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Mutual Security Act

The Mutual Security Act of 1951 launched a major American foreign aid program, 1951–61, of grants to numerous countries. It replaced the Marshall Plan; the main goal was to contain the spread of communism. It was a signed on October 1951 by President Harry S. Truman. Annual authorizations were about $7.5 billion, out of a GDP of $340bn in 1951, for military and technical foreign aid to American allies. The aid was aimed at shoring up Western Europe, as the Cold War developed. In 1961 it was replaced by new foreign aid program; the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, created the Agency for International Development, which focused more on Latin America. The Mutual Security Act abolished the Economic Cooperation Administration, which had managed the Marshall Plan and transferred its functions to the newly established Mutual Security Agency; the Agency was established and continued by acts of October 10, 1951 and June 20, 1952 to provide military and technical assistance to friendly nations in the interest of international peace and security, but was abolished by Reorganization Plan No. 7 of 1953, effective August 1, 1953, its functions were transferred to the Foreign Operations Administration.

The act however, was extended by appropriators each fiscal year until the early 1960s. As the Marshall Plan was ending, Congress was in the process of piecing together a new foreign aid proposal designed to unite military and economic programs with technical assistance. In the words of Secretary of State Dean Acheson, who testified before Congress, Western Europe needed assistance against Soviet "encroachment." The measure was intended to signal Washington's resolve to allies and to the Kremlin that the United States was capable of and committed to containing communism globally while it fought a protracted land war in Korea. The measure took about two months to work its way through the House, meeting resistance from fiscal conservatives along the way. Republicans were divided about the cost of the expenditures. John M. Vorys of Ohio summed up GOP support for the measure, noting that military aid to "nations who will fight on our side" is "sound economy." Representative James P. Richards of South Carolina, chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee, noted that the Mutual Security Act was intended "not to fight a war" but "to prevent a war."

Mutual Security Act of 1951 was the successor to the Mutual Defense Assistance Act and the Economic Cooperation Act of 1949, which administered the Marshall plan. It became law on 10 October 1951, created a new, independent agency, the Mutual Security Administration, to supervise all foreign aid programs including military assistance and economic programs that bolstered the defense capability of U. S. allies globally. Submitted on 24 May 1951, President Harry S. Truman's omnibus foreign aid bill got a hostile reception on Capitol Hill. Rapid expansion of national security expenditures during the Korean War had produced alarm over high taxes, large deficits, government controls, a possible "garrison state" among such prominent conservatives as Senator Robert A. Taft. Truman's decision to send U. S. troops to Europe as part of a standing NATO force further antagonized congressional conservatives and exacerbated their fears that European nations were not doing enough for their own defense. Congress thus reduced the administration's request for Mutual Security funds by 15 percent and authorized $5.998 billion and $1.486 billion for military and economic assistance.

The deepest cuts were in economic aid, thus ensuring its subordination to military assistance as "defense support."The Mutual Security Act was renewed each year until 1961, it annually produced struggles over the size of the foreign aid budget, the balance between military and economic aid. The US foreign aid program was reorganized under new Kennedy Administration legislation, with signing of the Foreign Assistance Act and Executive Order 10973 on 3 November 1961, which established the United States Agency for International Development. Development Loan Fund World Bank Morgner, Aurelius. "The American Foreign Aid Program: Costs, Alternatives?," Review of Politics 29#1 pp. 65–75 in JSTOR Peters, Gerhard. May 24, 1951"; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Peters, Gerhard. March 6, 1952"; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Peters, Gerhard. March 6, 1952"; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara.

Peters, Gerhard. March 7, 1952"; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Peters, Gerhard. July 13, 1952"; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Peters, Gerhard. November 18, 1952"; the American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara

Run the Risk

Run the Risk is a British children's game show, which ran from 26 September 1992 to 28 December 1996. It was aired as part of Saturday mornings show Going Live! and Live & Kicking. It is presented by Peter Simon for the entire run alongside Shane Richie, John Eccleston and Bobby Davro, for part of the run with links written by Paul Duddridge; the games the teams had to do involved gunge and were similar to those performed on It's a Knockout. Run the Risk borrowed much from its predecessor, Double Dare, hosted by Peter Simon. In the first few series, there was an opening stunt worth 10 points, followed by three rounds of three questions each, though each team was limited to one correct answer. In round 1, the first question was worth 10 points. All question values increased by 10 with each new round. At the end of each question round, the team that had answered the highest-valued question was given a choice to either "run the risk" by taking part in a timed stunt, or to force another team to "run the risk."

If the team "ran the risk," and completed the conditions of the stunt within the allotted time, the team would receive as many points as the highest-valued question in the round, plus a 20-point bonus for "running the risk" themselves. If the team failed, the other two teams would each receive half of the points. Should the team nominate another team there are no bonus points available, the points go to the team "running the risk", or the nominating team. One final question round was played with no stunt, with 40, 50, 60 points available on each question. After that, the teams face the "Final Risk," an obstacle course. In the first series, this consisted of a simple task. One member from each team was placed inside a large fancy dress costume; the member from the team in the lead was placed directly at the start line, while the other two teams were placed further back based on how far they are trailing the lead team. As well as the obstacles of the course the players had things thrown at them by the rest of the team members.

The first player to complete the course, sit on their respective pyramid, step on the buzzers and be joined by their teammates won the grand prize. Of the other two teams, the team with more points received a second-place prize, the team with fewer points received a third-place prize. In the second series, the final risk became more elaborate. During the obstacle course, the players in fancy dress would have to pick up a block, press a button. Once they'd done this, it released their two teammates who would have to obtain the other two blocks. One of these required climbing up an inflatable cone, on a revolving part of the stage and surrounded by moats of gunge, the other was hidden in the gunge itself; the first team to acquire all 3 blocks and place them together would be the winner. In series the teams were reduced from 3 per team to 2, the format of the "Final Risk" changed. Whilst the obstacle course was maintained, at the end of it the team member in fancy dress would hand over to their teammate in normal uniform, they would have to climb up a large inflatable slide next to the moat of gunge, whilst gunge was dropped on them from above.

On reaching the top of the slide, they would raise a flag slide back down in to the moat of gunge at the bottom. At first contestants wore uniforms consisting of grey T-shirts with the "Run the Risk" logo on the back, in either red, yellow or blue depending on what team they were in, blue shorts. In series' the T-shirts were changed from being grey to predominantly in their team colour, again with blue or black shorts; every Christmas, celebrity Specials were held. These consisted of one episode where the teams were made up of a mixture of Celebrities and children, one episode where all of the teams were made up of celebrities; the celebrities were Children's Television presenters, Soap stars or up and coming Pop Stars. Some of the celebrities who appeared included: 1992 First Episode: Rachel Victoria Roberts, Lindy Ann Barras and Kristian Schmid Second Episode: Teams from Blue Peter, CBBC and Brookside1993 First Episode: Andrea Boardman, Paul Leyshon and Debbie Gibson Second Episode: Teams from EastEnders and Maid Marian and Her Merry Men1994 First Episode: Diane-Louise Jordan, Tim Vincent, Clare Buckfield, John Pickard, Dean Gatiss and Justin Pickett Second Episode: Martino Lazzeri, Matthew Savage and Caryn Franklyn1995 First Episode: Toby Anstis, Josie d'Arby, Ant & Dec, Donna Air, Danniella Westbrook Second Episode: Paul Nicholls, Suzanne Cox, Katy Hill Run the Risk on IMDb Run the Risk at

USS Southern Seas (PY-32)

USS Southern Seas was a patrol yacht, commissioned in the United States Navy on 22 December 1942 in Auckland, New Zealand. She was built for Cyrus Curtiss of the Curtis Publishing Company by Cramp Ship and Iron Works, Philadelphia, in 1920 at a cost of two million dollars, she was christened the Motor Yacht Lyndonia. In 1939, Pan American Aviation Company changed her name to MV Southern Seas, she was used in the South Pacific by Pan American to supplement their passenger service. When the United States entered World War II in December 1941, the ship was sold by Pan American to the Army Corps of Engineers for $600,000; the US Army used her in the South Pacific to transport troops and to chart islands and locate air fields. While she was doing this work for the Army, the ship hit an uncharted reef on July 22, 1942 in the vicinity of New Caledonia; as a result of this mishap the Southern Seas had both engine rooms flooded and various holes in the hull. After the collision, the US Navy salvaged Southern Seas and towed her from New Caledonia to New Zealand, where she was docked while the holes in the hull were patched and repairs were made on the main engines.

The home port and navy yard of the Southern Seas was Pearl Harbor, but she had never been there due to her extended operations in the forward areas. When the ship was first commissioned, Commander South Pacific Fleet, who at that time was Admiral Halsey, considered the possibility of using her as his flagship. On 12 January 1943, Southern Seas got underway from Auckland, New Zealand, for Noumea, New Caledonia; the ship remained there until June 1943, when she left for Tarawa, Gilbert Island by the way of Funafuti, Ellice Islands. At Tarawa she again served as s barracks ship and was attached to Commander Aircraft Pacific Fleet at this time. In February 1944, the Southern Seas departed for Kwajalein Island by the way of Makin, where she again assumed the duties of a barracks ship. On 25 June 1944, Southern Seas departed from Kwajalein en route to Eniwetok, Marshall Islands in company with SS Pacific Sun and USS YMS-388, where she arrived on 27 June 1944. On 8 August 1944, Southern Seas was ordered to Saipan, Marianas Islands, where she again served as a barracks ship in the forward area.

The ship remained at Saipan until 1 January 1945, when she departed for Marianas Islands. At Guam, the ship was attached to Commander Submarines Pacific Fleet and was moored alongside USS Holland. On 7 September 1945, Southern Seas was ordered to Okinawa to work directly under Rear Admiral J. D. Price, U3 Navy, Commander Naval Operating Base, Okinawa. Southern Seas arrived in Okinawa on 15 September 1945 just in time for Typhoon Louise, she was sunk on 9 October 1945 with a loss of thirteen lives out of a complement of five officers and forty-seven men. During the time that Southern Seas served as barracks ship, accommodating officials of the United States Government and newspaper correspondents, she compiled an impressive guest list including two vice admirals, thirty rear admirals, fifty-three captains, one lieutenant general, four major generals, six brigadier generals, forty-five newspaper correspondents, the Honorable Mr. Nash, New Zealand Minister to the United States, Mr. Warren Atherton, National Commander of the American Legion


Osogovo or Osogovska Planina is a mountain and ski resort between the southwestern part of Bulgaria and the northeastern part of North Macedonia. It is about 110 km long and 50 km wide, the highest peak being Ruen at 2251 m, which constitutes the main orthographic knot on the border between Bulgaria and North Macedonia; the steepest slope of the mountain is in the west. Osogovo is the northernmost and highest part of the Osogovo-Belasica group and is situated between the Kyustendil and Kamenitsa Valleys, Dobro pole and Bregalnica and Kriva Reka river valleys; the west slopes are steep and the southeast ones are slant. The mountain is rich in polymetal ores. There are many legends about the origin of name Osogovo, but the most famous one is that it was given by the Saxon miners who were mining gold and silver in the region in the past. According to this legend, the name originates from the Old Germanic words "osso" and "gov" which means "a divine place"; the mountain itself is a powerful granite massif of crystal rocks.

It has a prominent volcanic relief made of volcanic tuff. The flora distinguishes vertical coverage: an under-mountainous zone up to 1000 m where trees like oak, hornbeam, ash and others can be found; the mountain rivers and streams are a natural habitat for the barbell, the chub and the mountain trout. Deciduous and coniferous forests dominate; the area is inhabited by the rare Alpine Newt. The nature and climate conditions allow for all-year tourism. Important towns at the foot of Osogovo are Kyustendil to the northeast in Bulgaria and Kočani and Kriva Palanka to the west and southwest in North Macedonia. Osogovo Monastery is situated on the mountain. Osogovo Bay in Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Osogovo

The Voice Kids (Australian TV series)

The Voice Kids is an Australian television talent show that premiered on the Nine Network on 22 June 2014. It featured Mel B and The Madden Brothers as the coaches. Shortly after the 2014 finale ended, Nine Network was in talks to commit a second season; the channel rested the show in October. The show is part of The Voice franchise and is structured as three phases: blind auditions, battle rounds and live performance shows; the winner receives a recording contract with Universal Music. Three coaches, all noteworthy recording artists, choose teams of contestants through a blind audition process; each coach has the length of the audition, a live performance lasting about one minute, to decide if he or she wants that singer on his or her team. If two or more judges want the same singer, the singer has the final choice of coach. Judges gallery Colour key Colour key Winning judge/category. Winners are in eliminated contestants in small font. List of Australian music television shows List of Australian television series List of programs broadcast by Nine Network

Ralph Waldo Emerson House

The Ralph Waldo Emerson House is a house museum located at 18 Cambridge Turnpike, Massachusetts, a National Historic Landmark for its associations with American philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson. He and his family named the home Bush; the museum is open mid-April to mid-October. The house was built in 1828 by the Coolidge family and named "Coolidge Castle", it was used as a summer house beside the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike. It is a two-story frame building in a house style common to many New England towns. While Ralph Waldo Emerson was preparing to marry Lydia Jackson, he told her he could not live in her home town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. "Plymouth is streets", he wrote to her, "I live in the wide champaign." He had lived in Concord at The Old Manse, the Emerson family home, hoped to return to that town. In July 1835, he wrote in his journal, "I bought my house and two acres six rods of land of John T. Coolidge for 3,500 dollars." He and Jackson moved into the home the next day, along with his mother.

In a contemporary letter, he writes that he is pleased to avoid the trouble of building, but writes: "It is in a mean place, cannot be fine until trees and flowers give it a character of its own". To that end, he spent between $400 and $500 for finishing; the money came from a settlement with the family of his first wife, Ellen Tucker, who had died young. He wrote that he hoped to "crowd so many books and papers, and, if possible, wise friends into it, that it shall have as much wit as it can carry." It became a central meeting place for philosophers and poets. Emerson remained in the house for the rest of his life. In it he wrote his famous essays "The American Scholar" and "Self Reliance", he entertained a host of notable neighbors and visitors including Bronson and Louisa May Alcott, Margaret Fuller, Henry David Thoreau. Beginning in July 1836, the home hosted the meetings of the Transcendental Club, a group which included Orestes Brownson, Theodore Parker, others. Emerson made his living as a lecturer beyond.

He gave some 1,500 lectures in his lifetime. His earnings allowed him to expand his property, buying 11 acres of land by Walden Pond and a few more acres in a neighboring pine grove, he wrote that he was "landlord and waterlord of 14 acres, more or less". In April 1841, Thoreau accepted an invitation to move into Bush with the family; as Emerson described to his brother William: "He is to have his board, etc. for what labor he chooses to do, he is thus far a great benefactor... for he is an indefatigable and skillful laborer". Thoreau built his well-known cabin on Emerson's property at Walden Pond. After his experiment in living deliberately, he returned to Bush in September 1847 and stayed there until the next July. While living in the house, Emerson published his book of Essays in 1841, as well as a second series of essays in 1844, he published two volumes of poetry, Poems in 1846 and May-Day and Other Pieces in 1867. The house caught fire on the morning of July 24, 1872, Emerson ran out to call for help from neighbors.

After the fire was put out, friends took up a collection to pay for repairs, raising some $12,000 in total, sending the Emersons to Europe and Egypt while the house was restored. In 1873 the Emersons returned to reoccupy the house. Emerson died in the house in 1882, in 1892 his wife Lidian followed, their daughter Ellen Tucker Emerson, who remained unmarried, lived in the house until her death in 1909. Other friends and relatives lived here until 1948. Today the house is still owned by the family, it was first opened to the public in 1930 as a private museum. The interior furnishings remain much as they did when Emerson lived in the home, with original furniture and Emerson's memorabilia; the exception is the furniture and books from his study, which are now on display in the Concord Museum across the street. His personal book collection has been moved to Harvard University's Houghton Library. List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places in Concord, Massachusetts National Historic Landmarks entry New England Travel Planner article Frommers