A debut novel is the first novel a novelist publishes. Debut novels are the author's first opportunity to make an impact on the publishing industry, thus the success or failure of a debut novel can affect the ability of the author to publish in the future. First-time novelists without a previous published reputation, such as publication in nonfiction, magazines, or literary journals struggle to find a publisher. Sometimes new novelists will self-publish their debut novels, because publishing houses will not risk the capital needed to market books by an unknown author to the public. Most publishers purchase rights to novels debut novels, through literary agents, who screen client work before sending it to publishers; these hurdles to publishing reflect both publishers' limits in resources for reviewing and publishing unknown works, that readers buy more books by established authors with a reputation than first-time writers. For this reason, literary communities have created awards that help acknowledge exceptional debut novels.
In contemporary British and American publishing markets, most authors receive only a small monetary advance before publication of their debut novel. For an example of an unusually high advance: in 2013, the anticipated City on Fire by Garth Risk Hallberg captured the attention of ten publishers who started a bidding war that ended with Knopf buying the rights to the book for 2 million dollars; the book's film production rights were purchased soon after by producer Scott Rudin. For similar reasons that advances are not large—novels don't sell well until the author gains a literary reputation. There are exceptions, however; the novel saw huge sales because she had an established audience, publishers were willing to run a large print run. By comparison, bestselling Fifty Shades of Grey sold 14,814 copies in its first week, or popular novels, like Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, only receive small initial print runs. Debut novels that do well will be reprinted as sales increase due to word of mouth popularity of the novels — publishers don't run large marketing campaigns for debut novelists.
There are numerous literary prizes for debut novels associated with genre or nationality. These prizes are in recognition of the difficulties faced by debut novelists and bring attention to deserving works and authors; some of the more prestigious awards around the world include the American Hemingway Foundation/PEN Award, the French Prix Goncourt du Premier Roman, the British Guardian First Book Award, the German Aspekte-Literaturpreis and the Japanese Noma Literary Prize. The New York Times commentator Leslie Jamison described the big, very public, "to do" about debut novels and novelists created by these book awards, as associated with the excitement of finding authors and writers without established legacies. In the same piece for the Times, Ayana Mathis describes the debut novel as a "a piece of the writer’s soul in a way that subsequent books can’t be", because the novel is a work of passion and a product of all of their life before that moment. An author's first novel will not be as complex stylistically or thematically as subsequent works and will not feature the author's typical literary characteristics.
Huffington Post's Dave Astor attributes these to two forces: first that authors are still learning their own unique style and audiences are more willing to read works from unknown authors if they resemble more conventional styles of literature. As examples, Astor points to J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit, Margaret Atwood's The Edible Woman and Charles Dickens' The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, all of which lack the complexity or stylistic characteristics which audiences praise in the authors' work. Sometimes, instead of writing novels to begin their career, some authors will start with short stories, which can be easier to publish and allow authors to get started in writing fiction. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest attested usage of "first novel" is from 1876. However, the term is much older, with instances going back to at least 1800; the Oxford English Dictionary doesn't have an entry for "debut novel." The earliest usage of "debut novel" in the Google Books database is 1930.
The Google Books Ngram Viewer shows it becoming more used after about 1980, gaining in popularity since
Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson, was an Australian bush poet and author. He wrote many ballads and poems about Australian life, focusing on the rural and outback areas, including the district around Binalong, New South Wales, where he spent much of his childhood. Paterson's more notable poems include "Clancy of the Overflow", "The Man from Snowy River" and "Waltzing Matilda", regarded as Australia's unofficial national anthem. Andrew Barton Paterson was born at the property "Narrambla", near Orange, New South Wales, the eldest son of Andrew Bogle Paterson, a Scottish immigrant from Lanarkshire, Australian-born Rose Isabella Barton, related to the future first Prime Minister of Australia Edmund Barton. Paterson's family lived on the isolated Buckinbah Station near Yeoval NSW until he was five when his father lost his wool clip in a flood and was forced to sell up; when Paterson's uncle John Paterson died, his family took over John Paterson's farm in Illalong, near Yass, close to the main route between Melbourne and Sydney.
Bullock teams, Cobb and Co coaches and drovers were familiar sights to him. He saw horsemen from the Murrumbidgee River area and Snowy Mountains country take part in picnic races and polo matches, which led to his fondness of horses and inspired his writings. Paterson's early education came from a governess, but when he was able to ride a pony, he was taught at the bush school at Binalong. In 1874 Paterson was sent to Sydney Grammar School, performing well both as a student and a sportsman. During this time, he lived in the suburb of Gladesville; the cottage is now listed on the Register of the National Estate and New South Wales State Heritage Register. He left the prestigious school at 16 after failing an examination for a scholarship to University of Sydney, he went on to become a law clerk with a Sydney-based firm headed by Herbert Salwey and was admitted as a solicitor in 1886. In the years he practised as a solicitor, Paterson started a writing career. From 1885, he began submitting and having poetry published in The Bulletin, a literary journal with a nationalist focus.
His earliest work was a poem criticising the British war in the Sudan, which had Australian participation. Over the next decade, the influential journal provided an important platform for Paterson's work, which appeared under the pseudonym of "The Banjo", the name of his favourite horse; as one of its most popular writers through the 1890s, he formed friendships with other significant writers in Australian literature, such as E. J. Brady, Harry'Breaker' Morant, Will H. Ogilvie, Henry Lawson. In particular, Paterson became engaged in a friendly rivalry of verse with Lawson about the allure of bush life. Paterson became a war correspondent for The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age during the Second Boer War, sailing for South Africa in October 1899, his graphic accounts of the relief of Kimberley, surrender of Bloemfontein and the capture of Pretoria attracted the attention of the press in Britain. He was a correspondent during the Boxer Rebellion, where he met George "Chinese" Morrison and wrote about his meeting.
He was editor of the Sydney Evening News and of the Country Journal. In 1908 after a trip to the United Kingdom he decided to abandon journalism and writing and moved with his family to a 16,000-hectare property near Yass. In World War I, Paterson failed to become a correspondent covering the fighting in Flanders, but did become an ambulance driver with the Australian Voluntary Hospital, France, he returned to Australia early in 1915 and, as an honorary vet, travelled on three voyages with horses to Africa and Egypt. He was commissioned in the 2nd Remount Unit, Australian Imperial Force on 18 October 1915, serving in France where he was wounded and reported missing in July 1916 and latterly as commanding officer of the unit based in Cairo, Egypt, he was repatriated to Australia and discharged from the army having risen to the rank of major in April 1919. His wife had worked in an ambulance unit near her husband. Just as he returned to Australia, the third collection of his poetry, Saltbush Bill JP, was published and he continued to publish verse, short stories and essays while continuing to write for the weekly Truth.
Paterson wrote on rugby league football in the 1920s for the Sydney Sportsman. On 8 April 1903 he married Alice Emily Walker, of Tenterfield Station, in St Stephen's Presbyterian Church, in Tenterfield, New South Wales, their first home was in Woollahra. The Patersons had two children and Hugh. Paterson had been engaged to Sarah Riley for eight years, but this was abruptly called off in 1895 following a visit to her at Dagworth Station in Queensland where she was visiting the Macpherson family, it was here that Paterson met his fiancée's best friend from school days, Christina Macpherson, who composed the music for which he wrote the lyrics of the famous "Waltzing Matilda". However, following this collaboration Paterson was asked to leave the property, leading historians to conclude that he was a womanizer and had engaged in a scandalous romantic liaison with Macpherson. Paterson died of a heart attack in Sydney on 5 February 1941 aged 76. Paterson's grave, along with that of his wife, is in the Northern Suburbs Memorial Gardens and Crematorium, Sydney.
The publication of The Man from Snowy River and five other ballads in The Bulletin made'The Banjo' a household name. In 1895, Angus & Robertson published these poems as a collection of Australian verse; the book sold 5000 copies in the first four months of publication
Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin, known as Miles Franklin was an Australian writer and feminist, best known for her novel My Brilliant Career, published by Blackwoods of Edinburgh in 1901. While she wrote throughout her life, her other major literary success, All That Swagger, was not published until 1936, she was committed to the development of a uniquely Australian form of literature, she pursued this goal by supporting writers, literary journals, writers' organisations. She has had a long-lasting impact on Australian literary life through her endowment of a major annual prize for literature about "Australian Life in any of its phases", the Miles Franklin Award, her impact was further recognised in 2013 with the creation of the Stella Prize, awarded annually for the best work of literature by an Australian woman. Franklin was born at Talbingo, New South Wales, grew up in the Brindabella Valley on a property called Brindabella Station, she was the eldest child of Australian-born parents, John Maurice Franklin and Susannah Margaret Eleanor Franklin, née Lampe, the great-granddaughter of Edward Miles who had arrived with the First Fleet in the Scarborough with a seven-year sentence for theft.
Her family was a member of the squattocracy. She was educated at home until 1889 when she attended Thornford Public During this period she was encouraged in her writing by her teacher, Mary Gillespie and Tom Hebblewhite editor of the local Goulburn newspaper, her best known novel, My Brilliant Career, tells the story of an irrepressible teenage girl, Sybylla Melvyn, growing to womanhood in rural New South Wales. It was published in 1901 with the support of Henry Lawson. After its publication, Franklin tried a career in nursing, as a housemaid in Sydney and Melbourne. Whilst doing this she contributed pieces to The Daily Telegraph and The Sydney Morning Herald under the pseudonyms "An Old Bachelor" and "Vernacular." During this period she wrote My Career Goes Bung in which Sybylla encounters the Sydney literary set, but it was not released to the public until 1946. An overtly anti-war play, The Dead Must Not Return, was not published or performed but received a public reading in September 2009.
In 1906, Franklin moved to the US and undertook secretarial work for Alice Henry, another Australian, at the National Women's Trade Union League in Chicago, co-edited the league's magazine and Labor. Her years in the US are reflected in On Dearborn Street, a love story that uses American slang in a manner not dissimilar to the early work of Dashiell Hammett. While in America she wrote Some Everyday Folk and Dawn, the story of a small-town Australian family, which uses purple prose for deliberate comic effect, she suffered regular bouts of ill health and entered a sanatorium for a period in 1912 In 1915, she travelled to England and worked as a cook and earned some money from journalism. In March 1917 Franklin volunteered for war work in the Ostrovo Unit of the Scottish Women's Hospitals during the Serbian campaigns of 1917–18, she served as a cook in a 200-bed tent hospital attached to the Serbian army near Lake Ostrovo in Macedonia Greece from July 1917 to February 1918. From 1919 to 1926 Franklin worked as Secretary with the National Housing and Town Planning Association in London.
She organised a women's international housing convention in 1924. Her life in England in the 1920s gave rise to Bring the Monkey, a satire on the English country house mystery novel; the book reveals Franklin's views on class. The book was a literary and commercial failure. Franklin resettled in Australia in 1932 after the death of her father in 1931. During that decade she wrote several historical novels of the Australian bush, although most of these were published under the pseudonym "Brent of Bin Bin". New South Wales State Librarian, Dagmar Schmidmaier, said "Miles feared that nothing she wrote matched the success of My Brilliant Career and resorted to writing under different names, including the bizarre pseudonym Brent of Bin Bin, to protect herself from poor reviews." However, All That Swagger was published under her own name in 1936. Throughout her life, Franklin supported literature in Australia, she joined the Fellowship of Australian Writers in 1933 and the Sydney P. E. N. Club in 1935, she encouraged young writers such as Jean Devanny, Sumner Locke Elliott and Ric Throssell and she supported the new literary journals and Southerly.
Miles entertained literary figures at her home in Carlton, NSW. An autograph book known as Miles Franklin's Waratah Book held by the State Library of NSW was used for autographs and inscriptions. Guests were encouraged to write in the Waratah Book. In 1937, Franklin declined appointment as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. Miles Franklin engaged in a number of literary collaborations throughout her life. In addition to co-editing the journal Life and Labor with Alice Henry in the US, she wrote Pioneers on Parade in collaboration Dymphna Cusack and Joseph Furphy "in painful collaboration with Kate Baker". In 1939, she and Baker had won the Prior Memorial prize for an essay on Furphy. Dever writes that the letters between Dymphna Cusack and Miles Franklin that are published in Yarn Spinners "provide a see-sawing commentary on the delicate art of literary collaboration". While Miles Franklin had many suitors, she never married, she died on 19 September 1954, aged 74 and her ashes were scattered in Jounama Creek, Talbingo close to where she was born.
In her will she made a bequest for her estate to establish an annual literary award known as The Miles Franklin Award. The firs
Angus & Robertson
Angus & Robertson is a major Australian bookseller, book publisher and book printer. As book publishers, A&R has contributed to the promotion and development of Australian literature; this well known Australian brand exists as an online shop as part of online bookseller Booktopia. The Angus & Robertson imprint is still seen in books published by HarperCollins, a News Corporation company; the first bookstore was opened in 110½ Market Street, Sydney by Scotsman David Angus in 1884. In 1886, he went into partnership with fellow Scot George Robertson; this George Robertson should not be confused with his older contemporary, George Robertson the Melbourne bookseller, who traded as Robertson & Mullens. In 1900, David Angus, plagued by ill health, retired from the partnership to England, where he died soon after. Frederick Wymark took over a large portion of Angus's share in the company. In 1895 the company moved to Sydney; the head office of the firm was at Castlereagh Street until the 1950s. The shop was known as the "biggest bookshop in the world".
In 1907 the partnership was converted into a public company: Robertson Limited. In 1951 a store was established in High Commission of Australia, which operated until the 1970s. In the 1950s, Angus & Robertson began the growth which led it to become Australia's first nationwide chain of bookstores. In 1977, it opened its first franchise store in the southern Sydney suburb of Hurstville. In 2006, the company had over 170 stores spread throughout the country, it claimed that it had more than twice as many stores as Australia's next largest bookseller; the firm had about 18% share in the Australian book retail market. George Robertson encouraged book collector David Scott Mitchell to convert to collecting in the then-neglected field of Australian literature. Mitchell accumulated a large collection, which formed the basis of the Mitchell Library of the State Library of New South Wales. George Robertson encouraged businessman and collector William Dixson to collect Australian books and art, his collection formed the Dixson Library of the State Library of New South Wales.
Angus & Robertson began publishing in 1888. Their first work was a book of verse, A Crown of Wattle, written by a Sydney solicitor, H. Peden Steel. From the early years of publishing to 1900, Angus and Robertson developed a successful and profitable marketing formula and mix of products: a mixture of literary publishing together with educational publishing, plus active marketing by distributing large numbers of review copies, they published valuable reference works, including the Australian Encyclopaedia, John Alexander Ferguson's multi-volume Bibliography of Australia, the early years of "Art in Australia". In 1938 A&R opened a publishing office in London; as a publisher, Angus & Robertson has played a substantial role in shaping Australian literature by publishing, to huge sales, works by popular Australian authors such as Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, C. J. Dennis, Norman Lindsay, Frank Clune, Ion Idriess, Will H. Ogilvie, Colin Simpson, Arthur Upfield, Frank Dalby Davison, E. V. Timms, children's writers Dorothy Wall and May Gibbs.
George Robertson died in 1933, he was succeeded as publisher by Walter Cousins and George Ferguson. To better control printing costs, maintain a consistent quality, George Robertson bought a printing company Eagle Press in 1929, renamed it Halstead Press. Printing thus became the third tier of the Robertson business, it was Australia's leading book printer for forty years. However, the printing presses had become antiquated by the 1970s. In the 1970s, after a corporate takeover, the printing presses were sold to John Sands. Halstead became a publishing imprint, Robertson's great grandson having acquired the logo and identity; these he passed on to the present company, Halstead Press, when it was set up in 1991. About 1895 or 1896, George Robertson started the Sydney Book Club, based on the principles of a lending library, it evolved out of the actions of a group of legal men who bought 100 books for reading among themselves sold the books back to A&R. The SBC was a great success and profitable, as the same book could be borrowed by post and returned many times.
Fifty to 100 copies of A&R bestsellers were available for loan. The SBC had a vast membership throughout Australia in remote rural areas; the SBC closed in 1958. The rapid expansion of local government libraries throughout Australia offered a more localized and free service. From time to time, Angus & Robertson has offered substantial support to literary societies. For example, it published the literary journal "Southerly" for some years. A&R has provided incentives for promising Australian writers. For example, A&R applied for federal grants to subsidise the publication of worthwhile but limited-market books. In 1993, the first A&R Bookworld Prize of $10,000 was awarded for a first book of fiction by an unpublished writer. In 1947, the Book Collectors Society of Australia started publication of its monthly newsletter Biblionews; until the 1970s, Angus & Robertson printed the newsletter free of charge, in return for the enclosure of a brochure about recent A&R publications. Eric Russell, an editor at Angus & Robertson, was a consistent supporter of, committee member of, the BCSA.
In the 1960s, a battle for control of Angus & Robertson commenced, based on its extensive property holdings. Scottish publisher William Collins bought a significant defensive shareholding, acting on behal
Henry Archibald Hertzberg Lawson was an Australian writer and bush poet. Along with his contemporary Banjo Paterson, Lawson is among the best-known Australian poets and fiction writers of the colonial period and is called Australia's "greatest short story writer". A vocal nationalist and republican, Lawson contributed to The Bulletin, many of his works helped popularise the Australian vernacular in fiction, he wrote prolifically into the 1890s, after which his output declined, in part due to struggles with alcoholism and mental illness. At times destitute, he spent periods in psychiatric institutions. After he died in 1922 following a cerebral haemorrhage, Lawson became the first Australian writer to be granted a state funeral, he was the son of the poet and feminist Louisa Lawson. Henry Lawson was born 17 June 1867 in a town on the Grenfell goldfields of New South Wales, his father was a Norwegian-born miner. Niels Larsen went to sea at 21 and arrived in Melbourne in 1855 to join the gold rush, along with partner William Henry John Slee. Lawson's parents met at the goldfields of Pipeclay.
Niels and Louisa Albury married on 7 July 1866 when he was 32 and she 18. On Henry's birth, the family surname was Anglicised and Niels became Peter Lawson; the newly married couple were to have an unhappy marriage. Louisa, after family-raising, took a significant part in women's movements, edited a women's paper called The Dawn, she published her son's first volume, around 1904 brought out a volume of her own, Dert and Do, a simple story of 18,000 words. In 1905 she published her own verses, The Lonely Crossing and other Poems. Louisa had a strong influence on her son's literary work in its earliest days. Peter Lawson's grave is in the little private cemetery at Hartley Vale, New South Wales, a few minutes' walk behind what was Collitt's Inn. Lawson attended school at Eurunderee from 2 October 1876 but suffered an ear infection at around this time, it left him with partial deafness and by the age of fourteen he had lost his hearing entirely. However, his master John Tierney was kind and did all he could for Lawson, quite shy. Lawson attended a Catholic school at Mudgee, New South Wales around 8 km away.
Lawson was a keen reader of Dickens and Marryat and Australian novels such as Marcus Clarke's For the Term of His Natural Life and Rolf Boldrewood's Robbery Under Arms. Reading became a major source of his education because, due to his deafness, he had trouble learning in the classroom. In 1883, after working on building jobs with his father in the Blue Mountains, Lawson joined his mother in Sydney at her request. Louisa was living with Henry's sister and brother. At this time, Lawson was working during the day and studying at night for his matriculation in the hopes of receiving a university education. However, he failed his exams. At around 20 years of age Lawson went to the eye and ear hospital in Melbourne but nothing could be done for his deafness. In 1890 he began a relationship with Mary Gilmore, she writes of an unofficial engagement and Lawson's wish to marry her, but it was broken by his frequent absences from Sydney. The story of the relationship is told in Anne Brooksbank's play All My Love.
In 1896, Lawson married Jr. daughter of Bertha Bredt, the prominent socialist. The marriage ended unhappily. Bertha filed for divorce and in her affidavit she stated: A judicial separation was granted and was declared in June 1903, they had son Jim and daughter Bertha. Henry Lawson's first published poem was'A Song of the Republic' which appeared in The Bulletin, 1 October 1887; this was followed by'The Wreck of the Derry Castle' and then'Golden Gully.' Prefixed to the former poem was an editorial'note: Lawson was 20 years old, not 17. In 1890-1891 Lawson worked in Albany, he received an offer to write for the Brisbane Boomerang in 1891, but he lasted only around 7–8 months as the Boomerang was soon in trouble. While in Brisbane he contributed to William Lane's Worker, he returned to Sydney and continued to write for the Bulletin which, in 1892, paid for an inland trip where he experienced the harsh realities of drought-affected New South Wales. He worked as a roustabout in the woolshed at Toorale Station.
This resulted in his contributions to the Bulletin Debate and became a source for many of his stories in subsequent years. Elder writes of the trek Lawson took between Hungerford and Bourke as "the most important trek in Australian literary history" and says that "it confirmed all his prejudices about the Australian bush. Lawson had no romantic illusions about a'rural idyll'." As Elder continues, his grim view of the outback was far removed from "the romantic idyll of brave horsemen and beautiful scenery depicted in the poetry of Banjo Paterson". Lawson's most successful prose collection is While the Billy Boils, published in 1896. In it he "continued his assault on Paterson and the romantics, in the process reinvented Australian realism". Elder writes that "he used short, sharp sentences, with language as raw as Ernest Hemingway or Raymond Carver. With sparse adjectives and honed-to-the-bone description, Lawson created a style and defined Australians: dryly laconic, passionately egalitarian and humane."
Most of his work focuses on the Australian bush, such as the desola