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Mutiny on the Bounty (1935 film)

Mutiny on the Bounty is a 1935 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer drama film directed by Frank Lloyd and starring Charles Laughton and Clark Gable, based on the Charles Nordhoff and James Norman Hall novel Mutiny on the Bounty. The film was one of MGM's biggest hits of the 1930s. Despite some historical inaccuracies, film critics consider this adaptation to be the best cinematic work inspired by the mutiny. One night in Portsmouth, England in 1787, a press gang breaks into a local tavern and presses all of the men drinking there into naval service. One of the men inquires as to what ship they will sail on, the press gang leader informs him that it is HMS Bounty. Upon inquiring as to who the captain is, another of the men is told the captain is William Bligh and attempts to escape, as Bligh is a brutal tyrant who administers harsh punishment to officers and crew alike who lack discipline, cause any infraction on board the ship, or in any manner defy his authority; the Bounty leaves England several days on a two-year voyage over the Pacific Ocean.

Fletcher Christian, the ship's lieutenant, is a formidable yet compassionate man who disapproves of Bligh's treatment of the crew. Roger Byam is an idealistic midshipman, divided between his loyalty to Bligh, owing to his family's naval tradition, his friendship with Christian. During the voyage, the enmity between Christian and Bligh grows after Christian challenges Bligh's unjust practices aboard the ship; when the ship arrives at the island of Tahiti, where the crew acquires breadfruit plants to take to the West Indies, as intended, Bligh punishes Christian by refusing to let him leave the ship during their stay. Byam, sets up residency on the island, living with the island chief and his daughter and compiling an English dictionary of the Tahitian language. Hitihiti persuades Bligh to allow Christian a day pass on the island. Bligh agrees but repeals the pass out of spite. Christian disregards the order and spends his one-day off the ship romancing a Tahitian girl, Maimiti. Christian promises her he will be back someday.

After leaving Tahiti the crew begins to talk of mutiny after Bligh's harsh discipline leads to the death of the ship's beloved surgeon, Mr. Bacchus, Bligh cuts water rationing to the crew in favor of providing more water for the breadfruit plants. Christian, although opposing the idea, decides he can no longer tolerate Bligh's brutality when he witnesses crew members shackled in iron chains, he approves the mutiny; the crew seizes the ship. Bligh and his loyalists are cast into a boat and set adrift at sea with a map and rations to ensure their survival. Due to Bligh's steady leadership, they are able to find their way back to land. Meanwhile, Christian orders that Bounty return to Tahiti. Byam, in his cabin during the mutiny, disapproves of what Christian has done and decides the two can no longer be friends. Months Byam is married to Tehani and Christian has married Maimiti and has a child with her, while the rest of the crew are enjoying their freedom on the island. After a long estrangement and Christian reconcile their friendship.

However, when the British ship HMS Pandora is spotted approaching and Christian decide they must part ways. Byam and several crew members remain on the island for the ship to take them back to England, while Christian leads the remaining crew, his wife and several Tahitian men and women back on board Bounty in search of a new island on which to seek refuge. Byam boards, much to his surprise, discovers that Bligh is the captain. Bligh, who suspects that Byam was complicit in the mutiny, has him imprisoned for the remainder of the journey across the sea. Back in England Byam found guilty of mutiny. Before the court condemns him, Byam speaks of Bligh's dehumanising conduct aboard Bounty. Due to the intervention of his friend Sir Joseph Banks and Lord Hood, Byam is pardoned by King George III and allowed to resume his naval career at sea. Meanwhile, Christian has found Pitcairn, an uninhabited yet sustainable island that he believes will provide adequate refuge from the reach of the Royal Navy. After Bounty crashes on the rocks, Christian orders her to be burned.

The movie contains several historical inaccuracies. Captain Bligh was never on board HMS Pandora, nor was he present at the trial of the mutineers who stayed on Tahiti. At the time he was halfway around the world on a second voyage for breadfruit plants. Fletcher Christian's father had died many years before Christian's travels on board Bounty, whereas the film shows the elder Christian at the trial; the movie was always presented as an adaptation of the Nordhoff and Hall trilogy, which differed from the actual story of the mutiny. Bligh is depicted as a sadistic disciplinarian. Particular episodes include a keelhauling and flogging a dead man. Neither of these happened. Keelhauling was used if at all, had been abandoned long before Bligh's time. Indeed, the meticulous record of Bounty's log reveals that the flogging rate was lower than the average for that time. Prior to the mutiny, Bounty had only two deaths—one seaman died of scurvy, the ship's surgeon died of drink and indolence and not as a result of abuse by Bligh.

The film shows the mutineers taking over the ship only after killing several loyal crewmen, when in fact none died. Lastly, Christian is shown being inspired to take over the ship after several crewmen have unjustly been put into irons b

Delaware Trust Building

Delaware Trust Building, now known as The Residences at Rodney Square, is a historic office building and bank headquarters located at Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware. It was built in 1921, as a 13-story, 15-bay-by-15 bay, U-shaped steel-frame building in the Classical Revival style; the building has a watertable of gray granite, a limestone-clad two-story plus mezzanine base, a shaft of buff-colored brick. Atop the building is a limestone cornice; the Market Street elevation features three monumental-scaled arched entrance openings reminiscent of ancient Roman buildings. It once had a 22-story modern office building at its center; the building has been converted to residential use. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2003; the Delaware Trust Building was built in phases beginning with the first section at 9th and Market Streets in 1919–21. It was commissioned by William du Pont and Alfred I. du Pont to house the Delaware Trust Company and other businesses associated with the du Ponts.

The original 13-story building cost $1.2 million. In 1930, it was expanded into a U-shaped building with two additional wings extending north along Market and King Streets. Phillip T. Harris of Philadelphia was the architect for this project, which cost a further $1.2 million. A five-story addition was built in 1938 in the center courtyard of the building, used for parking. In 1958–60, a modernist 22-story office tower was added to the center of the building, replacing the 1938 section; this was known as the Hercules Tower after its main tenant, the Hercules Powder Company, had its own separate entrance at 910 Market Street in addition to being connected to the existing building. The tower was designed by local architect W. Ellis Preston. At 287 feet, it was the tallest building in Delaware until being surpassed by 1201 North Market Street in 1988. In 1997, the building was damaged by a fire that burned much of the 11th–15th floors and was determined to have been caused by arson; the fire caused the building to become contaminated with asbestos fibers and it was left vacant during a protracted battle between the owners and insurer over the cost of cleanup.

In 2002, the building was sold and converted to residential use with the name The Residences at Rodney Square. In order to allow more light into the apartments, the Hercules Tower was demolished and the walls facing the courtyard were reconstructed. In 2003, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In its current configuration, the Delaware Trust Building is a 13-story, U-shaped building with the three sides of the U extending along Market, 9th, King Streets; the building's two-story base is clad in limestone, with a granite water table, the upper floors are faced with buff-colored brick and limestone trim. The Market Street elevation has three large arched entrances and is ornamented with Classical Revival elements including pilasters, rusticated stonework and other carved details. A dentiled cornice extends around the building above the second floor and there are string courses above the third and eleventh floors. Arched windows on the 13th floor mark the top of the building.

Media related to Delaware Trust Building at Wikimedia Commons The Residences at Rodney Square website

Parc Monceau

Parc Monceau is a public park situated in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France, at the junction of Boulevard de Courcelles, Rue de Prony and Rue Georges Berger. At the main entrance is a rotunda; the park covers an area of 8.2 hectares. The park was established by Phillippe d'Orléans, Duke of Chartres, a cousin of King Louis XVI, fabulously wealthy, active in court politics and society. In 1769 he had begun purchasing the land. In 1778, he decided to create a public park, employed the writer and painter Louis Carrogis Carmontelle to design the gardens; the Duke was a close friend of the Prince of Wales George IV, a lover of all things English. His intention was to create what was called an Anglo-Chinese or English garden, on the earlier model of Stowe House in England, with its examples of the architectural folly, or fantastic reconstructions of buildings of different ages and continents, it was similar in style to several other examples of the French landscape garden built at about the same time, including the Desert de Retz, the gardens of the Château de Bagatelle and the Folie Saint James.

Carmontelle employed a German landscape architect named Etickhausen and the architect of the Duke, Bernard Poyet, to build the follies. The intention of the garden was to amaze visitors; this goal was stated by Carmontelle: "It is not necessary for gardens or nature to be presented in the most agreeable forms. It's necessary instead to preserve the charm that one encounters entering the garden, to renew it with each step, so that the visitor in his soul will have the desire to revisit the garden every day and to possess it for himself; the true art is to know how to keep the visitors there, through a variety of objects, otherwise they will go to the real countryside to find what should be found in this garden. The garden designed by Carmontelle was finished in 1779, it contained a miniature ancient Egyptian pyramid, a Roman colonnade, antique statues, a pond of water lilies, a tatar tent, a farmhouse, a Dutch windmill, a temple of Mars, a minaret, an Italian vineyard, an enchanted grotto, "a gothic building serving as a chemistry laboratory," as described by Carmontelle.

In addition to the follies, the garden featured servants dressed in oriental and other exotic costumes, unusual animals, such as camels. Though the Folly was described as an Anglo-Chinese or English garden, its architect, had a different view. In his work, Jardin de Monceau, près de Paris, he wrote: "It was not at all an English garden, intended at Monceau, but what the critics said, it is a fantasy, to have an extraordinary garden, a pure amusement, not at all the desire to mimic a nation which, when it makes a "natural" garden, uses a roller on all the greens and spoils nature."As garden fashions changed, in 1781 parts of the park were remodeled into a more traditional English landscape style by the Scottish landscape gardener Thomas Blaikie. In 1787, a new city wall, the Wall of the Farmers-General, was built along the northern edge of the garden, along with a circular rotunda in the form of a classical Doric temple, known as the Pavilion de Chartres, designed by Claude Nicolas Ledoux; the ground floor of the temple was used as a customs house, while the upper floor was an apartment with a view of the garden reserved for the Duke.

While The Duke was a supporter of the ideas of the French Revolution, voted, as a member of the Assembly, for the execution of his own cousin, Louis XVI, it did not save him. He was guillotined during the Reign of Terror in 1793, the park was nationalized. In 1797, Parc Monceau was the site of the first silk parachute jump, when André-Jacques Garnerin jumped from a Montgolfier hot air balloon, landing in the park where a large crowd was gathered. After the monarchy was restored, the park was returned to the family of the Duke. During the Second Empire, the family sold lots within the park to real estate developers, who built luxurious town houses, reducing the size of the park by half; the remaining part of the park was purchased by the city of Paris in 1860. All that remained of the original folly was the water lily pond, the stream and the fantasy "tombs", including the Egyptian pyramid. In 1860, the park was purchased by the city, in August 1861 Parc Monceau became the first new public park in Paris to be created by Baron Haussmann as part of the grand transformation of Paris begun by Emperor Louis Napoleon.

Two main alleys were laid out from east to west and north to south, meeting in the center of the park, the alleys within the park were widened and paved, so carriages could drive the park. An ornamental gate 8.3 m high was installed along a newly created avenue, boulevard Malesherbes, curving paths were laid out around the park for strolling. The pavillon de Chartres was modified by the architect, Gabriel Davioud, who had a graceful classical dome added to the structure, he built a bridge modeled after the Rialto bridge in Venice over the stream to replace the Chinese bridge by Carmontelle that had once been there. He preserved the other follies remaining from the original garden. Haussmann embellished the park with a rich collection of exotic trees and flowers from around the world. In 1871, following the downfall of Louis Napoleon, the subsequent uprising and crushing of the Paris Commune, the park was the site of a massacre of Communards by army troops. Claude Monet painted a series of three paintings of the park in the spring of 1876.

He painted three further paintings of the park in 1878. Hector Berlioz was a

Vernon S. Shaffer

Vernon Spitler Shaffer was an American farmer and Republican politician who represented Shenandoah County part-time in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1950 until his death in 1958. Shaffer was born in Page County and educated in its public schools, he married Mary Leah Stover and they lived in Maurertown, Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley region. They had at least two sons: John Vernon Shaffer. A chicken farmer and Republican, Shaffer was president of Inc.. He served on the Virginia World War II Memorial Commission, his eldest son William Robert Shaffer of Woodstock, Virginia represented Shenandoah County in the House of Delegates from 1942 until 1947, when fellow Republican William C. Lambert took over for a term, his younger son John Vernon Shaffer continued the family business and civic traditions, but joined the Presbyterian church. Shenandoah County voters elected Vernon S. Shaffer their delegate to the Virginia General Assembly in November 1949, so he assumed that office in January, he was re-elected in 1951, 1953, 1955 and 1957.

During his last three terms, the Massive Resistance crisis embroiled Virginia because the Byrd Organization followed the lead of U. S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, who refused to allow desegregation of Virginia's schools despite the U. S. Supreme Court's decisions in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and 1955. Although outnumbered by Democrats, Shaffer's and Republican state senator Ted Dalton's voices were among the few moderates during the 1956 legislative session that narrowly rejected an interposition resolution and in the special legislative session that adopted the Stanley plan. By 1956, Shenandoah County had decided to integrate its schools, the Byrd Organization's Stanley plan proposed to close all schools that integrated. Shaffer and Democratic delegates Kathryn H. Stone of Arlington and John C. Webb of Fairfax became the only three delegates to oppose all seven anti-NAACP laws contained in the Stanley plan. Shaffer died on May 3, 1958 and was buried at Massanutten cemetery in Woodstock, where his wife joined him in 1973.

On January 19, 1959 both the Virginia Supreme Court in Harrison v. Day and a three judge federal panel declared parts of the Stanley plan unconstitutional, just over four years the United States Supreme Court would declare the anti-NAACP laws unconstitutional in NAACP v. Button. Fellow RepublicanWilbur O. Riley replaced Shaffer for the remainder of his term. However, W. Howard Ellifrits, a Republican banker who had served as elected Court Clerk of Shenandoah County, won election as Shenandoah county's delegate in the next general election in 1959

Brillante Mendoza

Brillante "Dante" Mendoza is a Filipino independent film director. He was raised in San Fernando, Pampanga, he took advertising arts of the College of Architecture and fine arts at the University of Santo Tomas. He has directed sixteen films since 2005, he won the award for Best Director for his film Kinatay at the 62nd Cannes Film Festival. His 2009 film Lola won the award for Best Film at the 6th Dubai International Film Festival, his 2012 film Captive was shown in competition at the 62nd Berlin International Film Festival in February 2012. His 2012 film Thy Womb competed for the Golden Lion at the 69th Venice International Film Festival, and earned Mendoza the award for Achievement in Directing at the Asia Pacific Screen Awards in 2012. His film Taklub has been selected to be screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival. On 25 July 2016, he directed the first State of the Nation Address of President Rodrigo Duterte. Mendoza was again attached to direct Duterte's second State of the Nation Address on 24 July 2017.

Brillante Mendoza on IMDb


Nifuroxazide is an oral nitrofuran antibiotic, patented since 1966 and used to treat colitis and diarrhoea in humans and non-humans. It is sold under the brand names Ambatrol, Bacifurane, Diafuryl, Pérabacticel, Diax, Ercefuryl, Endiex, Pentofuryl, Enterovid, Enterocolin,TERRACOLIN 100Mg./200Mg. Apazid and Septidiaryl, it is sold in capsule form and as a suspension. A 2016 clinical trial showed Nifuroxazide to be more effective compared to probiotics in treating acute diarrhea in adults. Maurice Claude Ernest Carron patented the drug in the United States in 1966. Subsequent patents issued to Germano Cagliero of Marxer S.p. A describe the use of nifuroxazide as an antibiotic used to treat livestock. In 1997, in an Ivory Coast promotional leaflet, GlaxoSmithKline claimed that nifuroxazide is an anti-dehydration treatment, "neutralise microbacterials" in diarrhoea, has "a spectrum which covers most enteropathogenic microbacterials, Escherichia coli, Staphylococci, Yersinia"; the international non-profit organization Healthy Skepticism, at the time using their former name, Medical Lobby for Appropriate Marketing, stating "We have not found any scientific evidence to support these claims."

A 2016 clinical trial showed Nifuroxazide to treat diarrhea in an average of 2 days compared to 5 days with probiotics