Aboriginal History is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal published as an open access journal by Aboriginal History Inc. The Journal has been described as, a flagship of the field of Australian Aboriginal history. The journals scope includes the areas of Australian Indigenous history and oral histories, biographies, bibliographic guides, a focus on cultural and economic history is complemented by critiques of current events of relevance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and society. The journal is co-published by ANU Press, an open access academic publisher located at the Australian National University in Canberra, the journal is fully accessible online from the ANU Press website. Aboriginal History Inc. the journals publisher, publishes monographs on a range of topics in Aboriginal. Since 2006 the monographs have been available through the website of open access co-publisher, official website Open access to journal through co-publisher ANU Press Open access to monographs through co-publisher ANU Press
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation is the federal government agency for scientific research in Australia. Its chief role is to improve the economic and social performance of industry, CSIRO works with leading organisations around the world, and CSIRO Publishing issues journals with the latest research by leading scientists on a broad range of subjects. From its headquarters in Canberra, CSIRO maintains more than 50 sites across Australia and biological control research stations in France and Mexico, employing about 5000 in total. As of 1 July 2014, CSIRO is governed by a Board, chaired by David Thodey with nine directors inclusive of the CEO, daily management is led by a CEO, presently Dr Larry Marshall, with an executive team of seven. There are ten research flagships and twelve services areas, the CSIRO Flagship initiative was originally designed to integrate and direct national scientific resources. In July 2014, all research Divisions and Flagships were merged into ten research flagships, the Bureau of Meteorology generates the high resolution weather forecasts and CSIRO has created computer models to calculate pollution levels.
A precursor to CSIRO, the Advisory Council of Science and Industry, was established in 1916 at the initiative of prime minister Billy Hughes, the Advisory Council struggled with insufficient funding during the First World War. In 1920 the Council was renamed the Commonwealth Institute of Science and Industry, and was led by George Handley Knibbs, in 1926 The Science and Industry Research Act replaced the Institute with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The CSIR was structured to represent the structure of Australian government, and had state-level committees. As well as this structure, the CSIR benefited from strong bureaucratic management under George Julius, David Rivett. CSIR research focussed on primary and secondary industries, early in its existence, it established divisions studying animal health and animal nutrition. After the depression, the CSIR extended into secondary industries such as manufacturing, CSIRO today has expanded into a wider range of scientific inquiry.
This expansion began with the evolution of CSIR to the CSIRO by the Ben Chifley Labor government in 1949 which amended the Science and Industry Research Act, the amendment enlarged and reconstituted the organisation and its administrative structure. Under Ian Clunies Ross as chairman, CSIRO pursued new areas such as radioastronomy, in October 2005, the journal Nature announced CSIRO scientists had developed near-perfect rubber from resilin, the elastic protein which gives fleas their jumping ability and helps insects fly. On 19 August 2005, CSIRO and the University of Texas at Dallas announced they were able to make transparent carbon nanotube sheets that will bring carbon nanotube products to the masses, CSIRO had a pioneering role in the scientific discovery of the universe through radio eyes. A team led by Paul Wild built and operated the world’s first solar radiospectrograph, for three decades, the Division of Radiophysics had a world-leading role in solar research, attracting prominent solar physicists from around the world.
CSIRO owned the first computer in Australia, CSIRAC, built as part of a project began in the Sydney Radiophysics Laboratory in 1947, the CSIR Mk 1 ran its first program in 1949, the fifth electronic computer in the world. It was over 1,000 times faster than the mechanical calculators available at the time and it was decommissioned in 1955 and recommissioned in Melbourne as CSIRAC in 1956 as a general purpose computing machine used by over 700 projects until 1964
Thomas Mitchell (explorer)
Lieutenant Colonel Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell and explorer of south-eastern Australia, was born at Grangemouth in Stirlingshire, Scotland. In 1827 he took up an appointment as Assistant Surveyor General of New South Wales, the following year he became Surveyor General and remained in this position until his death. Mitchell was knighted in 1839 for his contribution to the surveying of Australia, born in Scotland on 15 June 1792, he was son of John Mitchell of Carron Works and was brought up from childhood by his uncle, Thomas Livingstone of Parkhall, Stirlingshire. On the death of his uncle, he joined the British army in Portugal as a volunteer, on 24 June 1811, at the age of nineteen, he received his first commission as 2nd Lieutenant in the 1st Battalion 95th Rifles. Utilising his skills as a draughtsman of outstanding ability, he was employed in the Quartermaster-General’s department under Sir George Murray. He was present at the storming of the fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and San Sebastian as well as the battles of Salamanca, subsequently, he would receive the Military General Service Medal with bars for each of these engagements.
Lieutenant Mitchell, was selected as a well qualified in every respect to aid in the accomplishment of the undertaking. But in the summer of 1819 the continuance of the disbursements made by Government for the undertaking became doubtful, so he was called home. He devoted himself to the part of his task, which was that of making finished drawings from the materials compiled by himself. But with the cessation of the Government allowances he had to stop this work, on 10 June 1818, during his posting in Spain and Portugal, he married Mary Blunt in Lisbon and gained promotion to a company in the 54th Regiment. With the reductions in the establishment of the country which followed the withdrawing of the Army of Occupation from France. It was not until a lapse of several years, whilst Mitchell was in London between 1838 –1840, that the work was completed, the finished drawings were published, by the London geographer James Wyld, in 1841. Of almost unimpeachable accuracy, it is the source for the topography of the war.
In 1827, with the support of Sir George Murray, Mitchell became Assistant Surveyor General of New South Wales with the right to succeed John Oxley, Oxley died the following year, and on 27 May 1828, Mitchell became Surveyor General. In this post he did much to improve the quality and accuracy of surveying – a vital task in a colony where huge tracts of land were being opened up and sold to new settlers. One of the first roads surveyed under his leadership was the Great North Road, the Great South Road, convict-built, linked Sydney and Goulburn. As Surveyor General, Mitchell completed maps and plans of Sydney, including Darling Point, Point Piper, the city, in 1834 he was commissioned to survey a map of the Nineteen Counties. The map he produced was done with skill and accuracy that he was awarded a knighthood
Balranald /bælˈrænəld/ is a town and local government area in the Riverina district of New South Wales, Australia. At the 2011 census the population was 1,159, the town of Balranald is located where the Sturt Highway crosses the Murrumbidgee River in a remote, semi-desert area. Although it is part of New South Wales, Balranald receives Victorian television stations, with a range of Sydney, Balranald was featured heavily in 2010-2015 Australian tourism ads, displaying the natural flora of the region with over 30 sub species of shrubs native to Balranald and its surrounds. Balranald is located in Mutthi Mutthi traditional country, the area has a long history before non-indigenous settlement and a strong indigenous culture continues to this day. In about 1847–48 George James McDonald, the Commissioner for Crown Lands for the Lower Darling District, Commissioner McDonald had chosen the site as his base, and he and his entourage set up their camp under canvas. In 1848 Leighton Robinson and Thomas Duggan established a store at Balranald and during the same year a public-house.
In 1849 the Crown Lands Commissioner McDonald recommended to the Colonial Secretary that a township be established at the location, McDonald was a Scotsman, born at Balranald on North Uist in the Outer Hebrides, he chose the name of his birthplace for the new settlement. During 1849 the surveyor Francis MacCabe laid out reserves in the region of the Lower Murrumbidgee / Murray-Darling junction. Included in MacCabes surveys was a site for a Township at the North End of Caiera, the decision to lay out Balranald township was made in November 1849. Commissioner McDonald died in 1851 and he was succeeded by Stephen Cole, Cole used Balranald as a base until 1853, when the office of Commissioner for Crown Lands for the Lower Darling District was transferred to Euston where a new house was erected for the Commissioner. The township of Balranald was gazetted on 4 April 1851 and the first land sale held on 14 January 1852, on 1 March 1852 an official post office opened in the township. From 1853 the mail contractor, John Bent, operated a service along the Murrumbidgee River between Wagga Wagga and Balranald, a second hotel, the Carriers Arms, was erected at Balranald in about 1852 by the German, Philipp Comitti.
William Graham acquired the licence of the Balranald Inn in April 1854, Graham held the licence until 1859 when he was murdered. The perpetrator was arrested and hanged at Goulburn gaol, Denis Hanan obtained the licence of the Balranald Inn, which he held until 1867. In 1859 Hanan purchased a punt from Captain Cadell and operated it at the end of Mayall Street. The Victorian gold-rushes, which began as Balranald was being established, had a impact on the Riverina region by stimulating the development of the fat-stock market. The development of the stock-route across the One-tree Plain to Lang’s Crossing-place tended to direct attention away from Balranald to the region up-river of the Murrumbidgee-Lachlan junction, by the latter half of the 1850s, when the fat-stock market was at its peak, Balranald was exhibiting signs of stagnation. Balranald became a crossing place for stock from South Australia
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the worlds oldest publishing house and it holds letters patent as the Queens Printer. The Presss mission is To further the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries. Its publishing includes journals, reference works, textbooks. Cambridge University Press is an enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press and it originated from Letters Patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, and has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed.
Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses, authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, and Stephen Hawking. In 1591, Thomass successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, the London Stationers objected strenuously, claiming that they had the monopoly on Bible printing. The universitys response was to point out the provision in its charter to print all manner of books. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university towards the house and presse and James Halman, Registrary of the University. It was in Bentleys time, in 1698, that a body of scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the Presss affairs. The Press Syndicates publishing committee still meets regularly, and its role still includes the review, John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century. Baskervilles concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design, a technological breakthrough was badly needed, and it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates.
This involved making a mould of the surface of a page of type. The Press was the first to use this technique, and in 1805 produced the technically successful, under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, who was University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the Press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks, during Clays administration, the Press undertook a sizable co-publishing venture with Oxford, the Revised Version of the Bible, which was begun in 1870 and completed in 1885. It was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories, the Cambridge Modern History was published between 1902 and 1912
The Murray River is Australias longest river, at 2,508 kilometres in length. It turns south at Morgan for its final 315 kilometres, reaching the ocean at Lake Alexandrina, despite discharging considerable volumes of water at times, particularly before the advent of largescale river regulation, the mouth has always been comparatively small and shallow. As of 2010, the Murray River system receives 58 percent of its natural flow and it is perhaps Australias most important irrigated region, and it is widely known as the food bowl of the nation. The Murray River forms part of the 3,750 km long combined Murray–Darling river system drains most of inland Victoria, New South Wales. Overall the catchment area is one seventh of Australias total land mass, the Murray carries only a small fraction of the water of comparably-sized rivers in other parts of the world, and with a great annual variability of its flow. The Murray River makes up most of the border between the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales, where it does, the border is the top of the bank of the southern side of the river.
This boundary definition can be ambiguous, since the river changes its course over time and this was due to a miscalculation during the 1840s, when the border was originally surveyed. Past this point, the Murray River is entirely within the state of South Australia, the Murray River supports fringing corridors and forests of the river red gum. Recent extreme droughts have put significant stress on river red gum forests, the Murray has flooded on occasion, the most significant of which was the flood of 1956, which inundated many towns on the lower Murray and which lasted for up to six months. In some segments of the Murray River, carp have become the species found. Between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago the Murray River terminated in a vast freshwater lake called Lake Bungunnia, Lake Bungunnia was formed by earth movements that blocked the Murray River near Swan Reach during this period of time. At its maximum extent Lake Bungunnia covered 33,000 km2, extending to near the Menindee Lakes in the north, the draining of Lake Bungunnia occurred approximately 600,000 years ago.
Deep clays deposited by the lake are evident in cliffs around Chowilla in South Australia, a species of Neoceratodus lungfish existed in Lake Bungunnia, today Neoceratodus lungfish are only found in several Queensland rivers. The noted Barmah Red Gum Forests owe their existence to the Cadell Fault, about 25,000 years ago, displacement occurred along the Cadell fault, raising the eastern edge of the fault, which runs north-south,8 to 12 m above the floodplain. This created a series of events. A section of the original Murray River channel immediately behind the fault was abandoned, the Goulburn River was dammed by the southern end of the fault to create a natural lake. The Murray River flowed to the north around the Cadell Fault, creating the channel of the Edward River which exists today and these conditions are perfect for River Red Gums, which rapidly formed forests in the area. Thus the displacement of the Cadell Fault 25,000 BP led directly to the formation of the famous Barmah River Red Gum Forests, the Barmah Choke and The Narrows mean the amount of water that can travel down this part of the Murray River is restricted