HMS Bounty known as HM Armed Vessel Bounty, was a small merchant vessel that the Royal Navy purchased for a botanical mission. The ship was sent to the Pacific Ocean under the command of William Bligh to acquire breadfruit plants and transport them to British possessions in the West Indies; that mission was never completed due to a mutiny led by acting lieutenant Fletcher Christian. This incident is now popularly known as the mutiny on the Bounty; the mutineers burned Bounty while she was moored at Pitcairn Island. An American adventurer rediscovered the remains of the Bounty in 1957. Bounty was the collier Bethia, built in 1784 at the Blaydes shipyard in Hull, Yorkshire in England; the Royal Navy purchased her for £1,950 on 23 May 1787, renamed her Bounty. The ship was small at 215 tons, but had three masts and was full-rigged. After conversion for the breadfruit expedition, she was equipped with four 4-pounder cannon and ten swivel guns; the Royal Navy had purchased Bethia for a single mission in support of an experiment: the acquisition of breadfruit plants from Tahiti, the transportation of those plants to the West Indies in the hope that they would grow well there and become a cheap source of food for slaves.
Sir Joseph Banks had recommended William Bligh as commander. Bligh in turn was promoted through a prize offered by the Royal Society of Arts. In June 1787, the Bounty was refitted at Deptford; the great cabin was converted to house the potted breadfruit plants, gratings were fitted to the upper deck. William Bligh was appointed Commanding Lieutenant of the Bounty on 16 August 1787 at the age of 33, after a career that included a tour as sailing master of James Cook's Resolution during Cook's third and final voyage; the ship's complement was 46 men: a single commissioned officer, 43 other Royal Navy personnel, two civilian botanists. On 23 December 1787, the Bounty sailed from Spithead for Tahiti. For a full month, the crew attempted to take the ship west, around South America's Cape Horn, but adverse weather prevented this. Bligh proceeded east, rounding the southern tip of Africa and crossing the width of the Indian Ocean. During the outward voyage, Bligh demoted Sailing Master John Fryer, replacing him with Fletcher Christian.
This act damaged the relationship between Bligh and Fryer, Fryer claimed that Bligh's act was personal. Bligh is portrayed as the epitome of abusive sailing captains, but this portrayal has come into dispute. Caroline Alexander points out in her 2003 book The Bounty that Bligh was lenient compared with other British naval officers. Bligh enjoyed the patronage of Sir Joseph Banks, a wealthy botanist and influential figure in Britain at the time. That, together with his experience sailing with Cook, familiarity with navigation in the area, local customs were important factors in his appointment; the Bounty reached Tahiti on 26 October 1788, after ten months at sea. Bligh and his crew spent five months in Tahiti called "Otaheite", collecting and preparing 1,015 breadfruit plants to be transported. Bligh allowed the crew to live ashore and care for the potted breadfruit plants, they became socialized to the customs and culture of the Tahitians. Many of the seamen and some of the "young gentlemen" had themselves tattooed in native fashion.
Master's Mate and Acting Lieutenant Fletcher Christian married a Tahitian woman. Others of the Bounty's warrant officers and seamen were said to have formed "connections" with native women. After five months in Tahiti, the Bounty set sail with her breadfruit cargo on 4 April 1789; some 1,300 miles west of Tahiti, near Tonga, mutiny broke out on 28 April 1789. Despite strong words and threats heard on both sides, the ship was taken bloodlessly and without struggle by any of the loyalists except Bligh himself. Of the 42 men on board aside from Bligh and Christian, 22 joined Christian in mutiny, two were passive, 18 remained loyal to Bligh; the mutineers ordered Bligh, two midshipmen, the surgeon's mate, the ship's clerk into the ship's boat. Several more men voluntarily joined Bligh rather than remain aboard. Bligh and his men sailed the open boat 30 nautical miles to Tofua in search of supplies, but were forced to flee after attacks by hostile natives resulted in the death of one of the men. Bligh undertook an arduous journey to the Dutch settlement of Coupang, located over 3,500 nautical miles from Tofua.
He safely landed there 47 days having lost no men during the voyage except the one killed on Tofua. The mutineers sailed for the island of Tubuai. After three months of bloody conflict with the natives, they returned to Tahiti. Sixteen of the mutineers – including the four loyalists, unable to accompany Bligh – remained there, taking their chances that the Royal Navy would not find them and bring them to justice. HMS Pandora was sent out by the Admiralty in November 1790 in pursuit of the Bounty, to capture the mutineers and bring them back to England to face a court martial, she captured fourteen men within two weeks. The men called their cell "Pandora's box", they remained in their prison until 29 August 1791 when the Pandora was wrecked on the Great Barrier Reef with the loss of 35 lives. After setting the sixteen men ashore in Tahiti in September 1789, Fletcher Christian, eight other crewmen, six Tahi
Mutiny on the Bounty (1935 film)
Mutiny on the Bounty is a 1935 American drama film directed by Frank Lloyd and starring Charles Laughton and Clark Gable, based on the Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall novel Mutiny on the Bounty. The film was one of the biggest hits of its time. Although its historical accuracy has been questioned, film critics consider this adaptation to be the best cinematic work inspired by the mutiny. One night in Portsmouth, England in 1787, a press gang breaks into a local tavern and presses all of the men drinking there into naval service. One of the men inquires as to what ship they will sail on, the press gang leader informs him that it is HMS Bounty. Upon inquiring as to who the captain is, another of the men is told the captain is William Bligh and attempts to escape, as Bligh is a brutal tyrant who administers harsh punishment to officers and crew alike who lack discipline, cause any infraction on board the ship, or in any manner defy his authority; the Bounty leaves England several days on a two-year voyage over the Pacific Ocean.
Fletcher Christian, the ship's lieutenant, is a formidable yet compassionate man who disapproves of Bligh's treatment of the crew. Roger Byam is an idealistic midshipman, divided between his loyalty to Bligh, owing to his family's naval tradition, his friendship with Christian. During the voyage, the enmity between Christian and Bligh grows after Christian challenges Bligh's unjust practices aboard the ship; when the ship arrives at the island of Tahiti, where the crew acquires breadfruit plants to take to the West Indies, as intended, Bligh punishes Christian by refusing to let him leave the ship during their stay. Byam, sets up residency on the island, living with the island chief and his daughter and compiling an English dictionary of the Tahitian language. Hitihiti persuades Bligh to allow Christian a day pass on the island. Bligh agrees but repeals the pass out of spite. Christian disregards the order and spends his one-day off the ship romancing a Tahitian girl, Maimiti. Christian promises her he will be back someday.
After leaving Tahiti the crew begins to talk of mutiny after Bligh's harsh discipline leads to the death of the ship's beloved surgeon, Mr. Bacchus, Bligh cuts water rationing to the crew in favor of providing more water for the breadfruit plants. Christian, although opposing the idea, decides he can no longer tolerate Bligh's brutality when he witnesses crew members shackled in iron chains, he approves the mutiny; the crew seizes the ship. Bligh and his loyalists are cast into a boat and set adrift at sea with a map and rations to ensure their survival. Due to Bligh's steady leadership, they are able to find their way back to land. Meanwhile, Christian orders that Bounty return to Tahiti. Byam, in his cabin during the mutiny, disapproves of what Christian has done and decides the two can no longer be friends. Months Byam is married to Tehani and Christian has married Maimiti and has a child with her, while the rest of the crew are enjoying their freedom on the island. After a long estrangement and Christian reconcile their friendship.
However, when the British ship HMS Pandora is spotted approaching and Christian decide they must part ways. Byam and several crew members remain on the island for the ship to take them back to England, while Christian leads the remaining crew, his wife and several Tahitian men and women back on board Bounty in search of a new island on which to seek refuge. Byam boards, much to his surprise, discovers that Bligh is the captain. Bligh, who suspects that Byam was complicit in the mutiny, has him imprisoned for the remainder of the journey across the sea. Back in England Byam found guilty of mutiny. Before the court condemns him, Byam speaks of Bligh's dehumanising conduct aboard Bounty. Due to the intervention of his friend Sir Joseph Banks and Lord Hood, Byam is pardoned by King George III and allowed to resume his naval career at sea. Meanwhile, Christian has found Pitcairn, an uninhabited yet sustainable island that he believes will provide adequate refuge from the reach of the Royal Navy. After Bounty crashes on the rocks, Christian orders her to be burned.
The movie contains several historical inaccuracies. Captain Bligh was never on board HMS Pandora, nor was he present at the trial of the mutineers who stayed on Tahiti. At the time he was halfway around the world on a second voyage for breadfruit plants. Fletcher Christian's father had died many years before Christian's travels on board Bounty, whereas the film shows the elder Christian at the trial; the movie was always presented as an adaptation of the Nordhoff and Hall trilogy, which differed from the actual story of the mutiny. Bligh is depicted as a sadistic disciplinarian. Particular episodes include a keelhauling and flogging a dead man. Neither of these happened. Keelhauling was used if at all, had been abandoned long before Bligh's time. Indeed, the meticulous record of Bounty's log reveals that the flogging rate was lower than the average for that time. Prior to the mutiny, Bounty had only two deaths—one seaman died of scurvy, the ship's surgeon died of drink and indolence and not as a result of abuse by Bligh.
The film shows the mutineers taking over the ship only after killing several loyal crewmen, when in fact none died. Lastly, Christian is shown being inspired to take over the ship after several c
The Bounty (1984 film)
The Bounty is a 1984 British historical drama film directed by Roger Donaldson, starring Mel Gibson and Anthony Hopkins, produced by Bernard Williams with Dino De Laurentiis as executive producer. It is the fifth film version of the story of the mutiny on the Bounty; the film features Laurence Olivier, Daniel Day-Lewis and Liam Neeson. The screenplay by Robert Bolt was based on the book Captain Bligh and Mr. Christian by Richard Hough; the film was made by Dino De Laurentiis Productions and distributed by Orion Pictures Corporation and Thorn EMI Screen Entertainment. The music score was composed by the cinematography designed by Arthur Ibbetson; the film is set as flashbacks from the court martial at Greenwich of Commanding Lieutenant William Bligh for the loss of HMS Bounty to mutineers led by his friend Fletcher Christian, during its expedition to Tahiti to gather breadfruit pods for transplantation in the Caribbean. Bligh sets out from Great Britain in December 1787, electing to sail the Bounty west round the tip of South America in an attempt to use the expedition to fulfill an ambition to circumnavigate the globe.
The attempt to round Cape Horn fails due to harsh weather, the ship is obliged to take the longer eastern route. Arriving in Tahiti in October 1788, Bligh finds that due to the delays, the wind is against them for a quick return journey and they must stay on the island for four months longer than planned. During their stay in Tahiti, ship discipline becomes problematic. Bligh, at the same time, subjects the crew to pressure reaching breaking point; when the ship leaves Tahiti, Fletcher is forced to leave his native wife, behind. The resumption of naval discipline on the return voyage turns Bligh into a tyrant not willing to tolerate any disobedience whatsoever, creating an atmosphere of tension and violence. Bligh insists that the ship is orders the crew to clean up several times a day. Many of the men, including Christian, are singled out for tongue-lashings by Bligh. Playing on Christian's resentment against Bligh's treatment of both him and the men, the more militant members of the crew persuade Christian to take control of the ship.
Bligh is roused from his bed and arrested, along with those considered loyal to him, they are forced into a ship's boat, minimally supplied, cast adrift. The film follows both the efforts of Fletcher Christian to get his men beyond the reach of British punishment and the epic voyage of Bligh to get his loyalists safely to the Dutch East Indies in a longboat. Bligh, through courage and excellent seamanship, a return of his good character and leadership qualities manages to reach civilisation after a harrowing journey without navigational charts nor firearms. One man, however, is killed by natives as the crew stop for supplies on a hostile island. Bligh is portrayed as a man who, on the one hand takes his sense of discipline and command too far, exceeding the limits of the ship's company, but whose character successfully protects his loyal non-mutineers and guides their overcrowded boat to safety; the mutineers sail back to Tahiti to collect their wives and native friends. King Tynah, however, is concerned that their presence on the island could incite King George to declare war against Tahiti and his people.
Realising the folly of staying, they sail away to try to find a safe refuge. Christian pleads with Tynah to allow Mauatua to decide her own destiny. Tynah concedes, Mauatua chooses the uncertainty of a life with Christian over remaining with her father; the search for a safe haven is long and impossible, as they realise that any pursuing Royal Navy vessels will search all known islands and coastlines to find them. At this point, those who remained on board the Bounty are so frustrated that they are ready to rebel against Christian to turn the ship back towards Tahiti. After Christian forces the crew to continue on, they find Pitcairn Island, a place which Christian realises is not marked on British maps of the region; as the crew of the Bounty burn the ship to keep it from being found, the judgment of Bligh's court martial is read: Bligh is found to have not been responsible for the loss of the Bounty, is commended for the voyage of the open boat. Meanwhile, Fletcher Christian and his men realise.
This version was a longstanding project of director David Lean and his frequent collaborator, Robert Bolt, who worked on it from 1977 until 1980. It was to have been released as a two-part film, one named The Lawbreakers that dealt with the voyage out to Tahiti and the subsequent mutiny, the second, to have been named The Long Arm, a study of the journey and the mutineers after the mutiny, as well as the admiralty's response in sending out the frigate HMS Pandora. Lean could not find financial backing for both films. For Lean, the project suffered a further setback when Bolt suffered a massive stroke and was unable to continue writing. Melvyn Bragg ended up writing a considerable portion of the script. Lean was forced to abandon the project after overseeing casting and the construction of the Bounty replica.
In the Wake of the Bounty
In the Wake of the Bounty is an Australian film directed by Charles Chauvel about the 1789 Mutiny on the Bounty. It is notable as the screen debut of Errol Flynn, playing Fletcher Christian; the film preceded MGM's more famous Mutiny on the Bounty, starring Charles Laughton and Clark Gable, by two years. Chauvel's film uses introductory enacted scenes showing the mutiny, followed by documentary footage, anthropological style, of the mutineers' descendants on Pitcairn Island. Chauvel used footage of Polynesian women dancers; this was Chauvel's first'talkie' and he had at this stage not yet learned to direct actors: the dialogue is stiff and amateurish. The use of long sections of documentary footage with a voice over, combined with acted scenes, is similar to the hybrid silent and talking pictures that were produced during the transition to sound, it represents the combination of interests of the director, he returned to documentary toward the end of his career with the BBC television series Walkabout.
Despite the poorly written dialogue, the documentary sections retain their excellence. A return to enactments at the end of the film, with one scripted modern scene in which a child suffers because of the lack of regular ship visits which could have taken the child to hospital sought to make the film a useful voice for the Pitcairn Island community, generous with their participation; the film mixed re-enactments with documentary, focused not so much on the mutiny itself as on its consequences. Mayne Lynton as Lieut. Bligh Errol Flynn as Fletcher Christian Victor Gouriet as Michael Byrne – The Bounty's blind fiddler John Warwick as Midshipman Young There was at least one other film of the Bounty story prior to Chauvel's film, by Australians Raymond Longford and Lottie Lyell, The Mutiny of the Bounty, filmed in New Zealand; this film was to be the first of a series of travel adventures to be made by Chauvel for his new company, Expeditionary Films. In March 1932, Chauvel left Australia with his wife Elsa and cameraman Tasman Higgins and sailed to Pitcairn Island.
They were there for three months shooting footage under sometimes dangerous conditions, having to travel around the coast in whaleboats and climb up cliffs on ropes. They joined a passing boat and went to Tahiti where they spent two months filming more footage. Chauvel and his crew returned to Sydney in September, his unedited footage was viewed by the censors. They requested cuts of scenes of bare-breasted Tahitian dancers. Chauvel protested and succeeded in having the footage released to him uncut, subject to a censorship review after the completion of the film. In October 1932 Chauvel registered a script The Story of Pitcairn Island; the re-enactment scenes were shot on sets built at the studio of Cinesound Productions in Bondi. There are different stories. According to one, Chauvel saw his picture in an article about a yacht wreck involving Flynn; the most common one is. His wage has been variously quoted as £ 10 a week. Flynn would claim to be descended from Bounty mutineers; when the film was submitted to the censors, they objected to several scenes, including those with bare breasts and depictions of floggings.
Chauvel protested. Chauvel announced he would appeal and was successful in getting the film passed after a compromise version was agreed upon. Chauvel had criticised the censors so much; the movie was released by Universal Pictures, whose Australian managing director, Herc McIntyre, became an important supporter of Chauvel throughout the director's career. It was described as a "middle grade" success at the box office. Critical opinion was positive about the documentary footage but not the dramatic scenes. In 1935, some of the documentary scenes from Chauvel's film were bought by MGM and re-edited into trailers for the 1935 Hollywood film about the mutiny, as well as for two short promotional travelogues, Pitcairn Island Today and Primitive Pitcairn. Cinema of Australia Nudity in film In the Wake of the Bounty on IMDb In the Wake of the Bounty is available for free download at the Internet Archive In the Wake of the Bounty at the National Film and Sound Archive In the Wake of the Bounty at Australian Screen Online In the Wake of the Bounty at Oz Movies Charles Chauvel serialised the story of filming the movie – Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 7, Part 8, Part 9, Part 12, Part 13
Fletcher Christian was master's mate on board HMS Bounty during Lieutenant William Bligh's voyage to Tahiti during 1787–1789 for breadfruit plants. In the mutiny on the Bounty, Christian seized command of the ship from Bligh on 28 April 1789. Christian was born on 25 September 1764, at his family home of Moorland Close, near Cockermouth in Cumberland, England. Fletcher's father's side had originated from the Isle of Man and most of his paternal great-grandfathers were historic Deemsters, their original family surname McCrystyn. Fletcher was the brother to Edward and Humphrey, being the three sons of Charles Christian of Moorland Close and of the large Ewanrigg Hall estate in Dearham, Cumberland, an attorney-at-law descended from Manx gentry, his wife Ann Dixon. Charles's marriage to Ann brought with it the small property of Moorland Close, "a quadrangle pile of buildings... half castle, half farmstead." The property can be seen to the north of the Cockermouth to Egremont A5086 road. Charles died in 1768.
Ann proved herself grossly irresponsible with money. By 1779, when Fletcher was fifteen, Ann had run up a debt of nearly £6,500, faced the prospect of debtors' prison. Moorland Close was lost and Ann and her three younger children were forced to flee to the Isle of Man, to their relative's estate, where English creditors had no power; the three elder Christian sons managed to arrange a £40 per year annuity for their mother, allowing the family to live in genteel poverty. Christian spent seven years at the Cockermouth Free School from the age of nine. One of his younger contemporaries there was Cockermouth native William Wordsworth, it is misconceived that the two were "school friends". His mother Ann died on the Isle of Man in 1819. See here for a comparison of assignments to William BlighFletcher Christian began his naval career at a late age, joining the Royal Navy as a cabin boy when he was seventeen years old, he served for over a year on a third-rate frigate along with his future commander, William Bligh, posted as the ship's sixth lieutenant.
Christian next became a midshipman on the sixth-rate post ship HMS Eurydice and was made Master's Mate six months after the ship put to sea. The muster rolls of HMS Eurydice indicate; the ship's muster shows Christian's conduct was more than satisfactory because "some seven months out from England, he had been promoted from midshipman to master's mate". After Eurydice had returned from India, Christian was reverted to midshipman and paid off from the Royal Navy. Unable to find another midshipman assignment, Christian decided to join the British merchant fleet and applied for a berth on board William Bligh's ship Britannia. Bligh had himself been was now a merchant captain. Bligh accepted Christian on the ship's books as an able seaman, but granted him all the rights of a ship's officer including dining and berthing in the officer quarters. On a second voyage to Jamaica with Bligh, Christian was rated as the ship's Second Mate. Although Bligh had known Christian for only a little over a year, in 1787 he approached him to serve on board HMAV Bounty for a two-year voyage to transport breadfruit from Tahiti to the West Indies.
Bligh had every intention of Christian serving as the ship's Master, but the Navy Board turned down this request due to Christian's low seniority in service years and appointed John Fryer instead. Christian was retained as Master's Mate; the following year, halfway through the Bounty's voyage, Bligh appointed Christian as acting lieutenant, thus making him senior to Fryer. On 28 April 1789, Fletcher Christian led a mutiny on board the Bounty and from this point forward was considered an outlaw, he was formally stripped of his naval rank in March 1790 and discharged after Bligh returned to England and reported the mutiny to the Admiralty Board. In 1787, Christian was appointed master's mate on Bounty, on Bligh's recommendation, for the ship's breadfruit expedition to Tahiti. During the voyage out, Bligh appointed him acting lieutenant. Bounty arrived at Tahiti on 26 October 1788 and Christian spent the next five months there. Bounty set sail with its cargo of breadfruit plantings on 4 April 1789.
Some 1,300 miles west of Tahiti, near mutiny broke out on 28 April 1789, led by Christian. According to accounts, the sailors were attracted to the "idyllic" life and sexual opportunities afforded on the Pacific island of Tahiti, it has been argued that they were motivated by Bligh's harsh treatment of them. Eighteen mutineers set Bligh afloat in a small boat with eighteen of the twenty-two crew loyal to him. Following the mutiny, Christian attempted to build a colony on Tubuai, but there the mutineers came into conflict with natives. Abandoning the island, he stopped in Tahiti, where he married Maimiti, the daughter of one of the local chiefs, on 16 June 1789. While on Tahiti, he dropped off sixteen crewmen; these sixteen included four Bligh loyalists, left behind on Bounty and two who had neither participated in, nor resisted, the mutiny. The remaining nine mutineers, six Tahitian men and eleven Tahitian women sailed eastward. In time, they landed on Pitcairn Island, where they stripped Bounty of all that could be floated ashore before Matthew Quintal set it on fire, stranding them.
The resulting sexual imbalance, combined with the effective enslavement of the Tahitian men by the mutineers, led to insurrection and the deaths of most of the men. The American seal-hunting ship Topaz visited Pitcairn in 18
Men Against the Sea
Men Against the Sea is the second installment in the trilogy by Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall about the mutiny aboard HMS Bounty. It is followed by Pitcairn's Island; the novel first appeared in serial form in The Saturday Evening Post hence the copyright date of 1933, it was first printed in hardcover in January 1934 by Little and Company. Men Against the Sea follows the journey of Lieutenant William Bligh and the eighteen men set adrift in an open boat by the mutineers of the Bounty; the story is told from the perspective of Thomas Ledward, the Bounty's acting surgeon, who went into the ship's launch with Bligh. It begins after the main events described in the novel and moves into a flashback, finishing at the starting point. Lieutenant William Bligh, Acting Captain John Fryer, Sailing Master Thomas Ledward, Acting Surgeon David Nelson, Botanist William Cole, Boatswain William Elphinstone, Master's Mate William Purcell, Carpenter Men Against the Sea at Faded Page Men Against the Sea, Project Gutenberg