The Karnak Temple Complex known as Karnak, comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels and other buildings near Luxor, in Egypt. Construction at the complex began during the reign of Senusret I in the Middle Kingdom and continued into the Ptolemaic period, although most of the extant buildings date from the New Kingdom; the area around Karnak was the ancient Egyptian Ipet-isut and the main place of worship of the eighteenth dynasty Theban Triad with the god Amun as its head. It is part of the monumental city of Thebes; the Karnak complex gives its name to the nearby, surrounded, modern village of El-Karnak, 2.5 kilometres north of Luxor. The complex includes the Karnak Open Air Museum, it is believed to be the second most visited historical site in Egypt. It consists of four main parts, of which only the largest is open to the general public; the term Karnak is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public.
There are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, the Luxor Temple. The Precinct of Mut is ancient, being dedicated to an Earth and creation deity, but not yet restored; the original temple was destroyed and restored by Hatshepsut, although another pharaoh built around it in order to change the focus or orientation of the sacred area. Many portions of it may have been carried away for use in other buildings; the key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction of temples continued into Ptolemaic times. Thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features are overwhelming; the deities represented range from some of the earliest worshiped to those worshiped much in the history of the Ancient Egyptian culture.
Although destroyed, it contained an early temple built by Amenhotep IV, the pharaoh who would celebrate a near monotheistic religion he established that prompted him to move his court and religious center away from Thebes. It contains evidence of adaptations, using buildings of the Ancient Egyptians by cultures for their own religious purposes. One famous aspect of Karnak is the Hypostyle Hall in the Precinct of Amun-Re, a hall area of 50,000 sq ft with 134 massive columns arranged in 16 rows. 122 of these columns are 10 meters tall, the other 12 are 21 meters tall with a diameter of over three meters. The architraves on top of these columns are estimated to weigh 70 tons; these architraves may have been lifted to these heights using levers. This would be an time-consuming process and would require great balance to get to such great heights. A common alternative theory regarding how they were moved is that large ramps were constructed of sand, brick or stone and that the stones were towed up the ramps.
If stone had been used for the ramps, they would have been able to use much less material. The top of the ramps would have employed either wooden tracks or cobblestones for towing the megaliths. There is an unfinished pillar in an out-of-the-way location that indicates how it would have been finished. Final carving was executed after the drums were put in place so that it was not damaged while being placed. Several experiments moving megaliths with ancient technology were made at other locations – some of them are listed here. In 2009 UCLA launched a website dedicated to virtual reality digital reconstructions of the Karnak complex and other resources; the sun god's shrine has light focused upon it during the winter solstice. The history of the Karnak complex is the history of Thebes and its changing role in the culture. Religious centers varied by region, when a new capital of the unified culture was established, the religious centers in that area gained prominence; the city of Thebes does not appear to have been of great significance before the Eleventh dynasty and previous temple building there would have been small, with shrines being dedicated to the early deities of Thebes, the Earth goddess Mut and Montu.
Early building was destroyed by invaders. The earliest known artifact found in the area of the temple is a small, eight-sided column from the Eleventh Dynasty, which mentions Amun-Re. Amun was long the local tutelary deity of Thebes, he was identified with the goose. The Egyptian meaning of Amun is, "hidden" or, the "hidden god". Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the Eighteenth dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt; every pharaoh of that dynasty added something to the temple site. Thutmose I erected an enclosure wall connecting the Fourth and Fifth pylons, which comprise the earliest part of the temple still standing in situ. Hatshepsut had monuments constructed and restored the original Precinct of Mut, the ancient great goddess of Egypt, ravaged by the foreign rulers during the Hyksos occupation, she had at the time the tallest in the world, erected at the entrance to the temple. One still stands, as the tallest surviving ancient obelisk on Earth.
Another of her projects at the site, Karnak's Red C
Winifred Mabel Brunton née Newberry was a South African painter and Egyptologist. Brunton was born in 1880 in the Orange Free State South Africa, her father, Charles Newberry, a millionaire who made his money in Kimberly, was the builder of Prynnsberg Estate. Her mother Elizabeth was the daughter of a missionary to Moshoeshoe I and was herself intensely artistic. Winifred was presented at court in 1898 in London when she met Guy Brunton, an Egyptologist who became her husband, they built the house in Berea, Johannesburg, in the same year they were married. She became best known for her portraits of Egyptian pharaohs, published as Kings and Queens of Ancient Egypt and Great Ones of Ancient Egypt, she married Egyptologist Guy Brunton on 28 April 1906 and together they studied at University College London, during which time she painted a portrait of Flinders Petrie in 1912, now in the collection of UCL Art Collection. At UCL they trained with Margaret Murray, before travelling to Lahun in Egypt to join Flinders Petrie for fieldwork in 1912-14.
Working with her husband on the archaeological digs, she studied the evidence of the various painting and the mummies to develop her final portraits. Guy and Winifred both continued to contribute to excavations organised by Flinders Petrie's British School of Archaeology in Egypt in the 1920s at sites like Badari, with Winifred drawing many of the objects discovered. Brunton died, aged 78, in Free State, South Africa, her portraits have been hugely influential and defined the faces of the Pharaohs and the Queens in Popular culture and have been adopted in many films and documentaries. 1926. Kings and Queens of Ancient Egypt. Portraits by Winifred Brunton. History by Eminent Egyptologists. London. 1929. Great Ones of Ancient Egypt. Portraits by Winifred Brunton. Historical Studies by various Egyptologists Egypt: The Artwork of Winifred Brunton
Tomb of Horemheb
The Memphite tomb of Horemheb is located in the Saqqara necropolis, near Memphis, Egypt. It was constructed before Horemheb ascended to the throne and was never used for his burial, since he built the Theban tomb KV57 for this purpose, his two wives Mutnedjmet and Amenia were buried within the structure. The tomb was discovered by art robbers at the beginning of the 19th century. Looted reliefs were acquired by a number of American museums; the tomb's location was lost, it was relocated in 1975 and excavated in 1979. The tomb was built in 3 phases; the first design consisted of an entry pylon into forecourt, a colonnaded court containing the burial shaft and 3 chapels or offering rooms. Intrusive burials were found in the side chapels; the forecourt was walled to produce 2 small chapels, one at each side. They were entered by two new piercings through the pylon. A new walled forecourt was constructed in front of the pylon. To make this extension a 5th/6th Dynasty mastaba was demolished and the burial shaft with a burial chamber some 17m below incorporated into the new forecourt.
Burials from the 19th Dynasty were found at 9m depth. The forecourt was closed by a pylon some 7m high and colonnaded to form the first peristyle open court; the narrowed original forecourt was covered with a vaulted roof and contained statues while the chapels became storage rooms.2Military scenes were carved on the original peristyle court and scenes showing Horemheb's duties in office on the walls of the first peristyle open court including one where he deputised for Tutankhamun on the north wall. On the North wall are scenes from the funeral, showing kiosks with smash pots and mourners. Only the lowest register is well preserved. From the next register above only the legs of horses and the wheels of chariots are visible. On the east wall, on the north side are shown houses; the wall is in general only badly preserved. Careful inspection shows. Martin, G. T.. The Memphite Tomb of Horemheb,Commander-in-Chief of Tutcankhamûn, I. London. Martin, G. T.. The Hidden Tombs of Memphis. London. ISBN 0500390266
Horemheb was the last pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. He ruled for 14 years somewhere between 1319 BC and 1292 BC, he had no relation to the preceding royal family other than by marriage to Mutnedjmet, disputed to have been the daughter of his predecessor Ay. Before he became pharaoh, Horemheb was the commander in chief of the army under the reigns of Tutankhamun and Ay. After his accession to the throne, he reformed the Egyptian state and it was under his reign that official action against the preceding Amarna rulers began. Due to this, he is considered the man who restabilized his country after the troublesome and divisive Amarna Period. Horemheb demolished monuments of Akhenaten, reusing their remains in his own building projects, usurped monuments of Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb remained childless since he appointed his vizier Paramesse as his successor, who would assume the throne as Ramesses I. Horemheb is believed to have originated from Herakleopolis Magna or ancient Hnes on the west bank of the Nile near the entrance to the Fayum since his coronation text formally credits the God Horus of Hnes for establishing him on the throne.
His parentage is unknown but he is believed to have been a commoner. According to the French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal, Horemheb does not appear to be the same person as Paatenemheb, the commander-in-chief of Akhenaten's army. Grimal notes that Horemheb's political career first began under Tutankhamun where he "is depicted at this king's side in his own tomb chapel at Memphis."In the earliest known stage of his life, Horemheb served as "the royal spokesman for foreign affairs" and led a diplomatic mission to visit the Nubian governors. This resulted in a reciprocal visit by "the Prince of Miam" to Tutankhamun's court, "an event depicted in the tomb of the Viceroy Huy." Horemheb rose to prominence under Tutankhamun, becoming commander-in-chief of the army and advisor to the pharaoh. Horemheb's specific titles are spelled out in his Saqqara tomb, built while he was still only an official: "Hereditary Prince, Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King, Chief Commander of the Army"; the royal couple depicted in this scene and in the adjacent scene 76, which shows Horemheb acting as an intermediary between the king and a group of subject foreign rulers, are therefore to be identified as Tut'ankhamun and'Ankhesenamun.
This makes it unlikely from the start that any titles of honours claimed by Horemheb in the inscriptions in the tomb are fictitious. The title iry-pat was used frequently in Horemheb's Saqqara tomb but not combined with any other words; when used alone, the Egyptologist Alan Gardiner has shown that the iry-pat title contains features of ancient descent and lawful inheritance, identical to the designation for a "Crown Prince." This means that Horemheb was the recognised heir to Tutankhamun's throne and not Ay, Tutankhamun's ultimate successor. As the Dutch Egyptologist Jacobus Van Dijk observes: There is no indication that Horemheb always intended to succeed Tut'ankhamun, it must always have been understood that his appointment as crown prince would end as soon as the king produced an heir, that he would succeed Tut'ankhamun only in the eventuality of an early and/or childless death of the sovereign. There can be no doubt that nobody outranked the Hereditary Prince of Upper and Lower Egypt and Deputy of the King in the Entire Land except the king himself, that Horemheb was entitled to the throne once the king had unexpectedly died without issue.
This means. Why was Ay able to ascend the throne upon the death of Tut'ankhamun, despite the fact that Horemheb had at that time been the official heir to the throne for ten years? The aged Vizier Ay sidelined Horemheb's claim to the throne and instead succeeded Tutankhamun because Horemheb was in Asia with the army at the time of Tutankhamun's death. No objects belonging to Horemheb were found in Tutankhamun's tomb, but items donated by other high-ranking officials such as Maya and Nakhtmin were found in there by Egyptologists. Further, Tutankhamun's queen, refused to marry Horemheb, a commoner, so make him king of Egypt. Having pushed Horemheb's claims aside, Ay proceeded to nominate the aforementioned Nakhtmin, Ay's son or adopted son, to succeed him rather than Horemheb. After Ay's reign, which lasted for a little over four years, Horemheb managed to seize power thanks to his position as commander of the army, to assume what he must have perceived to be his just reward for having ably served E
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin and of the Piedmont region, was the first capital city of Italy from 1861 to 1865; the city is located on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 878,074 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million. The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, churches, opera houses, parks, theatres, libraries and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy.
The city used to be a major European political center. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy, the first capital of the unified Italy from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour; the city hosts some of Italy's best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, the Turin Polytechnic. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Mole Antonelliana. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. Though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry and trade, is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third after Milan and Rome, for economic strength.
With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power. As of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry. Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F. C. and Torino F. C. the headquarters of automobile manufacturers Fiat and Alfa Romeo, as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres; the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history, it is believed that a Roman colony was established in 9 BC under the name of Julia Augusta Taurinorum. Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.
In the 1st century BC, the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama; the Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at all living inside the high city walls. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but conquered again by the Lombards and the Franks of Charlemagne; the Contea di Torino was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control.
While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century; the University of Turin was founded during this period. Emmanuel Philibert known under the nickname of Iron Head, made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale and Via Nuova were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquir
The Theban Tomb TT255 is located in Dra' Abu el-Naga'. It forms part of the Theban Necropolis, situated on the west bank of the Nile opposite Luxor; the sepulchre is the burial place of the Ancient Egyptian Roy, who lived at the end of the 18th dynasty, during the reign of Horemheb. The tomb is small, consisting of only one small chamber with a niche and burial shaft, but it is well decorated; the quality and bright colours of its paintings, makes up for the tomb's diminutive size. It is one of the 2 tombs in Dra' Abu el-Naga', open to the public. Roy was a "Royal Scribe of Amun," during Horemheb's reign, his wife, who appears with him in the tomb paintings, is named as Nebtawy, or'Tawy' for short
Ankhesenamun was a queen of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. Born as Ankhesenpaaten, she was the third of six known daughters of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti, became the Great Royal Wife of her half-brother Tutankhamun; the change in her name reflects the changes in Ancient Egyptian religion during her lifetime after her father's death. Her youth is well documented in the ancient paintings of the reign of her parents. Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun shared the same father but Tutankhamun's mother has been established by genetic evidence as one of Akhenaten's sisters, a daughter of Amenhotep III, she was most born in year 4 of Akhenaten's reign and by year 12 of her father's reign she was joined by her three younger sisters. He made his wife his co-regent and had his family portrayed in a realistic style in all official artwork. Ankhesenamun was married to one king, it is possible that she was married to Tutankhamun's successor, Ay, believed by some to be her maternal grandfather.
It has been posited that she may have been the Great Royal Wife of her father, after the possible death of her mother, co-regent of Akhenaten's immediate successor, Smenkhkare. Recent DNA tests released in February 2010 have speculated that one of two late 18th dynasty queens buried in KV21 could be her mummy. Both mummies are thought, because of DNA. Ankhesenpaaten was born in a time when Egypt was in the midst of an unprecedented religious revolution, her father had abandoned the old deities of Egypt in favor of the Aten, hitherto a minor aspect of the sun-god, characterised as the sun's disc. She is believed to have been born in Waset, but grew up in her father's new capital city of Akhetaten; the three eldest daughters – Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten – became the "Senior Princesses" and participated in many functions of the government and religion. Her birthdate is not known, she is believed to have been married first to her own father. This was not unusual for Egyptian royal families, she is thought to have been the mother of the princess Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit, although the parentage is unclear.
After her father's death and the short reigns of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten, she became the wife of Tutankhamun. Following their marriage, the couple honored the deities of the restored religion by changing their names to Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun; the couple appear to have had two stillborn daughters. As Tutankhamun's only known wife was Ankhesenamun, it is likely the fetuses found in Tutankhamun's tomb are her daughters; some time in the ninth year of his reign, at about the age of eighteen, Tutankhamun died leaving Ankhesenamun alone without an heir at about age twenty-one. A ring discovered is thought to show that Ankhesenamun married Ay shortly before she disappeared from history, although no monuments show her as a royal consort. On the walls of Ay's tomb it is Tey, not Ankhesenamun, she died during or shortly after his reign and no burial has been found for her yet. A document was found in the ancient Hittite capital of Hattusa; the Hittite ruler receives a letter from the Egyptian queen, while being in siege on Karkemish.
The letter reads: My husband has died and I have no son. They say about you. You might give me one of your sons to become my husband. I would not wish to take one of my subjects as a husband... I am afraid; this document is considered extraordinary, as Egyptians traditionally considered foreigners to be inferior. Suppiluliuma I was surprised and exclaimed to his courtiers: Nothing like this has happened to me in my entire life! Understandably, he was wary, had an envoy investigate, but by so doing, he missed his chance to bring Egypt into his empire, he did send one of his sons, but the prince died murdered, en route. The identity of the queen who wrote the letter is uncertain, she is called Dakhamunzu in the Hittite annuals, a possible transliteration of the Egyptian title Tahemetnesu. Possible candidates are Nefertiti and Ankhesenamun. Ankhesenamun seemed once since there were no candidates for the throne on the death of her husband, whereas Akhenaten had at least two legitimate successors, but this was based on a 27-year reign for the last 18th pharaoh Horemheb, now accepted to have had a shorter reign of only 14 years.
This makes. The phrase regarding marriage to'one of my subjects' is a reference to the Grand Vizier Ay or a secondary member of the Egyptian royal family line. Since Nefertiti was depicted as powerful as her husband in official monuments smiting Egypt's enemies, she might be the Dakhamunzu in the Amarna correspondence as Nicholas Reeves believes. Ankhesenamun may have been pressured by Ay to marry him and legitimise his claim to the throne of Egypt This might explain why she describes herself as'afraid' considering the popular theory that Ay had a hand in her husband's death. A CT scan taken in 2005 shows that he had badly broken his leg shortly before his death, that the leg had become infected. DNA analysis conducted in 2010 showed the presence of malaria in his system, it is believed that these two conditions