National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association
Founded in 1933, the National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association is the largest association of muzzleloaders in the United States. It is known for its promotion of the sport of muzzleloading which involves the firing of muzzleloader or black-powder firearms. There are varying degrees of membership within the NMLRA, all of which entail paying dues to the Association. Members of the Association are granted all of the rights of a member of the Association, they receive a copy of the NMLRA's monthly publication Muzzle Blasts. The NMLRA has granted charters to local and regional muzzleloading gun clubs, groups, or associations in all fifty states in the United States as well as Canada; each of the charter clubs holds their own championship shoot and reports the results of the shoot to the NMLRA. For a complete listing of all clubs and associations chartered by the NMLRA follow this link: NMLRA Chartered Clubs; the NMLRA is based in Friendship, Indiana forty miles from Cincinnati, Ohio. The area is a combination of both modern and primitive facilities reflecting the diverse nature of the Association and the sport of muzzleloading.
On site at Friendship, the NMLRA has The Museum of the National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association as well as Gunmakers Hall, where the works of contemporary gunmakers are displayed. The Museum is located within the historic structure known as The John Linsey Rand House; the Rand House houses the offices for "Muzzle Blasts", the NMLRA's monthly publication. There are two shooting ranges at Friendship: the Curly Gostomski Primitive Range and the Walter Cline Modern Range. During national shoots, other events, the site hosts Commercial Row where some of today's most skilled muzzleloading craftsmen set up to sell their wares covering all aspects of muzzleloading; the site includes two camping area: a modern area for campers and modern tents and a primitive area for canvas tents, etc. No pets or animals are allowed on site for any other NMLRA-sponsored event; the NMLRA holds two national shooting competitions at the Walter Cline Range at Friendship: the annual Spring National Shoot held in mid-June and the National Championship Shoot held in mid-September.
Registration for these events is $30.00 for members of the NMLRA. According to the NMLRA website, "During the two major events shooters from around the world compete for national record scores. There are competitions for muzzleloading rifle, shotgun, musket and slug guns, as well as tomahawk and knife throwing." Several weekend shoots are held at Friendship throughout the year including a 4-H Invitational Championship Shoot, the NRA National Muzzleloading Championship Shoot, a Youth Shoot, a Family Shoot, the Lore of the Laughery Shoot, a Turkey Shoot, a National Women's Weekend Shoot. The NMLRA was responsible for creating a number of National Regional Primitive Rendezvous, or historical reenactments of the North American fur trade, during the late 1970s and early-to-mid-1980s; these rendezvous spanned the entire breadth of the continental United States. These rendezvous were managed directly by the Association through the year 1998. However, in late 1998 the NMLRA decided to discontinue their direct control of these national rendezvous as they no longer believed them to be profitable.
They created the National Rendezvous and Living History Foundation to manage the rendezvous. While the NMLRA technically still continues to sponsor the national rendezvous, the NRLHF runs and manages those events that remained affiliated with the Association after its 1998 decision; those rendezvous are the Eastern Regional Rendezvous, the Northeastern Regional Rendezvous, the Southeastern Regional Rendezvous, the Old Northwest Territory Regional Rendezvous, the Midwest Regional Rendezvous. The NMLRA sponsors an activity known as The Longhunter; the Longhunter program is designed to encourage the sport of muzzleloading while hunting large game due to the challenges and thrills such activity entails. It is associated with the Big Game Records Program, the only trophy recognition program for the muzzleloading hunter; the NMLRA sponsors Muzzle Blasts Postal Match. A target is included in an issue of the NMLRA monthly publication "Muzzle Blasts" and the participant must shoot the target and mail it into the NMLRA along with a $2.00 entry fee.
The winners are posted on the NMLRA website and the proceeds go towards the Association's Youth Program. The NMLRA is seeking to restore the Rand House, a historic structure located on the ground at Friendship and home to both the NMLRA Museum and "Muzzle Blasts". In order to raise money for this restoration the Association is selling bricks to individuals so that they can inscribe any message of their choice on them for between $50.00 to $250.00. These bricks will be used in the restoration of Rand House; the NMLRA has a college scholarship program. They offer two, $500.00 scholarships per-semester to members or dependents of members in good-standing with the NMLRA. The awarding of the scholarships is based on a number of factors including academic performance in high school as well as the financial need of the applicant; the NMLRA is seeking to create a permanent, $1,000,000 endowment for itself by seeking out one thousand individuals who are willing to donate $1,000 each to the Association.
According to the NMLRA website, "The donation will be placed in the permanently restricted endowment fund of the NMLRA. The principal will remain in the endowment, can be used only to generate interest or to purchase a permanent asset such as land; the principal can never be used for the general operation of the Association. The interest earned produces income for new and
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy and speed in shooting, using various types of ranged weapons referring to man-portable guns and bows/crossbows. Different disciplines of shooting sports can be categorized by equipment, shooting distances, time limits and degrees of athleticism involved. Shooting sports may involve both team and individual competition, team performance is assessed by summing the scores of the individual team members. Due to the noise of shooting and the high impact energy of the projectiles, shooting sports are conducted at either designated permanent shooting ranges or temporary shooting fields in the area away from settlements; the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom was founded in 1860 to raise the funds for an annual national rifle meeting "for the encouragement of Volunteer Rifle Corps and the promotion of Rifle-shooting throughout Great Britain". For similar reasons, concerned over poor marksmanship during the American Civil War, veteran Union officers Col. William C.
Church and Gen. George Wingate formed the National Rifle Association of America in 1871 for the purpose of promoting and encouraging rifle shooting on a "scientific" basis. In 1872, with financial help from New York state, a site on Long Island, the Creed Farm, was purchased for the purpose of building a rifle range. Named Creedmoor, the range opened in 1872, became the site of the first National Matches until New York politics forced the NRA to move the matches to Sea Girt, New Jersey; the popularity of the National Matches soon forced the event to be moved to its present, much larger location: Camp Perry. In 1903, the U. S. Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice, an advisory board to the Secretary of the Army, with a nearly identical charter to the NRA; the NBPRP participates in the National Matches at Camp Perry. In 1903, the NRA began to establish rifle clubs at all major colleges and military academies. By 1906, youth programs were in full swing with more than 200 boys competing in the National Matches.
Today, more than one million youth participate in shooting sports events and affiliated programs through groups such as 4-H, the Boy Scouts of America, the American Legion, U. S. Jaycees, NCAA, The USA High School Clay Target League, the Scholastic Clay Target Program, National Guard Bureau, ROTC, JROTC. French pistol champion and founder of the modern Olympics, Pierre de Coubertin, participated in many of these early competitions; this fact contributed to the inclusion of five shooting events in the 1896 Olympics. Over the years, the events have been changed a number of times in order to keep up with technology and social standards; the targets that resembled humans or animals in their shape and size have are now a circular shape in order to avoid associating the sport with any form of violence. At the same time, some events have been dropped and new ones have been added; the 2004 Olympics featured three shooting disciplines where athletes competed for 51 medals in 10 men's and 7 women's events—slightly fewer than the previous Olympic schedule.
In the Olympic Games, the shooting sport has always enjoyed the distinction of awarding the first medals of the Games. Internationally, the International Shooting Sport Federation has oversight of all Olympic shooting events worldwide, while National Governing Bodies administer the sport within each country. Having established shooting as an organized sport in the US, the NRA was the obvious choice to administer the United States participation in the Olympic games; the NRA dutifully managed and financially supported international and conventional shooting sports for over 100 years until the formation of USA Shooting. Gun shooting sports are shot with either firearms or air guns, which can be either handguns, rifles and/or shotguns. Handguns are handheld small arms designed to be shot off-hand without needing a shoulder stock; the two main subtypes of handguns are revolvers. They are much more convenient to carry in general, but have a shorter effective range and less accuracy compared to long guns such as rifles.
In shooting sports and semi-automatic pistols are the most used. A rifle is a long gun with a rifled barrel, requires the use of both hands to hold and brace against the shoulder via a stock in order to shoot steadily, they have a longer range and greater accuracy than handguns, are popular for hunting. In shooting sports, bolt action or semi-automatic rifles are the most used. A shotgun is similar to a rifle but smoothbore and larger in caliber, fires either a shell containing many smaller scattering sub-projectiles called shots, or a single large projectile called a slug. In shooting sports, shotguns are more over/under-type break action or semi-automatic shotguns, the majority of shotgun events are included in clay pigeon shooting. Bullseye shooting is a category of pistol and rifle shooting disciplines where the objective is to achieve as many points as possible by hitting a round shooting target as close to the middle as possible with slow precision fire; these disciplines place a large emphasis on precision and accuracy through sight picture and trigger control.
Fixed and long time limits give the competitors time to concentrate for a perfect shot. An example of bullseye shooting is the ISSF pistol and rifle disciplines, but there are many other national and interna
A shooting range, firing range or gun range is a specialized facility designed for firearms qualifications, training or practice. Some shooting ranges are operated by military or law enforcement agencies, though the majority of ranges are privately-owned and cater to recreational shooters; each facility is overseen by one or more supervisory personnel, called variously a range master or "Range Safety Officer" in the US, or a range conducting officer in the UK. Supervisory personnel are responsible for ensuring that all weapon safety rules and relevant government regulations are followed at all times. Shooting ranges can be indoor or outdoor, may be restricted to certain types of type of firearm that can be used such as handguns or rifles, or they can specialize in certain shooting sports such as skeet shooting or 10 m Air Pistol/Rifle. Most indoor ranges restrict the use of certain powerful calibers, rifles, or automatic weapons. A shooting gallery is a recreational shooting facility with low-powered guns located within amusement parks, carnivals or fairgrounds that provides games and entertainments for the visiting crowd.
In urban areas, most shooting ranges will be at indoor facilities. Indoor ranges offer protection from inclement weather conditions and can be operated around the clock under controlled environmental conditions. Outdoor shooting ranges are found away from populated areas because of concerns about safety, noise pollution and soil contamination. Indoor firing ranges are constructed as standalone structures, though they may be housed in larger buildings in basement or such; the basic components of most indoor firing ranges consist of firing lines/lanes, targets and a bullet trap/"backstop". Design considerations may vary depending on planned use but they all must address the basic requirements for operating the range safely, and, provide ballistic protection, safety controls, proper ventilation, acoustic isolation and appropriate lighting. Firing range walls are constructed of poured concrete, precast concrete, or masonry block; the walls must be impenetrable and provide adequate ballistic protection from stray bullets and back splatter.
Floors are constructed from dense reinforced concrete with a smooth surface finish. Floors are slanted from uprange toward the bullet trap downrange to allow for better maintenance and cleaning. Indoor firing range roofs are constructed from steel joists or precast concrete panels with a smooth flat surface that will redirect misfired bullets, facilitate maintenance, prevent lead buildup. Roof baffles are installed at a 25–30 degree angle protect ceilings, lighting fixtures, ventilation ducts, any other unprotected element from stray bullets. Baffles are constructed of armored plate steel covered with fire-rated plywood. Deflectors are similar to baffles, but are not covered with plywood. Shields are constructed of plate plywood. Control rooms or stations houses the central controls for the firing range equipment, communication and security; the controls are operated by the range master–the designated official responsible for range operation and management. The control station must provide the range master with unobstructed line of sight of the firing lanes and all shooters.
Control stations are constructed of concrete blocks with bulletproof observation windows. Backstops and bullet traps are used to absorb the energy from the bullet and capture it to prevent overflight beyond the range area. Bullet traps come in a variety of designs and are constructed of impenetrable metal plates; the thickness of the plates and the materials used depend on the velocity and energy levels of the projectiles to be fired in the range. Most modern traps consist of angled hardened steel plates that deflect the bullets into other metal plates to remove their energy; the plates must be resistant to penetration and metal fatigue. The traps direct the spent bullets to a collection area in front of the trap or, for high-energy projectiles, at the back of the trap. Many indoor firing ranges provide additional spaces such as a cleaning room for weapons, a classroom, office areas, lounge area, or storage and maintenance rooms. Passageways are used to physically isolate the firing range from the adjoining areas.
Some firing ranges are equipped with shooting booths to provide shooters with a defined firing area and to reduce potential hazard from misfires and ejected bullet cartridges from adjacent shooters. Shooting booths are made of partitions or panels which can be acoustically treated to reduce the effect of weapons discharge on other shooters; the booths are sometimes equipped with target-operation equipment. The firing line marked red or orange, runs along the downrange edge of the shooting booths; some ranges have motion detectors that can set off an alarm when a shooter passes this line during shooting. Target systems consist of a target, a target carrier system, a target control system. Targets for indoor firing ranges are a paper sheet or piece of corrugated cardboard with a printed target image on the sheet; the target carrier system allows the firing range to operate more efficiently and safely by transporting the target and frame between the firing line and the target line, in b
Mixed-sex sports known as mixed-gender or coed sports, are sports where the participants are not of a single sex. This can take the form of team sports involving people of different sexes. In organised sports settings, rules dictate the number of people required of each sex in a team; such rules account for the sex differences in human physiology, with males being larger and stronger than females on average. In informal settings, mixed-sex sports involves groups of friends and/or family engaging in sport without regard to the sex of the participants. Sports which are mixed-sex as standard are ones where the differences between the sexes do not affect the ability of the competitor, for example equestrian sports. Sports in which the sex of a competitor affects their ability to compete have single-sex divisions, with mixed-team variants comprising the mixed-sex element of the sport, for example mixed doubles tennis. Mixed-sex sports have been encouraged as a way of boosting female sports participation and improving social harmony between the sexes.
Mixed-sex play and sports is common among young children, among whom differences are less pronounced. It is uncommon in most organised sports to find individuals of different genders competing head-to-head at elite level, principally due to the differences between the sexes. In sports where these differences are less linked to performance, it is standard practice for men and women to compete in mixed-sex fields; these open-class sports prove accommodating to intersex athletes, who challenge the sex-defined rules of both single-sex sport and mixed-sex sports with defined male and female roles. In equestrian sports and female riders compete against each other in eventing and show jumping disciplines. Female jockeys compete alongside male ones in horse racing, though the former constitute a minority of jockeys overall. Beyond the athletes, the horses used for racing are a mixed of male and female, with a 60/40 split at the top level between colts and fillies. In snooker, the professional tour is open to men and women, although only one woman has competed on the tour for a full year, although others have played in individual tournaments.
There is a separate women only tour to encourage female participation in the sport. During an Ultimate game, teams of 7 players play in direct competition with each other, while most people of the same gender mark each other, it is not uncommon to see match ups between people of different gender. A common form of mixed-sex sports involves pairs with one female team member. Sports based on dancing have male/female pairings, such as pair figure skating, ice dancing, ballroom dancing and synchronised swimming duets. In these sports the male and female participants physically work together to produce an artistic and athletic performance. Mixed doubles involves two mixed-sex pairs competing against each other with all four competitors in open play; this is prominent in racket sports, including tennis, table tennis, badminton and racquetball. Mixed pairs and mixed teams events are organised in contract bridge. Pairs may compete in turn-based games, where men and women take turns alternately; this is found in more strategy-based sports, including mixed doubles curling, mixed golf, mixed bowling and mixed team darts.
Separate male and female performances may be combined to produce mixed team results in such sports as diving. Synchronised diving is found in mixed-sex format. Mixed tag team matches are found in professional wrestling, where wrestlers are not explicitly competing in a turn-based manner, but are obliged to only face their opponent of the same sex. In non-vehicular racing sports the physiological differences between the sexes preclude head-to-head competition between people of different sexes at the elite level; as a result, mixed-sex events are most held with a relay race format. In running, a 4 × 400 metres mixed relay race was introduced at the 2017 IAAF World Relays, will be added to the 2019 World Championships in Athletics and 2020 Summer Olympics. In cross-country running, a 4 × 2 km mixed relay race was added at the 2017 IAAF World Cross Country Championships. In swimming, mixed relay races were introduced at the 2014 FINA World Swimming Championships and the 2015 World Aquatics Championships.
The event will debut at the 2020 Summer Olympics. In triathlon, the ITU Triathlon Mixed Relay World Championships mixed relay race has been held since 2009; the triathlon at the Youth Olympic Games has a mixed relay race since 2010. As in standard triathlons, each triathlon competitor must do a segment of swimming and running. In biathlon, a mixed relay race was first held at the Biathlon World Championships 2005 in Khanty-Mansiysk, it was added to the 2014 Winter Olympics; the mixed division is a staple of Ultimate, it is the only division, showcased at both the 2013 World Games and the 2017 World Games. Mixed-sex forms of ball sports involve set numbers of each sex per team, sometimes pre-defined roles in the team which people of that gender can play. Examples include korfball, coed softball and wheelchair rugby. Mixed-sex sport has a long history at the Olympic Games, dating back to the 1900 Summer Olympics, the first in which women participated. Two women competed against men in the equestrian, the croquet competition was mixed-sex, while Hélène de Pourtalès was the sole female sailor and first mixed-sex team champion, being part of a gold medal-winning
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun. This is distinct from the more popular modern designs of breech-loading firearms; the term "muzzleloader" applies to both rifled and smoothbore type muzzleloaders, may refer to the marksman who specializes in the shooting of such firearms. The firing methods and mechanism further divide both categories as do caliber. Modern muzzleloading firearms range from reproductions of sidelock and percussion long guns, to in-line rifles that use modern inventions such as a closed breech, sealed primer and fast rifling to allow for considerable accuracy at long ranges. Modern mortars use a shell with the propelling primer attached at the base. Unlike older muzzleloading mortars, which were loaded the same way as muzzleloading cannon, the modern mortar is fired by dropping the shell down the barrel where a pin fires the primer, igniting the main propelling charge. Both the modern mortar and the older mortar were used for high angle fire.
However, the fact that the mortar is not loaded in separate steps may make its definition as a muzzleloader a matter of opinion. Muzzleloading can apply to anything from cannons to pistols but in modern parlance the term most applies to black powder small arms, it but not always, involves the use of a loose propellant and projectile, as well as a separate method of ignition or priming. In general, the sequence of loading is to put in first gunpowder, by pouring in a measured amount of loose powder mostly by using a powder flask, or by inserting a pre-measured bag or paper packet of gunpowder or by inserting solid propellant pellets; the gunpowder used is black powder or black powder substitutes like Pyrodex. Sometimes two types of gunpowder were used consisting of finer priming powder for the flash pan and coarser powder for the main charge behind the ball; this was the case with earlier muzzleloaders like matchlocks but appear to have been less common with flintlocks and was irrelevant with percussion locks since they used percussion caps rather than priming powder.
Wadding is made from felt, cloth or card and has several different uses. In shotguns, a card wad or other secure wadding is used between the powder and the shot charge to prevent pellets from dropping into the powder charge and on top of the shot charge to hold it in place in the barrel. In smooth bore muskets and most rifles used prior to cartridges being introduced in the mid-to late nineteenth century, wadding was used to hold the powder in place. On most naval cannons, one piece of wadding was used to hold the powder in place and served the purpose of creating a better seal around the shot. Another was used to act as a plug to stop the shot rolling out because of the swaying of the ship; the use of cartridges with both gunpowder charge and ball, made up in batches by the shooter or a servant, was known from early on, but until around 1800 loading using a powder flask and a bag of balls was more common outside of the military. The measuring stage for the barrel charge of gunpowder could be avoided by carrying a number of pre-measured charges in small containers of wood, metal or cloth carried on a bandolier.
These were known by various names, including "chargers" or "apostles" as 12 were carried. For most of the time muzzleloaders were in use, a round ball and pre-measured powder charge could be carried in a paper or cloth wrapping; the shooter would bite off the end of the paper cartridge with his teeth and pour the powder into the barrel followed by the ball encased in the paper wrapping. The projectiles and wads were pushed down into the breech with a ramrod until they were seated on the propellant charge. Priming powder could be carried in a separate priming flask and poured into the priming pan or a little powder from the cartridge was used, the frizzen was pushed down to hold the priming powder in place. After the gunpowder and projectile or shot charge were placed in the barrel a ramrod was used to pack everything down at the base of the barrel. Either a priming charge was placed in the priming pan or a percussion cap was placed on the nipple, the firing mechanism initiated. Muzzleloading firearms use round balls, cylindrical conical projectiles, shot charges.
In some types of rifles firing round ball, a lubricated patch of fabric is wrapped around a ball, smaller than the barrel diameter. In other types of round ball firing rifles, a ramrod and hammer is used to force the round ball down through the rifling; when fired, either the lead ball or the wrapping grips the rifling and imparts spin to the ball which gives improved accuracy. In rifles firing Minié balls, the patch the paper wrapping from the cartridge, is used as an initial seal and to hold powder in place during loading; the Minié ball replaced the round ball in most firearms military, in the 1830s and 1840s. It has a hollow base; the combination of the spinning Minié ball and the consistent velocity provided by the improved seal gave far better accuracy than the smoothbore muzzleloaders that it replaced. When aiming for great accuracy, muzzle-loaders are cleaned before reloading, so that there is no residue left in the barrel to reduce accuracy, though in competitions run by the international governing body, the MLAIC, this is pr