Zhili romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty until the region was dissolved in 1911 and converted as a province and renamed as Hebei in 1928. The name Zhili means "directly ruled" and indicates regions directly ruled by the imperial government of China. Zhili province was first constituted during the Ming Dynasty when the capital of China was located at Nanjing along the Yangtze River. In 1403, the Ming Yongle Emperor relocated the capital to Beiping, subsequently renamed Beijing; the region known as North Zhili was composed of parts of the modern provinces of Hebei, Shandong, including the provincial-level municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. There was another region located around the "reserve capital" Nanjing known as South Zhili that included parts of what are today the provinces of Jiangsu and Anhui, including the provincial-level municipality of Shanghai. During the Qing Dynasty, Nanjing lost its status of the "second capital" and Southern Zhili was reconstituted as a regular province, while Northern Zhili was renamed Zhili Province.
In the 18th century the borders of Zhili province were redrawn and spread over what is today Beijing and the provinces of Hebei, Western Liaoning, Northern Henan, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. After the collapse of Qing Dynasty, in 1911, the National Government of the Republic of China converted Zhili into a province as Zhili Province. In 1928 the National Government assigned portions of northern Zhili province to its neighbors in the north and renamed the remainder Hebei Province. Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850
Viceroy of Liangjiang
The Viceroy of Liangjiang or Viceroy of the Two Jiangs referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of the Two Yangtze Provinces and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Funds, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Liangjiang had jurisdiction over Jiangsu and Anhui provinces; because Jiangsu and Anhui were part of a single province, they were thus known, along with Jiangxi, as the two jiangs, hence the name "Liangjiang". The office of Viceroy of Liangjiang originated in 1647 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, it was called "Viceroy of the Three Provinces of Jiangdong and Henan" and headquartered in Jiangning. In 1652, the office was renamed "Viceroy of Jiangxi" and its headquarters shifted to Nanchang for a short while before the old system was restored. During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, in 1661 and 1674 two separate Viceroy offices were created for Jiangdong and Jiangxi, but they were merged under the Viceroy of Liangjiang in 1665 and 1682 respectively.
The office's name had remained as "Viceroy of Liangjiang" since then. In 1723, the Yongzheng Emperor ordered that the Viceroy of Liangjiang would concurrently hold the appointments of Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief of the Detection Branch in the Censorate. In 1831, the Daoguang Emperor put the Viceroy of Liangjiang in charge of the salt trade in the Huai River area. During the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor, the Taiping rebels captured Jiangning and designated it as their capital; the headquarters of the Viceroy of Liangjiang shifted across different locations, including Yangzhou, Shanghai and Anqing. In 1866, during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor, the Viceroy of Liangjiang was put in charge of trade and commerce in the five treaty ports, he concurrently held the appointment of "Nanyang Trade Minister". After the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912, the former headquarters of the Viceroy of Liangjiang in Nanjing was converted into a Presidential Palace for the President of the Republic of China until 1949.
Zhao, Erxun. Draft History of Qing. Volumes 197–199
The Beiyang Army was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century. It was the centerpiece of a general reconstruction of Qing China's military system; the Beiyang Army played a major role in Chinese politics for at least three decades and arguably right up to 1949. It made the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 possible, and, by dividing into warlord factions known as the Beiyang Clique, ushered in a period of regional division; the Beiyang Army was created from Li Hongzhang's Huai Army, which first saw action during the Taiping Rebellion. Unlike the traditional Green Standard or Banner forces of the Qing, the Huai Army was a militia army based on personal, rather than institutional, loyalties; the Huai Army was at first equipped with a mixture of modern weapons. Its creator, Li Hongzhang, used the customs and tax revenues of the five provinces under his control in the 1880s and 1890s to modernize segments of the Huai Army, to build a modern navy.
It is around this time that the term "Beiyang Army" began to be used to refer to the military forces under his control. The term "Beiyang", meaning "Northern Ocean", refers to the customs revenues collected in North China, which were used first to fund the Beiyang Fleet and the Beiyang Army. However, funding was irregular and training by no means systematic, it was said "In the end there is no doubt that Japan must be utterly crushed." By the British military adviser Captain William M. Lang. By the mid-1890s the Beiyang Army was the best regional formation; the First Sino-Japanese War was fought entirely by the Beiyang Army, unsupported by the forces of other provinces. In the war the Beiyang Fleet, which included two pre-Dreadnought battleships, was overwhelmed by the well-served quick-firing guns of a lighter Japanese fleet. On land, Japan's German-styled conscript army, led by academy trained professional officers, handily defeated the Beiyang Army; some Beiyang officers were academy trained at the Tianjin Military Academy in Western style drill with foreign advisors.
The Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves formed part of the Beiyang Army. Li Hongzhang died in 1901 and was replaced by Yuan Shikai, who took on Li's appointment as Viceroy of Zhili and as Minister of Beiyang. Yuan had been given command in 1895 of the brigade-sized New Created Army. Many of his officers became leading figures of the warlord period, they included Xu Shichang, Cao Kun, Duan Qirui and Feng Guozhang. Yuan Shikai oversaw the reform—albeit piecemeal—of Qing military institutions after 1901 of his Beiyang Army, he founded the Baoding Military Academy, which allowed him to expand the Beiyang Army, along with several other military schools and officer training academies. The force grew to a strength of 20,000 by 1902. With the creation of the Commission for Army Reorganisation in December 1903, the Beiyang Army became the model on which the military forces of other provinces should be standardized. By the summer of 1904 there were three full divisions and in 1905 Yuan had increased the Beiyang Army to six divisions of more than 10,000 men each.
A seventh division was formed in 1907. Although some units were based in the three northeastern provinces in Manchuria, the main base of the Beiyang Army was at Baoding, near Tianjin. In the early 1900s, a department for military administration was created for the Beiyang divisions to manage logistics, divided into several branches, it was the opinion of foreign observers that the Beiyang Army was the largest, best equipped and best trained military force in China at the time, not Western and/or colonial. The Empress Dowager Cixi died on 15 November 1908 and named the three-year-old Puyi as the new emperor; the new regent and father of Puyi, Prince Chun, had Yuan Shikai dismissed the next year. Yuan bided his time in retirement maintaining his network of personal contacts in the Beiyang Army. At the time of the 1911 Revolution, command of the Beiyang Army was in the hands of the Qing minister Yinchang. In reality, Yuan Shikai still had the ability to manipulate it due to the loyalties of its officers to him personally.
Four divisions were located in Zhili, the 3rd Division being in northeast China and the 5th Division in Shandong. All the officers were ethnically Chinese, many of whom were returned students from Japan. Armament was better in that respect than either before or later. Most of the infantry were armed with either the standard 1896 Japanese Type 30 rifle or the Mauser 7.9 mm. The events of the revolution demonstrated that the Beiyang Army, which formed the core of the 36-division New Army, was the dominant military force within China. Controlling the fragmented loyalties of its formations was the key to political power in post–1911 China; the insurrection that set off the 1911 Revolution took place in Wuchang on 10 October. Four days the Qing court organized the New Armies in the north, the Beiyang Army, into three forces: the First Army, which would be sent to fight at Wuchang under the command of Army Minister Yin
Viceroy of Huguang
The Viceroy of Huguang referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Hubei and Hunan Provinces and the Surrounding Areas. The Viceroy of Huguang had jurisdiction over Hubei and Hunan provinces, which were a single province called "Huguang Province" in the Ming dynasty, hence the name "Huguang"; the office was created in 1644 as the "Viceroy of Huguang" during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor. Its headquarters were in Wuchang, it was abolished in 1668 during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor but was restored in 1670 as the "Viceroy of Chuan-Hu", with its headquarters in Chongqing. In 1674, the office of Viceroy of Chuan-Hu was split into the Viceroy of Sichuan and Viceroy of Huguang, had remained as such until 1904. In 1904, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor, the office of Provincial Governor of Hubei was merged into the office of Viceroy of Huguang. Zhao, Erxun. Draft History of Qing
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between China and Japan over influence in Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land and naval forces and the loss of the port of Weihaiwei, the Qing government sued for peace in February 1895; the war demonstrated the failure of the Qing dynasty's attempts to modernize its military and fend off threats to its sovereignty when compared with Japan's successful Meiji Restoration. For the first time, regional dominance in East Asia shifted from China to Japan; the humiliating loss of Korea as a tributary state sparked an unprecedented public outcry. Within China, the defeat was a catalyst for a series of political upheavals led by Sun Yat-sen and Kang Youwei, culminating in the 1911 Xinhai Revolution; the war is known in China as the War of Jiawu, referring to the year as named under the traditional sexagenary system of years. In Japan, it is called the Japan–Qing War. In Korea, where much of the war took place, it is called the Qing–Japan War.
After two centuries, the Japanese policy of seclusion under the shōguns of the Edo period came to an end when the country was opened to trade by the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. In the years following the Meiji Restoration of 1868 and the fall of the shogunate, the newly formed Meiji government embarked on reforms to centralize and modernize Japan; the Japanese had sent delegations and students around the world to learn and assimilate Western arts and sciences, with the intention of making Japan an equal to the Western powers. These reforms transformed Japan from a feudal society into a modern industrial state; the Qing Dynasty had started to undergo reform in both military and political doctrine, but was far from successful. In January 1864, Cheoljong of Joseon died without a male heir, through Korean succession protocols Gojong of Korea ascended the throne at the age of 12. However, as King Gojong was too young to rule, the new king's father, Yi Ha-ŭng, became the Heungseon Daewongun, or lord of the great court, ruled Korea in his son's name as regent.
The term Daewongun referred to any person, not the king but whose son took the throne. With his ascendancy to power the Daewongun initiated a set of reforms designed to strengthen the monarchy at the expense of the Yangban class, he pursued an isolationist policy and was determined to purge the kingdom of any foreign ideas that had infiltrated into the nation. In Korean history, the king's in-laws enjoyed great power the Daewongun acknowledged that any future daughters-in-law might threaten his authority. Therefore, he attempted to prevent any possible threat to his rule by selecting as a new queen for his son an orphaned girl from among the Yŏhŭng Min clan, which lacked powerful political connections. With Empress Myeongseong as his daughter-in-law and the royal consort, the Daewongun felt secure in his power. However, after she had become queen, Min recruited all her relatives and had them appointed to influential positions in the name of the king; the Queen allied herself with political enemies of the Daewongun, so that by late 1873 she had mobilized enough influence to oust him from power.
In October 1873, when the Confucian scholar Choe Ik-hyeon submitted a memorial to King Gojong urging him to rule in his own right, Queen Min seized the opportunity to force her father-in-law's retirement as regent. The departure of the Daewongun led to Korea's abandonment of its isolationist policy. On February 26, 1876, after confrontations between the Japanese and Koreans, the Ganghwa Treaty was signed, opening Korea to Japanese trade. In 1880, the King sent a mission to Japan, headed by Kim Hong-jip, an enthusiastic observer of the reforms taking place there. While in Japan, the Chinese diplomat Huang Zunxian presented him with a study called "Chaoxian Celue", it warned of the threat to Korea posed by the Russians and recommended that Korea maintain friendly relations with Japan, at the time too economically weak to be an immediate threat, to work with China, seek an alliance with the United States as a counterweight to Russia. After returning to Korea, Kim presented the document to King Gojong, so impressed with the document that he had copies made and distributed to his officials.
In 1880, following Chinese advice and breaking with tradition, King Gojong decided to establish diplomatic ties with the United States. After negotiations through Chinese mediation in Tianjin, the Treaty of Peace, Amity and Navigation was formally signed between the United States and Korea in Incheon on May 22, 1882. However, there were two significant issues raised by the treaty, the first concerned Korea's status as an independent nation. During the talks with the Americans, the Chinese insisted that the treaty contain an article declaring that Korea was a dependency of China and argued that the country had long been a tributary state of China, but the Americans opposed such an article, arguing that a treaty with Korea should be based on the Treaty of Ganghwa, which stipulated that Korea was an independent state. A compromise was reached, with Shufeldt and Li agreeing that the King of Korea would notify the U. S president in a letter that Korea had special status as a tributary state of China.
The treaty between the Korean government and the United States became the model for all treaties between it and other Western countries. Korea signed similar trade and commerce treaties with Great Britain and Germany in 1883, with Italy and
Russian invasion of Manchuria
The Russian invasion of Manchuria occurred in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War when concerns regarding China's defeat by the Japanese and the latter's occupation of Manchuria caused the Russians to speed up their long held designs for imperial expansion across Eurasia. With the building of the South Manchuria Railway, Mukden became a Russian stronghold, which occupied it after the Boxer Rebellion; as with all other major powers in China, Russia demanded concessions along with the railroad. During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia became involved due to its presence in the foreign legations. Russian Cossacks formed part of the Eight Nation Alliance relief forces during the Seymour and Gaselee expeditions while Russian forces were present inside the legations during the sieges in Beijing and Tianjin; these forces operated separately from those involved in the invasion of Manchuria, with the entire operation directed by Russians. The Russians invaded Manchuria during the rebellion, defended by Manchu bannermen.
The bannermen were annihilated as they fought to the death against the Russians, each falling one at a time against a five pronged Russian invasion. The Russian anthropologist Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich Shirokogorov reported that the Russians killed many of the Manchus, thousands of them fled south; the Cossacks looted their villages and property and burnt them down. Manchuria was occupied after the fierce fighting that occurred; the Boxers attacks on Chinese Eastern Railway during Boxer Rebellion took place at 1900. In response Russia invaded Manchuria. Chinese Imperial troops engaged in attacks against Russians, in one incident, Chinese troops killed a cossack. Another 15 Russian casualties occurred; the Boxers destroyed railways and cut lines for telegraphs. The Yen-t'ai coal mines were burned by Chinese forces. Chinese used arson to destroy a bridge carrying a barracks in the 27th of July; the Boxers destroyed railways in Manchuria in a strategic manouveres to halt enemy soldiers from moving. Imperial edicts were posted which called for attacks against the Russians, the stations of the South Manchuria Railway came under Boxer control.
With the building of the South Manchurian Railway, Mukden became a Russian stronghold, which occupied it after the Boxer Rebellion. After Russia invaded with regular troops, the railway came under Russian control again; the Battle of Yingkou was a battle where Chinese forces battled against the invading Russian army in the Boxer Rebellion. Unlike the battles in China proper during the Boxer Rebellion, battles between Chinese and foreigners in Manchuria were between Chinese and Russians; the Russians were the sole force attacking Yingkou, at the time one of the main sea ports of Manchuria. Yingkou was divided into a Chinese city. Mishchenko had to engage his reserved troops to win the fight; when the Russians seized the city, a number of Boxers and Chinese Imperial troops managed to pull off an evacuation. A combination of a moat and mud hampered the movement of Russian troops and their guns; the Battle of Pai-t'ou-tzu was an engagement during the Boxer Rebellion between regular Chinese Imperial forces and an outpost of Russian infantry located in Chinese territory.
Before the Boxer rising against foreign influence, an outpost of Russian troops had been located across the Chinese border near the village of Pai-t'ou-tzu, which lay close to Liaoyang. It was garrisoned by 204 Russian troops under Colonel Mishchenko; when hostilities began, the Chinese authorities advanced a guarantee of safe passage in exchange for his retreat to the south of Liaoyang. This was declined, instead Mishchenko called for more Russian troops to reinforce his position. Before the Russian position could be reinforced, fighting broke out. During the opening stages of the ensuing battle, Chinese guns bombarded the Russian right and front flanks, resulting in 14 Russian deaths and 5 wounded. Firing from long range at high trajectories, the Chinese artillery hit their marks, but at closer range proved inaccurate. Chinese regular infantry armed with rifles advanced, crawling under cover artillery fire towards the Russian defense perimeter of about 350 square feet; when the Russian fire slackened the Chinese troops renewed their attack.
Chinese forces alternated between retreat until the Russian position was over-run. Losses on both sides are uncertain but the Russian detachment may have been wiped out; the Battles on the Amur River were border clashes between Chinese Imperial Army troops along with Boxers against Russian forces who aimed for control over the Amur River for navigation. The Chinese summoned all available men to fight, the Chinese forces and garrisons gathered artillery and bombarded Russian troops and towns across the Amur. Despite the Cossacks repulsing Chinese army crossings into Russia, the Chinese army troops increased the amount of artillery and kept up the bombardment. In revenge for the attacks on Chinese villages, Boxer troops burned Russian towns and annihilated a Russian force at Tieling. Russian governor K. N. Gribsky ordered Cossacks to destroy all Chinese posts on Amur river, Cossacks completed the order during July. On July 20, Russian forces crossed the Amur near Blagoveshchensk with support from the steamers Selenga and Sungari.
On July 20, Russian troops captured Saghalien. After the victory over the Chinese forces, the general-governor of Amur Region, Nikolai Grodekov, decided to annex the right bank of the Amur River, sent a telegram to St. Peterburg, but Russian Minister of War Aleksey Kuropatkin forbade such an action: Because
The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty. They were motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and by opposition to Western colonialism and the Christian missionary activity, associated with it, it was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness, known in English as the Boxers, for many of their members had been practitioners of Chinese martial arts referred to in the west as Chinese Boxing. The uprising took place against a background that included severe drought and disruption caused by the growth of foreign spheres of influence; the original cause of the uprising was the particular jurisdictional status of European legations in Peking, which were not subject to Chinese authorities: robber gangs were formed in the out-buildings of the German legation, spreading outrage in the Chinese locals. As a result, opposition to Western colonialism and Christian missionary activity took place.
After several months of growing violence in Shandong and the North China plain against the foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners. Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of an armed invasion by allied American, Austro-Hungarian, French, Italian and Russian forces to lift the siege, the hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians, soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were detained for 55 days by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers. Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing; the supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu claimed he acted to protect the besieged foreigners.
Many officials refused the imperial order to fight against foreigners in their Mutual Protection of Southeast China, because Qing had lost the First Sino-Japanese War five years before. The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, arrived at Peking on August 14, relieving the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers; the Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2018 silver prices and more than the government's annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved. The Empress Dowager sponsored a set of institutional and fiscal changes in a failed attempt to save the dynasty.
The Righteous and Harmonious Fists arose in the inland sections of the northern coastal province of Shandong, long known for social unrest, religious sects, martial societies. American Christian missionaries were the first to refer to the well-trained, athletic young men as "Boxers", because of the martial arts and weapons training they practiced, their primary practice was a type of spiritual possession which involved the whirling of swords, violent prostrations, chanting incantations to deities. The opportunities to fight back Western encroachment and colonization were attractive to unemployed village men, many of whom were teenagers; the tradition of possession and invulnerability went back several hundred years but took on special meaning against the powerful new weapons of the West. The Boxers, armed with rifles and swords, claimed supernatural invulnerability towards blows of cannon, rifle shots, knife attacks. Furthermore, the Boxer groups popularly claimed that millions of soldiers of Heaven would descend to assist them in purifying China of foreign oppression.
These beliefs are characteristic of millenarian movements of nativist resistance the characteristic magical belief, shared by the Ghost Dancers of North America and the Kartelite Cults of Africa, that the believer could be rendered invulnerable to bullets. In 1895, in spite of ambivalence toward their heterodox practices, Yuxian, a Manchu, prefect of Caozhou and would become provincial governor, used the Big Swords Society in fighting bandits; the Big Swords, emboldened by this official support attacked their local Catholic village rivals, who turned to the Church for protection. The Big Swords responded by burning them. "The line between Christians and bandits", remarks one recent historian, "became indistinct." As a result of diplomatic pressure in the capital, Yuxian executed several Big Sword leaders, but did not punish anyone else. More martial secret societies started emerging after this; the early years saw a variety of village activities, not a broad movement with a united purpose. Martial folk religious societies such as the Baguadao prepared the way for the Boxers.
Like the Red Boxing school or the Plum Flower Boxers, the Boxers of Shandong were more concerned with traditional social and moral values, such as filial piety, than with foreign influences. One leader, Zhu Hongdeng (Red Lantern Zh