A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
The Pajama Game (album)
The Pajama Game is an album released on August 12, 1957 by Columbia Records. It contains songs from the movie of the same name sung by Doris Day and John Raitt; the catalog number was OL-5210. All songs by Jerry Ross and Richard Adler. "The Pajama Game" "Racing with the Clock" "I'm Not at All in Love" "I'll Never Be Jealous Again" "Hey There" "Once-a-Year Day" "Small Talk" "There Once Was a Man" "Steam Heat" "Hernando's Hideaway" "Seven and a Half Cents" "Finale"
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Lullaby of Broadway (album)
Lullaby of Broadway was a 10" LP album of songs sung by Doris Day, released on March 5, 1951 under catalog number CL-6168. The songs on the album were taken from the soundtrack of the movie of the same name in which she starred. "Lullaby of Broadway" - 2:29 "Fine and Dandy" - 2:49 "In a Shanty in Old Shanty Town" - 2:55 "Somebody Loves Me" - 2:49 "Just One of Those Things" "You're Getting to Be a Habit with Me" "I Love the Way You Say Goodnight" "Please Don't Talk About Me When I'm Gone" †Paul James was the pseudonym of Swift's husband James Warburg. This album, combined with Tea for Two, was reissued in compact disc form in 2001
Day by Day (Doris Day album)
Day by Day is a Doris Day album released by Columbia Records on December 17, 1956. The title is an obvious pun, both meaning "on a daily basis" and " Day, in the daytime"; the album was issued as Columbia catalog CL-942. All tracks have vocals by Day accompanied by Paul Weston's orchestra; the album was combined with Day's 1957 album, Day by Night, on a compact disc, issued on November 14, 2000 by Collectables Records. "The Song Is You" - 3:19 "Hello, My Lover, Goodbye" - 3:38 "But Not for Me" - 2:38 "I Remember You" - 4:02 "I Hadn't Anyone Till You" - 3:04 "But Beautiful" - 3:24 "Autumn Leaves" - 3:03 "Don't Take Your Love from Me" - 3:24 "There Will Never Be Another You" "Gone with the Wind" "The Gypsy in My Soul" "Day by Day"
His Master's Voice
His Master's Voice is a famous trademark in the recording industry and was the unofficial name of a major British record label. The phrase was coined in the 1890s as the title of a painting of a terrier mix dog named Nipper, listening to a wind-up disc gramophone. In the original painting, the dog was listening to a cylinder phonograph. In the 1970s, the statue of the dog and gramophone, His Master's Voice, were cloaked in bronze and was awarded by the record company to artists or music producers or composers as a music award and only after selling more than 100,000 recordings; the trademark image comes from a painting by English artist Francis Barraud and titled His Master's Voice. It was acquired from the artist in 1899 by the newly formed Gramophone Company and adopted as a trademark by the Gramophone Company's United States affiliate, the Victor Talking Machine Company. According to contemporary Gramophone Company publicity material, the dog, a terrier named Nipper, had belonged to Barraud's brother, Mark.
When Mark Barraud died, Francis inherited Nipper, with a cylinder phonograph and recordings of Mark's voice. Francis noted the peculiar interest that the dog took in the recorded voice of his late master emanating from the horn, conceived the idea of committing the scene to canvas. In early 1899, Francis Barraud applied for copyright of the original painting using the descriptive working title Dog looking at and listening to a Phonograph, he was unable to sell the work to any cylinder phonograph company, but William Barry Owen, the American founder of the Gramophone Company in England, offered to purchase the painting under the condition that Barraud modify it to show one of their disc machines. Barraud complied and the image was first used on the company's catalogue from December 1899; as the trademark gained in popularity, several additional copies were subsequently commissioned from the artist for various corporate purposes. Emile Berliner, the inventor of the Gramophone, had seen the picture in London and took out a United States copyright on it in July, 1900.
The painting was adopted as a trademark by Berliner's business partner, Eldridge R. Johnson of the Consolidated Talking Machine Company, reorganized as the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901. Victor used the image far more aggressively than its UK affiliate, from 1902 most Victor records had a simplified drawing of Barraud's dog-and-gramophone image on their labels. Magazine advertisements urged record buyers to "look for the dog." In British Commonwealth countries, the Gramophone Company did not use the dog on its record labels until 1909. The following year the Gramophone Company replaced the Recording Angel trademark in the upper half of the record labels with the Nipper logo; the company was not formally called HMV or His Master's Voice, but became identified by that term due to the prominence of the phrase on the record labels. Records issued by the company before February 1908 were referred to by record collectors as G&Ts, while those after that date are called HMV records; the image continued to be used as a trademark by Victor in the US, Latin America.
In 1929, the Radio Corporation of America purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. In British Commonwealth countries it was used by various subsidiaries of the Gramophone Company, which became part of EMI; the trademark's ownership is divided among different companies in different countries, reducing its value in the globalised music market. The name HMV was used by a chain of music shops owned by HMV in the UK, Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan. In 1921 the Gramophone Company opened the first HMV shop in London. RCA purchased the Victor Company in 1929 and with it a major shareholding in the Gramophone Company, which Victor had owned in part since 1920. RCA was instrumental in the 1931 creation of EMI, which continued to own the His Master's Voice name and image in the UK. In 1935, RCA Victor sold its stake in EMI but continued to own the rights to His Master's Voice in the Americas. HMV continued to distribute Victor recordings in the UK and elsewhere until 1957, when EMI purchased Capitol Records as their distributor in the western hemisphere.
The hostilities between the US and Japan during World War II led RCA Victor's Japanese subsidiary, the Victor Company of Japan, to become independent, today the company is still allowed use of the "Victor" brand and Nipper trademark in Japan only. In 1968, RCA restricted the use of Nipper to Red Seal album covers; the Nipper trademark was reinstated to most RCA record labels in the Western Hemisphere beginning in late 1976 and was once again used in RCA advertising throughout the late 1970s and 1980s. In the early 1980s, the dog reappeared for a time on RCA television sets and was used on the ill-fated RCA CED videodisc system. EMI owned the His Master's Voice label in the UK until the 1980s, the HMV shops until 1998. In 1967, EMI converted the HMV label into an exclusive classical music label and dropped its POP series of popular music. HMV's POP series artists' roster was moved to Columbia Graphophone and Parlophone and licensed American POP record deals to Stateside Records; the globalised market for CDs pushed EMI into abandoning the HMV label in favour of "EMI Classics", a name they could use worldwide.
The HMV trademark is now owned by the retail chain in the UK. The formal trademark transfer from EMI took place in 2003; the old HMV classical music catalogue is now controlled by the Warner Classics unit of Warner Music Group. Reissues of HMV pop material that EMI controlled are now reis
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv