Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
A kachina is a spirit being in the religious beliefs of the Pueblo people, Native American cultures located in the southwestern part of the United States. In the Pueblo culture, kachina rituals are practiced by the Hopi, Hopi-Tewa and certain Keresan Tribes, as well as in most Pueblo Tribes in New Mexico; the kachina concept has three different aspects: the supernatural being, the kachina dancers, kachina dolls, small dolls carved in the likeness of the kachina, that are given only to those who are, or will be responsible for the respectful care and well-being of the doll, such as a mother, wife, or sister. Kachinas are personifications of things in the real world; these spirits are believed to visit the Hopi villages during the first half of the year. A kachina can represent anything in the natural world or cosmos, from a revered ancestor to an element, a location, a quality, a natural phenomenon, or a concept; the local pantheon of kachinas varies in each pueblo community. Kachinas are understood as having humanlike relationships.
Although not worshipped, each is viewed as a powerful being who, if given veneration and respect, can use his particular power for human good, bringing rainfall, fertility, or protection, for example. One observer has written: The central theme of the kachina is the presence of life in all objects that fill the universe. Everything has an essence or a life force, humans must interact with these or fail to survive; the exact origin of the kachinas is not known, but according to one version of Hopi belief, the kachinas were beneficent spirit-beings who came with the Hopis from the underworld. The underworld is a concept common to all the Pueblo Indians, it is a place where the spirits or shades live: the newly born come from there and the dead return there. The kachinas wandered with the Hopis over the world until they arrived at Casa Grande, where both the Hopis and the kachinas settled for a while. With their powerful ceremonies, the kachinas brought rain for the crops and were in general of much help and comfort.
All of the kachinas were killed when the Hopis were attacked by enemies and their souls returned to the underworld. Since the sacred paraphernalia of the kachinas were left behind, the Hopis began impersonating the kachinas, wearing their masks and costumes, imitating their ceremonies in order to bring rain, good crops, life's happiness. Another version says that in an early period, the kachinas danced for the Hopis, bringing them rain and all the many blessings of life, but the Hopis came to take the kachinas for granted, losing all respect and reverence for them, so the kachinas left and returned to the underworld. However, before they left, the kachinas taught some of their ceremonies to a few faithful young men and showed them how to make the masks and costumes; when the other Hopi realized their loss, they remorsefully turned to the human substitute of kachinas, the ceremonies have continued since then. In many ways the Kachina Cult and its rituals are the most important ceremonial observances in the Hopi religious calendar.
Within Hopi religion, the kachinas are said to live on the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona. To the Hopis, the name refers to the supernatural beings who visit the villages to help the Hopis with everyday activities and act as a link between gods and mortals; these spirits are impersonated by men who dress up in costumes and masks to perform ceremonial dances throughout the year. The most anticipated ceremony is the Powamuya Ceremony. There are hundreds of different kachinas practiced by the Hopi. In addition, the wooden carvings of these spirits are made to give to the children to help them identify the many kachinas. Overall, the kachinas can be said to represent historical events and things in nature, are used to educate children in the ways of life; the most important Hopi kachinas are known as wuya. In Hopi, the word is used to represent the spiritual beings themselves, the dolls, or the people who dress as kachinas for ceremonial dances, which are understood to embody all aspects of the same belief system.
These are some of the wuyas: The Hopi are not the only Pueblo tribe to observe the Kachina Cult in its religious calendar. The Zuni have a religious solar calendar, practiced year-round; the Zuni Kachina Cult is one of the six major cults of Zuni. There are a number of kachinas that represent time in the Zuni religion. One of the most famous and known ceremonies is the Shalako Ceremony. There are a number of other rituals, it is hard to specify the total number of kachinas in the Zuni religion because the Zuni do not believe in using or exploiting their kachinas for open public economic gain and believe they should be kept in private. It is believed that some of the older kachina rituals are no longer practiced, but there are new ones that have been introduced. In addition, it is believed that there are hundreds of different kachina rituals that are practiced in the Zuni religion; the Zuni Kachina Cult is not constant, it changes to time. The Zuni believe that the kachinas live in the Lake of the Dead, a mythical lake, reached through Listening Spring Lake.
This is located at the junction of the Little Colorado River. Although some archaeological investigations have taken place, they hav
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. In addition, the growth of a sporeling from a spore, such as the spores of hyphae from fungal spores, is germination. Thus, in a general sense, germination can be thought of as anything expanding into greater being from a small existence or germ. Most seeds do not need sunlight to germinate but some seeds such as sunflower seeds, mustard seeds and blosnian seeds need sunlight to germinate. Experiments were carried out to prove this. Germination is the growth of a plant contained within a seed; the seed of a vascular plant is a small package produced in a fruit or cone after the union of male and female reproductive cells. All developed seeds contain an embryo and, in most plant species some store of food reserves, wrapped in a seed coat; some plants produce varying numbers of seeds. Dormant seeds are ripe seeds that do not germinate because they are subject to external environmental conditions that prevent the initiation of metabolic processes and cell growth.
Under proper conditions, the seed begins to germinate and the embryonic tissues resume growth, developing towards a seedling. Seed germination depends on both external conditions; the most important external factors include right temperature, oxygen or air and sometimes light or darkness. Various plants require different variables for successful seed germination; this depends on the individual seed variety and is linked to the ecological conditions of a plant's natural habitat. For some seeds, their future germination response is affected by environmental conditions during seed formation. Water is required for germination. Mature seeds are extremely dry and need to take in significant amounts of water, relative to the dry weight of the seed, before cellular metabolism and growth can resume. Most seeds need enough water to moisten the seeds but not enough to soak them; the uptake of water by seeds is called imbibition, which leads to the swelling and the breaking of the seed coat. When seeds are formed, most plants store a food reserve with the seed, such as starch, proteins, or oils.
This food reserve provides nourishment to the growing embryo. When the seed imbibes water, hydrolytic enzymes are activated which break down these stored food resources into metabolically useful chemicals. After the seedling emerges from the seed coat and starts growing roots and leaves, the seedling's food reserves are exhausted. Oxygen is required by the germinating seed for metabolism. Oxygen is used in aerobic respiration, the main source of the seedling's energy until it grows leaves. Oxygen is an atmospheric gas, found in soil pore spaces; some seeds have impermeable seed coats that prevent oxygen from entering the seed, causing a type of physical dormancy, broken when the seed coat is worn away enough to allow gas exchange and water uptake from the environment. Temperature affects cellular growth rates. Seeds from different species and seeds from the same plant germinate over a wide range of temperatures. Seeds have a temperature range within which they will germinate, they will not do so above or below this range.
Many seeds germinate at temperatures above 60-75 F, while others germinate just above freezing and others germinate only in response to alternations in temperature between warm and cool. Some seeds germinate when the soil is cool 28-40 F, some when the soil is warm 76-90 F; some seeds require exposure to cold temperatures to break dormancy. Some seeds in a dormant state will not germinate if conditions are favorable. Seeds that are dependent on temperature to end dormancy have a type of physiological dormancy. For example, seeds requiring the cold of winter are inhibited from germinating until they take in water in the fall and experience cooler temperatures. Cold stratification is a process that induces the dormancy breaking prior to light emission that promotes germination. Four degrees Celsius is cool enough to end dormancy for most cool dormant seeds, but some groups within the family Ranunculaceae and others, need conditions cooler than -5 C; some seeds will only germinate after hot temperatures during a forest fire which cracks their seed coats.
Most common annual vegetables have optimal germination temperatures between 75-90 F, though many species can germinate at lower temperatures, as low as 40 F, thus allowing them to be grown from seeds in cooler climates. Suboptimal temperatures lead to longer germination periods. Light or darkness can be an environmental trigger for germination and is a type of physiological dormancy. Most seeds are not affected by light or darkness, but many seeds, including species found in forest settings, will not germinate until an opening in the canopy allows sufficient light for growth of the seedling. Scarification mimics natural processes that weaken the seed coat before ger
The Hopi maintain a complex religious and mythological tradition stretching back over centuries. However, it is difficult to definitively state. Like the oral traditions of many other societies, Hopi mythology is not always told and each Hopi mesa, or each village, may have its own version of a particular story. But, "in essence the variants of the Hopi myth bear marked similarity to one another." It is not clear that those stories which are told to non-Hopis, such as anthropologists and ethnographers, represent genuine Hopi beliefs or are stories told to the curious while keeping safe the Hopi's more sacred doctrines. As folklorist Harold Courlander states, "there is a Hopi reticence about discussing matters that could be considered ritual secrets or religion-oriented traditions." In addition, the Hopis have always been willing to assimilate foreign ideas into their cosmology if they are proven effective for such practical necessities as bringing rain. The Hopi had at least some contact with Europeans as early as the 16th century, some believe that European Christian traditions may have entered Hopi cosmology at some point.
Indeed, Spanish missions were built in several Hopi villages starting in 1629 and were in operation until the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. However, after the revolt, it was the Hopi alone of all the Pueblo tribes who kept the Spanish out of their villages permanently, regular contact with whites did not begin again until nearly two centuries later; the Hopi mesas have therefore been seen as "relatively unacculturated" at least through the early 20th century, it may be posited that the European influence on the core themes of Hopi mythology was slight. Most Hopi accounts of creation center around the sun spirit. Tawa is the creator, it was he who formed the "First World" out of Tokpella, or endless space, as well as its original inhabitants, it is still traditional for Hopi mothers to seek a blessing from the sun for their newborn children. Other accounts have it that Tawa, or Taiowa, first created Sotuknang, whom he called his nephew, sent him to create the nine universes according to his plan. Sotuknang created Spider Woman, who served as a messenger for the creator and was an intercessor between the deity and the people.
In some versions of the Hopi creation myth, it is she who creates all life under the direction of Sotuknang. Yet other stories tell that life was created by Hard Being Woman of the West and Hard Being Woman of the East, while the sun observed the process. Masauwu, Skeleton Man, was the Spirit of Death, Earth God, door keeper to the Fifth World, the Keeper of Fire, he was the Master of the Upper World, or the Fourth World, was there when the good people escaped the wickedness of the Third World for the promise of the Fourth. Masauwu is described as wearing a hideous mask, but again showing the diversity of myths among the Hopi, Masauwu was alternately described as a handsome, bejewelled man beneath his mask or as a bloody, fearsome creature, he is assigned certain benevolent attributes. One story has it that it was Masauwu who helped settle the Hopi at Oraibi and gave them stewardship over the land, he charged them to watch for the coming of the Pahana, the Lost White Brother. Other important deities include the twin war gods, the kachinas, the trickster, Coyote.
Maize is vital to religion. "For traditional Hopis, corn is the central bond. Its essence, physically and symbolically, pervades their existence. For the people of the mesas corn is sustenance, ceremonial object, prayer offering and sentient being unto itself. Corn is the Mother in the truest sense that people take in the corn and the corn becomes their flesh, as mother milk becomes the flesh of the child." Hopi legend tells. The story states that in each previous world, the people, though happy, became disobedient and lived contrary to Tawa's plan, they engaged in sexual promiscuity, fought one another, would not live in harmony. The most obedient were delivered to the next higher world, with physical changes occurring both in the people in the course of their journey, in the environment of the next world. In some stories, the former world was destroyed along with their wicked inhabitants, whereas in others the good people were led away from the chaos, created by their actions. Two main versions exist as to the Hopi's emergence into the present Fourth World.
The more prevalent is that Spider Grandmother caused a hollow reed to grow into the sky, it emerged in the Fourth World at the sipapu. The people climbed up the reed into this world, emerging from the sipapu; the location of the sipapu is given as in the Grand Canyon. The other version has it. Before the destruction, Spider Grandmother sealed the more righteous people into hollow reeds which were used as boats. On arrival on a small piece of dry land, the people saw nothing around them but more water after planting a large bamboo shoot, climbing to the top, looking about. Spider Woman told the people to make boats out of more reeds, using island "stepping-stones" along the way, the people sailed east until they arrived on the mountainous coasts of the Fourth World. While it may not be possible to positively ascertain, the original or "more correct" story, Harold Courlander writes, at least in Oraibi, little children are told the story of the sipapu, the story of an ocean voyage is related to them when they are older.
A doll is a model of a human being used as a toy for girls. Dolls have traditionally been used in magic and religious rituals throughout the world, traditional dolls made of materials such as clay and wood are found in the Americas, Asia and Europe; the earliest documented dolls go back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Rome. They have been made as rudimentary playthings as well as elaborate art. Modern doll manufacturing has its roots from the 15th century. With industrialization and new materials such as porcelain and plastic, dolls were mass-produced. During the 20th century, dolls became popular as collectibles; the earliest dolls were made from available materials such as clay, wood, ivory, leather, or wax. Archaeological evidence places dolls as the foremost candidate for the oldest known toy. Wooden paddle dolls have been found in Egyptian tombs dating to as early as the 21st century BC. Dolls with movable limbs and removable clothing date back to at least 200 BC. Archaeologists have discovered Greek dolls articulated at the hips and shoulders.
Rag dolls and stuffed animals were also popular, but no known examples of these have survived to the present day. Stories from ancient Greece around 100 AD show. In ancient Rome, dolls were made of wood or ivory. Dolls have been found in the graves of Roman children. Like children today, the younger members of Roman civilization would have dressed their dolls according to the latest fashions. In Greece and Rome, it was customary for boys to dedicate their toys to the gods when they reached puberty and for girls to dedicate their toys to the goddesses when they married. Rag dolls are traditionally home-made from spare scraps of cloth material. Roman rag dolls have been found dating back to 300 BC. Traditional dolls are sometimes used as children's playthings, but they may have spiritual and ritual value. There is no defined line between spiritual toys. In some cultures dolls, used in rituals were given to children, they were used in children's education and as carriers of cultural heritage. In other cultures dolls were considered too laden with magical powers to allow children to play with them.
African dolls are used to entertain. Their shape and costume vary according to custom. Dolls are handed down from mother to daughter. Akuaba are wooden ritual fertility dolls from nearby areas; the best known akuaba are those of the Ashanti people, whose akuaba have disc-like heads. Other tribes in the region have their own distinctive style of akuaba. There is a rich history of Japanese dolls dating back to the Dogū figures and Haniwa funerary figures. By the eleventh century, dolls were used as playthings as well as for protection and in religious ceremonies. During Hinamatsuri, the doll festival, hina dolls are displayed; these are made of straw and wood and dressed in elaborate, many-layered textiles. Daruma dolls are white faces without pupils, they represent Bodhidharma, the East Indian who founded Zen, are used as good luck charms. Wooden Kokeshi dolls have no arms or legs, but a large head and cylindrical body, representing little girls; the use of an effigy to perform a spell on someone is documented in African, Native American, European cultures.
Examples of such magical devices include the European poppet and the nkisi or bocio of West and Central Africa. In European folk magic and witchcraft, poppet dolls are used to represent a person for casting spells on that person; the intention is that whatever actions are performed upon the effigy will be transferred to the subject through sympathetic magic. The practice of sticking pins in voodoo dolls have been associated with African-American Hoodoo folk magic. Voodoo dolls are not a feature of Haitian Vodou religion, but have been portrayed as such in popular culture, stereotypical voodoo dolls are sold to tourists in Haiti; the voodoo doll concept in popular culture is influenced by the European poppet dolls. A kitchen witch is a poppet originating in Northern Europe, it resembles a stereotypical witch or crone and is displayed in residential kitchens as a means to provide good luck and ward off bad spirits. Hopi Kachina dolls are effigies made of cottonwood that embody the characteristics of the ceremonial Kachina, the masked spirits of the Hopi Native American tribe.
Kachina dolls are objects meant to be treasured and studied in order to learn the characteristics of each Kachina. Inuit dolls are made out of soapstone and bone, materials common to the Inuit people. Many are clothed with animal skin, their clothing articulates the traditional style of dress necessary to survive cold winters and snow. The tea dolls of the Innu people were filled with tea for young girls to carry on long journeys. Apple dolls are traditional North American dolls with a head made from dried apples. In Inca mythology, Sara Mama was the goddess of grain, she was associated with maize that grew in multiples or was strange. These strange plants were sometimes dressed as dolls of Sara Mama. Corn husk dolls are traditional Native American dolls made out of the dried leaves or husk of a corncob. Traditionally, they do not have a face; the making of corn husk dolls was adopted by early European settlers in the United States. Early settlers made rag dolls and carved wooden dolls, called Pennywoods.
La última muñeca, or "the last doll", is a tradition of the Quinceañera, the celebration of a girl's fifteenth birthday in parts of Latin America. During this ritu
The Hopi Reservation is a Native American reservation for the Hopi and Arizona Tewa people, surrounded by the Navajo Nation, in Navajo and Coconino counties of Arizona, United States. The site in north-eastern Arizona has a land area of 2,531.773 sq mi and as of the 2000 census had a population of 6,946. The Hopi Reservation, like most of Arizona but unlike the surrounding Navajo Nation, does not observe daylight saving time; until the two nations shared the Navajo–Hopi Joint Use Area. The partition of this area known as Big Mountain, by Acts of Congress in 1974 and 1996, has resulted in continuing controversy; the system of villages unites three mesas in the pueblo style traditionally used by the Hopi. Walpi is the oldest village on First Mesa, having been established in 1690 after the villages at the foot of mesa Koechaptevela were abandoned for fear of Spanish reprisal after the 1680 Pueblo Revolt; the Tewa people live on First Mesa. Hopi occupy the Second Mesa and Third Mesa; the community of Winslow West is off-reservation trust land of the Hopi tribe.
The Hopi Tribal Council is the local governing body consisting of elected officials from the various reservation villages. Its powers were given to it under the Hopi Tribal Constitution; the Hopi consider their life on the reservation an integral and critically sustaining part of the "fourth world". This is the current cultural epoch. Hopi High School is the secondary education institute for reservation residents. Hopi Radio, a station with a mix of traditional Hopi and typical American programming is run for the reservation and provides internships for Hopi High School. Keams Canyon Lower and Upper Moenkopi Polacca Winslow West Yuuwelo Paaki New Oraibi Waalpi Hanoki Sitsomovi Songoopavi Musangnuvi Sipawlavi Hoatvela Paaqavi Munqapi Orayvi Hopi flag Hopi Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Arizona – United States Census Bureau The Hopi Tribe Hopi Radio