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Mutarotation is the change in the optical rotation because of the change in the equilibrium between two anomers, when the corresponding stereocenters interconvert. Cyclic sugars β anomeric forms interconvert; the optical rotation of the solution depends on the optical rotation of each anomer and their ratio in the solution. Mutarotation was discovered by French chemist Dubrunfaut in 1844, when he noticed that the specific rotation of aqueous sugar solution changes with time; the α and β anomers are diastereomers of each other and have different specific rotations. A solution or liquid sample of a pure α anomer will rotate plane polarised light by a different amount and/or in the opposite direction than the pure β anomer of that compound; the optical rotation of the solution depends on the optical rotation of each anomer and their ratio in the solution. For example, if a solution of β-D-glucopyranose is dissolved in water, its specific optical rotation will be +18.7°. Over time, some of the β-D-glucopyranose will undergo mutarotation to become α-D-glucopyranose, which has an optical rotation of +112.2°.

Thus the rotation of the solution will increase from +18.7° to an equilibrium value of +52.7° as some of the β form is converted to the α form. The equilibrium mixture is about 64% of β-D-glucopyranose and about 36% of α-D-glucopyranose, though there are traces of the other forms including furanoses and open chained form; the α anomer is the major conformer, although somewhat controversially. The observed rotation of the sample is the weighted sum of the optical rotation of each anomer weighted by the amount of that anomer present. Therefore, one can use a polarimeter to measure the rotation of a sample and calculate the ratio of the two anomers present from the enantiomeric excess, as long as one knows the rotation of each pure anomer. One can monitor the mutarotation process over time or determine the equilibrium mixture by observing the optical rotation and how it changes. Anomer Carbohydrate Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Stereochemistry

Kelly Murphy

Kelly Murphy is an American author and illustrator from Boston, Massachusetts. She wrote and illustrated her first picture book The Boll Weevil Ball in 2002 and has since illustrated more than 40 books for children, including stories written by authors Dave Eggers, J. Patrick Lewis, Linda Sue Park, Richard Peck, Beatrix Potter and Jane Yolen. Murphy has created artwork for theater and animation, including character designs for the Sesame Workshop animated show Esme & Roy on HBO, the 2013 documentary Muscle Shoals, she has taught at the Massachusetts College of Art and Design and is a faculty member of the Rhode Island School of Design. Murphy was raised in southeastern Massachusetts, she attended the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, Rhode Island, her student work receiving distinction from the Society of Illustrators of New York. After graduating with a bachelor of fine arts degree in illustration in 1999, Murphy started a freelance career as an editorial and children's books illustrator.

In 2009 Murphy earned an E. B. White Read Aloud Award for illustrating the New York Times Best Seller Masterpiece, written by Elise Broach, she subsequently illustrated books in a companion series for younger readers, The Masterpiece Adventures, by the same author. In 2019 All the Greys on Greene Street, written by Laura Tucker and illustrated by Murphy, was distinguished as a best book of the year by The New York Times, Kirkus Reviews, BookPage and Publishers Weekly. Murphy was one of 5 artists whose work was exhibited in the 18th Annual Children's Book Illustrators' Show & Signing at the Chemers Gallery in Tustin, CA in 2009. Murphy's original art was exhibited in the 2010 Children's Book Illustrators Exhibition at the Brush Art Gallery & Studios, with fellow RISD alumni illustrators Christopher Bing, David Macaulay and David Wiesner. Murphy's work has been exhibited at the Museum of American Illustration in New York City, NY. In 2012, Murphy's work received a Gold Award in the Illustration West 50 competition and was exhibited at the Gallery Nucleus in Alhambra, California.

Murphy was chosen from RISD's illustrious alumni as one of the artists featured in RISD ICONS: A Legacy of Illustration from the Rhode Island School of Design exhibit at the Woods Gerry Gallery. In 2014, Murphy was a keynote speaker at the Society of Children's Book Writers and Illustrators 2014 Writers & Illustrators Working Conference in Austin, Texas. Murphy is one of the illustrators and authors presenting at the Lincoln School's 2018 Rhode Island Festival of Children's Books and Authors. Masterpiece Flight of the Phoenix The Basilisk's Lair The Wyverns' Treasure Haunted Houses The Unicorn's Tale Secrets at Sea Alex and the Amazing Time Machine The Scorpions of Zahir Behind the Bookcase The Mouse with the Question Mark Tail Anton and Cecil: Cats at Sea The Miniature World of Marvin and James The Wollstonecraft Detective Agency, Book 1: The Case of the Missing Moonstone James to the Rescue The Door by the Staircase The Wollstonecraft Detective Agency, Book 2: The Case of the Girl in Grey Anton and Cecil: Cats Aloft The Wollstonecraft Detective Agency, Book 3: The Case of the Counterfeit Criminals Trouble at School for Marvin & James A Properly Unhaunted Place The Wollstonecraft Detective Agency, Book 4: The Case of the Perilous Palace A Festival of Ghosts All The Greys on Greene Street A Trip to the Country for Marvin & James The Boll Weevil Ball A Place To Grow Loony Little Dancing Matilda Good Babies Fiona's Luck Gallop-O-Gallop Hush, Little Dragon The Peach Boy Brand-New Baby Blues Over At The Castle Creepy Monsters, Sleepy Monsters Face Bug Romping Monsters, Stomping Monsters The Slowest Book Ever Together We Grow Faraway Things Kelly M

Santiago Manuel de Alday y Aspée

Santiago Manuel de Alday y Aspée was a Chilean Roman Catholic priest. He served as Bishop of Santiago from 1755 to 1788, he is considered the most important bishops of Santiago during the eighteenth century. Alday is best remembered for his frequent polemics on moral issues, campaigned against particular aspects of women's fashion at the time –such as short skirts reaching down to the calf of the leg or short sleeves, he opposed the opening of the theater in Santiago. He condemned the game known as palín or chueca, a form of field hockey of Mapuche origin, as well as the thick winter clothes worn by some clerics during cold weather, the use of the sacramental bread by some people as a sealing wax on letters. Alday, in a famous pastoral letter about women's fashions, ordered in 1782 that "...all women of whatever station or class extend the length of their clothes, employing round petticoats or half circle shaped skirts both inside and outside of their homes in a manner that reaches their ankles… and in the same manner, that women cover their arms up to the mid-point between the elbow and the wrist every time they leave the home or when they receive visitors at their home."

In 1780, Alday revitalized the building program associated with the Cathedral of Santiago de Chile, placing the program in the hands of the architect Joaquín Toesca. Alday was concerned with the building of new churches in South America, including the third church built in the Marian sanctuary of Andacollo as well as the completion and consecration of the principal church in Mendoza, Argentina, in 1760. Alday founded new parishes as he traveled across his extensive diocese, for example, Copiapó and Cuyo, he founded San Lázaro in the suburbs of Santiago, parishes in more distant areas, such as Paredones, Combarbalá, Pelarco and Renca. He organized a diocesan synod in 1763, hoping to enact clerical reforms and discuss the immoral customs of his flock, he received a good education. He possessed one of the largest libraries in Chile during the colonial era of 2,058 volumes, which today is conserved in the Museum of Carmen de Maipú, he wrote various treatises and participated in a discussion on Probabilism, in the synod of Lima of 1772, in which he opposed this philosophy.

He was a major participant in this synod. Regla de la gloriosa virgen Santa Clara: según la observan las religiosas, que no son descalzas, aprobados por la santidad de Urbano IV Visitatio ad limina apostolorum Illmi. D. D. Emmanuelis de Alday Episcopi Chilensis, Catholicae Majestatis à Consiliis Synodo discesana

Piast Brewery

Piast Brewery is a defunct brewery, located in Wrocław, Poland. It was founded in 1872; the brewery was founded by Carl Scholtz, until 1910, its name was Brauerei Pfeifferhof Carl Scholtz. By 1945, the enterprise changed names three times: Schultheiss`Brauerei AG, Abt. V, Schultheiss- Patzenhofer- Brauerei AG, Abt. V, Schultheiss- Brauerei AG Berlin, Abt. Breslau. In 1945, when Breslau was annexed by Poland, the brewery took on the name Piast Brewery, honoring the Piast dynasty, the legendary first Polish historical Royal dynasty that ruled the country from its beginnings until 1370; the name was not changed till 2005. Right after World War II, the production process was run by Polish brewmasters from brewery of Lwów, ordered to leave their native city and move to the Recovered Territories. In 1951, Piast Brewery produced 9 000 tons of malt annually. In 1991, the brewery became part of Wrocław's company Zakłady Piwowarskie S. A. and on January 23, 1996, it was purchased for $9 500 000 by Ryszard Varisella.

In November 2001, it was bought by Carlsberg Polska, in 2004, brewing of beer was terminated. Several old buildings were destroyed in 2008. Three main buildings of the brewery, which in 2004 were entered in the register of monuments will be restored and their interiors converted into loft apartments named Browary Wrocławskie. Polish beer

Adirondack Regional Airport

Adirondack Regional Airport is a public use airport located four nautical miles northwest of the central business district of Saranac Lake, in Franklin County, New York, United States. The airport is owned by the Town of Harrietstown and is situated in the north-central Adirondacks two miles from Lake Clear, it is served by one commercial airline, subsidized by the Essential Air Service program. As per Federal Aviation Administration records, the airport had 4,252 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 4,809 enplanements in 2009, 5,762 in 2010, it is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a non-primary commercial service airport. In the autumn of 1940, a group of local men from the Saranac Lake Planning board got together to discuss the possibility of an airport in the Adirondack Mountains, near Saranac Lake, their thinking was that such a development would play an important part in the future development of the Adirondacks. Due to the mountainous nature of the region many thought.

However, after countless reviews of area maps, a plateau large enough for airport purposes was identified within a few miles of Saranac Lake Village. The Planning Board's search for an airport site had been prompted by an announcement from Washington, DC that Congress had appropriated funds for the building of a system of airports throughout the country. There was, among other problems, one restriction; the land for an airport site, to be acceptable to the federal government, had to be publicly owned. The ideal site which these men had spotted on the map was part of the holdings of the Paul Smith's Electric Company. Since no other tract of suitable terrain was to be found within a radius of some 40 miles, the whole effort might have bogged down but for the public-spirited cooperation of the Paul Smith's Electric Company which, in the interests of regional development deeded the 1,200-acre tract to the Town of Harrietstown without cost. With the requirement of public ownership thus complied with, events moved swiftly toward the realization of an airport for the Adirondacks.

Through persistent effort on the part of various citizens, who maintained close contact with Washington, D. C. the site was inspected and federal expenditures for construction of a Class III airport were approved. Step by step, the Town of Harrietstown Town Board and the Saranac Lake Airport Commission worked with state and federal agencies in the building process. Construction of the airfield was completed in 1942; the Town of Harrietstown issued bonds to augment the available funds and erected a terminal building in 1948 and a 100 by 100-foot hangar in 1950. At the time, the airport was rated as one of the best built Class III airports in the country. Two commercial airlines, Colonial Airlines and Resort Airlines, served the region at that time. Airmail service was provided by Colonial Airlines; the volume of air express business handled by Railway Express Agency increased as did the number of owned aircraft using the field. Resort traffic response increased steadily; the airport was dedicated to the service of the people of the Adirondacks on July 10, 1949.

Since 1960, the Town of Harrietstown has operated the airport. The Saranac Lake Airport was renamed in 1989 to the Adirondack Regional Airport. Commutair, a marketing affiliate of US Air, began serving Adirondack Regional Airport in 1991. In 2000, the Federal Aviation Administration cited Adirondack Regional Airport for several violations, including failure to conduct monthly fire-and-rescue training and triennial full-scale emergency exercises, faded markings on the taxiway, cracked pavement on runways and the taxi-way, broken lights. During an inspection in 2001, the Federal Aviation Administration found the violations had not been corrected and, as a result, Adirondack Regional Airport surrendered its certificate allowing larger planes to land at the airport. Repairs began in September 2001. Commutair ended service at Adirondack Regional Airport in October 2007. Commutair had been flying into Adirondack Regional Airport on 19-seat planes, Commutair decided to replace all of those planes with larger planes that it decided were too large for the airport.

Big Sky Airlines, a partner of Delta Air Lines, began service at the airport when Commutair ended its service. Big Sky Airlines ended its service to the airport in December 2007, the airline went out of business several months later; the United States Department of Transportation invited airlines to bid to serve the airport, Cape Air was the only airline to bid. Cape Air was a partner of Jet Continental Airlines. Cape Air's service at Adirondack Regional Airport began in 2008. Adirondack Regional Airport covers an area of 1,499 acres at an elevation of 1,663 feet above mean sea level, it has two asphalt paved runways: 5/23 is 6,573 by 150 feet and 9/27 is 3,997 by 100 feet. And through the 1960s, the Adirondack Airport had three runways all of which were 4000 feet long. Between mid-1957 and mid-1958, the main runway was extended to 5000 feet long. Runway 16/34 was 4,000 feet long and 100 feet wide, but was abandoned sometime between the mid-1970s and early 1980s; the main runway was lengthened from 5,000 feet to its present length during the early 1970s or thereabouts and an instrument landing system and approach lighting system was installed on the southwest-facing runway 23.

A parallel taxiway was added to the full length of runway 9-27 and a partial parallel taxiway was add

Solomon Sir Jones

Solomon Sir Jones was an American minister and amateur film-maker, best known for his collection of 29 silent black-and-white films documenting African-American communities in Oklahoma from 1924 to 1928. In 2016, Jones's films were selected for the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Jones's films consist of 29 silent black-and-white films documenting African-American communities in Oklahoma from 1924 to 1928, they contain 355 minutes of footage shot with then-new 16 mm cameras. The films document a rich tapestry of everyday life: funerals, sporting events, parades, Masonic meetings, river baptisms, families at home, African-American oil barons and their wells, black colleges, Juneteenth celebrations and a transcontinental footrace. Jones's films have been preserved by the Smithsonian Institution, the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library of the Yale University Library, the National Museum of African American History and Culture.

They are considered to be "the most extensive film records we have of Southern and urban black life and culture at the time of rapid social and cultural change for African-Americans during the 1920s, the beginning of the Great Migration, which transformed not only black people as a whole, but America itself." In addition to his work with film, Jones was a businessman and a Baptist minister, who either established or was the pastor of some 15 churches in his lifetime. He was the son of ex-slaves, was born in Tennessee and grew up in the South, before moving to Oklahoma, where he lived for most of his life. Jones was well traveled, travelling across not only the United States, but overseas to France, Palestine, Italy, North Africa, Germany, filming his travels along the way. Solomon Sir Jones on IMDb