

Yung Rapunxel

"Yung Rapunxel" is a song recorded by American singer/rapper Azealia Banks for her debut studio album titled Broke with Expensive Taste. Interscope Records released the song as the album's first single to mainstream radio on April 16, 2013; the track contains an interpolation of the song "No More Drama" by R&B singer Mary J. Blige. On March 11, 2013, the song was made available for online streaming via SoundCloud; the song was performed by Banks during the Glastonbury Festival in June 2013. "Yung Rapunxel" was set to be released on March 26, 2013. However, on March 28, 2013, it was announced that the single would drop on April 16, 2013; the first single from Broke With Expensive Taste was planned to be "Miss Amor/Miss Camaraderie". On January 28, 2013, Banks acknowledged that the first single was going to be "Yung Rapunxel"; the original release date, the February 12, was delayed to March, again, delayed to April 16, 2013. For unknown reasons, it is now unavailable on iTunes UK. On March 9, the artwork for the single was released via Banks' Twitter account.

Michael Depland from MTV Buzzworthy described "Yung Rapunxel" as a 1990s Hi-NRG-influenced hip house song, built on a busy witch hop beat. Meanwhile, The Guardian's Alex Macpherson detailed the track as an industrial number. Spin's Marc Hogan wrote that the song "comes across as a reinvention for her, though it doesn't have quite that track's memorable catchphrases... Banks has left seapunk behind to go where she belonged all along: another galaxy". MTV's Michael Depland believed that on the track, "A bona fide hip-house banger, Azealia rhymes slickly over a busy witch-hop beat", that Banks is "back spitting fire over a manic'90s HI-NRG-influenced track, cut in between muffled hollers". Shooting for the music video began on February 22, 2013, was continued into March; the official music video was released on April 16, 2013. The video was created by visual artist Jam Sutton; the video features a black-and-white setting, including police running through mist, owls with yellow and red eyes flying in suspended motion, Banks riding a mechanical bull, a rotating Yin & Yang symbol, a disembodied hand with an eye embedded in the palm floating in mid air and Banks with mouths for eyes.

"Yung Rapunxel" audio on SoundCloud Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics


BakéGyamon is a Japanese manga and anime series. Kazuhiro Fujita created Mitsuhisa Tamura wrote and illustrated the manga; the series ran in Weekly Shōnen Sunday from 2006 vol. 13 through 2007 vol. 16 and was collected in five volumes. The anime series, directed by Hiroshi Negishi, was animated at Radix Ace Entertainment and aired from April 3, 2006 to March 26, 2007 for 51 episodes. Viz Media published it in English in the United States as BakéGyamon: Backwards Game. Chuang Yi published the manga in English in Singapore as Bakegyamon. In France Sakka published the manga; the anime aired on TV Tokyo. It aired on Cartoon Network in Taiwan and on Hero in the Philippines; the series stars a boy in Gyakunippon. And a man named. Sanshiro's chances of having an adventure are slim to none in his tiny island hometown, until the day a mysterious stranger invites him to play a game... Without warning, Sanshiro is taken to a backwards universe to play BakéGyamon—a game pitting monsters against monsters. Along the way he meets other players who have a particular reason for being there—to obtain the wish, granted to the winner.

But how far can Sanshiro get when the monsters he's been paired with are a bunch of little mud balls? As the series concept was created by Kazuhiro Fujita, contains a number of monsters from his popular manga series Ushio and Tora. A Nintendo DS 3D fighting game was published by Takara Tomy on March 2007 in Japan. Official TV Tokyo website BakéGyamon on IMDb Aeschliman, Lesley. "Manga Review: Bakegyamon Volume Five by Mitsuhisa Tamura". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Monday, January 16, 2012. BakéGyamon at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Charles O'Tudor

Charles O'Tudor is a Nigerian, brand strategist, public speaker and businessman. He is the principal consultant of ADSTRAT Branding Management Consortium. O'Tudor hails from Cross River State, he had his primary education at Command Children School in Lagos State. He holds a bachelor's degree in Sociology from the University of Jos and is an alumnus of the University of Witwatersrand, where he bagged Certificates in Management and Measuring Organizational Strategies, Product Strategy and Brand Management, he is an Associate Member of the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria and an Associate Member, Nigerian Institute of Public Relations. O’Tudor began his career in advertising and branding at Shops Bankole Sagie Advertising, where he had a three-year stint as advert executive, he became Deputy Manager at Explicit Communications. He moved to become Client Services Manager at Solutions. In 2001, he founded ADSTRAT BMC. Adstract has handled accounts of brands spanning the construction, fashion, telecommunications, furniture, education and pharmaceutical industries.

The firm, with two affiliates has crafted phrases and words like, Cerebral Filtration Processes, Processed thought to Finish, O2ygenation, Re-O2ygenation and O2yculturation as the terminologies employed its day-to-day branding activities. O'Tudor was appointed anchor of the Bank PHB-sponsored show, the Intern TV Show, the first business reality TV show in Nigeria. O'Tudor is the brain behind BrandsArise, "a social emancipation initiative anchored on the philosophy that when individuals rise, their communities will rise and the nation will rise"; the programme is targeted at creating an awareness of youths becoming strong and positive brands that extol values such as integrity, honour and patriotism. It is about translating an unknown brand into a successful brand. BrandsArise has been hosted in several locations in. BrandsArise made its debut as a series of articles published in BusinessDay over a period of time. Charles O'Tudor is a public speaker and role model, he has graced public functions.

O'Tudor's critical standpoint on "Rebranding Nigeria Campaign", was vividly captured in his article titled'Rebranding Nigeria: Myths and Realities.’ His commentaries have been cited by authors and made as reference points in socio-economic discourses. In April 2005, Charles O'Tudor was appointed a member of the Lagos State Health Advocacy Implementation Committee, "an initiative inaugurated to create necessary awareness on the availability of various free health care programmes and services put in place by the Lagos State government for public consumption." O'Tudor's ADSTRAT was endorsed by the State's Commissioner of Health, Jide Idris, "to deliver on the promises of the Health Advocacy Implementation Committee." O'Tudor led a team of brand strategists that bid for and won Cross River State's pioneer'Out of Home Media Project', passed into law by the State House of Assembly. In 2007, his ADSTRAT emerged as the "preferred marketing and branding company to market the 2008 edition of Zuma Film Festival.

In 2005, he entered the Junior Chamber International Hall of All Time Fame of Exemplary Leaders, becoming the 4th individual to be so honoured in the history of the Nigerian chapter of the organisation. Brand Consultant of the Year Award, CITY People Magazine, is among numerous honours bestowed on him, he was appointed member of the Obudu Ranch International Mountain Race Marketing Committee and Chairman of its Sub Committee on Brand Strategy and Advertising by the Governor of Cross-River State, Senator Liyel Imoke. He is Board of Judges, The Future Awards. O’Tudor is married with three children: Vanzale and Daniel, he changed his trademark look when he shaved his dreadlocks for which he had been known for decades

Companies Act 1862

The Companies Act 1862 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom regulating UK company law, whose descendant is the Companies Act 2006. S 6'Any seven or more persons associated for any lawful purpose may, by subscribing their names to a memorandum of association, otherwise complying with the requisitions of this Act in respect of registration, form an incorporated company, with or without limited liability.' S 8'Where a company is formed on the principle of having the liability of its members limited to the amount unpaid on their shares, hereinafter referred to as a company limited by shares, the Memorandum of Association shall contain the following things' the third of which was'objects for which the proposed company is to be established.' S 11'The memorandum of association... shall, when registered, bind the company and the members thereof to the same extent as if each member had subscribed his name and affixed his seal thereto, there were in the memorandum contained, on the part of himself, his heirs and administrators, a covenant to observe all the conditions of such memorandum, subject to the provisions of this Act.'

S 12 stating the memorandum could be altered by special resolution, if the memorandum allowed that itself. S 18 dealt with the effect of incorporation. S 48 s 153Under section 167 of the Companies Act 1862 one of the functions of a liquidator was to bring criminal proceedings against directors and others who were alleged to have committed offences in relation to the company. In re Wiltshire Iron Co LR 3 Ch App 443 Guinness v Land Corporation of Ireland 22 Ch 349 Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd AC 22 Ashbury Railway Carriage & Iron Co Ltd v Riche LR 7 HL 653 In the song "Some seven men form an association" in Gilbert and Sullivan's Utopia, King Paramount reforms the island of Utopia into a limited-liability company under the provisions of the Companies Act. However, in the operetta, it is instead referred to as "the Joint Stock Companies Act of sixty-two," also alluding to the Joint Stock Companies Act 1844, referenced in their previous opera, The Gondoliers. Companies Act UK company law History of companies Limited Liability Act 1855 Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 Companies Act 1908 Companies Act 1929 Companies Act 1948 Companies Act 1985 Companies Act 2006 Pulbrook, Anthony.

The Companies Act, 1862, with analytical references and copious index. London: Effingham Wilson. Micklethwait, John; the company: a short history of a revolutionary idea. New York: Modern Library