Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Street children are poor or homeless children who live on the streets of a city, town, or village. Homeless youth are called street kids or street child; some street children, notably in more developed nations, are part of a subcategory called thrown-away children, consisting of children who have been forced to leave home. Thrown-away children are more to come from single-parent homes. Street children are subject to abuse, exploitation, or, in extreme cases, murder by "clean-up squads" that have been hired by local businesses or police. Street girls are sometimes called gamines, a term, used for Colombian street children of either sex. Street children can be found in a large majority of the world's famous cities, with the phenomenon more prevalent in densely populated urban hubs of developing or economically unstable regions, such as countries in Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia. According to a report from the Consortium for Street Children, a United Kingdom-based consortium of related non-governmental organizations, UNICEF estimated that 100 million children were growing up on urban streets around the world.
Fourteen years in 2002, UNICEF reported, "The latest estimates put the numbers of these children as high as one hundred million". More the organization added, "The exact number of street children is impossible to quantify, but the figure certainly runs into tens of millions across the world, it is that the numbers are increasing." In an attempt to form a more reliable estimate, a statistical model based on the number of street children and relevant social indicators for 184 countries was developed. Although it produced a statistically reliable estimate of the number of street children, the model is dependent on the definition of “street children,” national estimates, data collected on the development level of the country, it is thus limited in range; the one hundred million figure is still cited for street children, but has no basis in fact. It is debatable whether numbers of street children are growing globally, or whether it is the awareness of street children within societies that has grown.
Comprehensive Street level research, completed in the year 2000 in Cape Town, proved that international estimates of tens of thousands of street children living on the streets of Cape Town were incorrect. This research proved, that with street children begging at every intersection, rivers of street children sleeping on the pavements at night, with gangs of street children roaming around the streets, there were less than 800 children living on the streets of greater Cape Town at this time; this insight enabled a whole new approach to street children to be developed, one not based on the provision of basic care to masses of street children, but one focused on helping individual children, on healing, educating and developing them permanently away from street life, as well as managing the exploitation of street children and the support factors that keep them on the street The phenomenon of street children has been documented as far back as 1848. Alan Ball, in the introduction to his book on the history of abandoned children, And Now My Soul Is Hardened: Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, 1918–1930, states: Orphaned and abandoned children have been a source of misery from earliest times.
They accounted for most of the boy prostitutes in Augustan Rome and, a few centuries moved a church council of 442 in southern Gaul to declare: "Concerning abandoned children: there is general complaint that they are nowadays exposed more to dogs than to kindness." In Tsarist Russia, seventeenth-century sources described destitute youths roaming the streets, the phenomenon survived every attempt at eradication thereafter. In 1848, Lord Ashley referred to more than 30,000 "naked, roaming lawless, deserted children" in and around London, UK. Among many English novels featuring them as a humanitarian problem are Jessica's First Prayer by Sarah Smith and Georgina Castle Smith's Nothing to Nobody. By 1922, there were at least seven million homeless children in Russia due to the devastation from World War I and the Russian Civil War. Abandoned children formed gangs, created their own argot, engaged in petty theft and prostitution; the causes of this phenomenon are varied, but are related to domestic, economic, or social disruption including, but not limited to: poverty.
Children may end up on the streets due to cultural factors. For example, some children in parts of Congo and Uganda are made to leave their family. In Afghanistan, young girls who are accused of "honor crimes" that shame their family and/or cultural practices—like adultery or who refuse an arranged marriage—may be forced to leave their homes. Children may end up on the streets due to religious factors. For example, some children in the far-northern parts of Nigeria are forced to leave their homes to indenture
Pickpocketing is a form of larceny that involves the stealing of money or other valuables from the person or a victim without them noticing the theft at the time. It may involve a knack for misdirection. A thief who works in this manner is known as a pickpocket. Pickpockets and other thieves those working in teams, sometimes apply distraction, such as asking a question or bumping into the victim; these distractions sometimes require sleight of hand, speed and other types of skills. Pickpockets may be found in any crowded place around the world; however and Rome were singled out as being dangerous pickpocket havens. Thieves have been known to operate in high traffic areas such as mass transit stations boarding subway trains so they can use the distractions of crowds and sudden stop-and-go movements from the train to steal from others; as soon as the thieves have what they want, they get off at the next stop leaving the victim unable to figure out who robbed them and when. Pickpocketing skills are employed by some magicians as a form of entertainment, either by taking an item from a spectator or by returning it without them knowing they had lost it.
Borra, arguably the most famous stage pickpocket of all time, became the highest-paid European performer in circuses during the 1950s. For 60 years he was billed as "the King of Pickpockets" and encouraged his son, Charly, to follow in his cunning trade, his offspring being billed as "the Prince of Pickpockets". Kassagi, a French-Tunisian illusionist, acted as technical advisor on Robert Bresson's 1959 film Pickpocket and appeared as instructor and accomplice to the main character. George Barrington is referenced in the film. James Freedman known as "The Man of Steal", created the pickpocket sequences for the 2005 film Oliver Twist directed by Roman Polanski. Professional illusionist David Avadon featured pickpocketing as his trademark act for more than 30 years and promoted himself as "a daring pickpocket with dashing finesse" and "the country's premier exhibition pickpocket, one of the few masters in the world of this underground art.". Smith Journal of Australia has described America's Thomas Blacke as one of the top pickpockets in the world.
Famous fictional pickpockets include The Artful Dodger and Fagin, characters from the Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. Famous true-life historical pickpockets include the Irish prostitute Chicago May, profiled in books. George Barrington's escapades and trials, were chronicled in the late 18th century London press; the 17th and 18th centuries saw a important number of men and women pickpockets, operating in public and/or private places and stealing different types of items. Some of those pickpockets were caught and prosecuted for their theft, however, in most cases, they managed to avoid punishment. Although we refer to them as "pickpockets" today, this is not how they were called in the 17th century: they were sometimes referred to as "cut-purses", as can be seen in some 17th century ballads. Indeed, at the time, pockets were not yet sewn to clothes; this means. This was true for women, since men's pockets were sewn "into the linings of their coats". Women's pockets were worn beneath a piece of clothing, not "as opposed to pouches or bags hanging outside their clothes".
These external pockets were still in fashion until the mid 19th century. Pickpocketing in the 18th century was committed by both men and many women. Alongside with shoplifting, pickpocketing was the only type of crime committed by more women than men, it seems that in the 18th century, most pickpockets stole out of economic needs: they were poor and did not have any economic support, unemployment was "the single most important cause of poverty", leading the most needy ones to pick pockets. In most cases, pickpockets operated depending on the opportunities they got: if they saw someone wearing a silver watch or with a handkerchief bulging out of their pocket, the pickpockets took the item; this means. However, some pickpockets did work as a gang, in which cases they planned thefts though they could not be sure of what they would get; the prosecutions against pickpockets at the Old Bailey between 1780 and 1808 show that male pickpockets were somewhat younger than female ones: 72% of men pickpockets convicted at the time were aged from under 20 to 30, while 72% of women convicted of picking pockets were aged between 20 and 40.
One reason that may explain why women pickpockets were older is that most of women pickpockets were prostitutes. Indeed, at the end of the 18th century, 76% of women defendants were prostitutes, as a result, the victims of pickpockets were more men than women. In most cases, these prostitutes would lay with men, take advantage of the situation to steal from these clients. Men who were robbed by prostitutes chose not to prosecute the pickpockets, since they would have had to acknowledge their "immoral behaviour"; the few men who decided to prosecute prostitutes for picking the
Sheldon Leonard Bershad was an American film and television actor, producer and writer. Sheldon Leonard Bershad was born in Manhattan, New York City, the son of middle class Jewish parents Anna Levit and Frank Bershad, he graduated from Syracuse University in 1929. As an actor, Leonard specialized in playing supporting characters gangsters or "heavies", in films such as It's a Wonderful Life, To Have and Have Not and Dolls, Open Secret, his trademark was his thick New York accent delivered from the side of his mouth. In Decoy, Leonard uses his "heavy" persona. On radio from 1945 to 1955, Leonard played an eccentric racetrack tout on The Jack Benny Program and in the TV series of the same name, his role was to salute Benny out of the blue in railroad stations, on street corners, or in department stores, ask Benny what he was about to do, proceed to try to argue him out of his course of action by resorting to inane and irrelevant racing logic. As "The Tout," he never gave out information on horse racing.
One excuse the tout gave was, "Who knows about horses?" Leonard was part of the cast of voice actors on the Damon Runyon Theatre radio show. He was part of the ensemble cast of the Lewis radio show, he appeared on The Adventures of the Saint playing gangsters and heavies, but sometimes in more positive roles. Leonard was a regular on the radio comedy series The Adventures of Maisie in the 1940s. During the 1950s, Leonard provided the voice of lazy fat cat Dodsworth in two Warner Bros. Merrie Melodies cartoons directed by Robert McKimson. In the adventure movie The Iroquois Trail, Leonard played against type in the significant role of Chief Ogane, a Native American warrior, who pursues and fights the frontiersman Nat "Hawkeye" Cutler in a climactic duel to the death with knives. In the 1950s and 1960s, he established a reputation as a producer of successful television series, including The Danny Thomas Show, The Andy Griffith Show, Gomer Pyle U. S. M. C; the Dick Van Dyke Show, I Spy. He directed several TV series episodes, including four of the first eight episodes of the TV series Lassie.
Leonard provided the voice of Linus the Lionhearted in a series of Post Crispy Critters cereal TV commercials in 1963-64, which led to a Linus cartoon series that aired on Saturday mornings on CBS and ABC. He was the star of his own television show Big Eddie, where he played the owner of a large sports arena; the show lasted for only ten episodes. The character of Andy Taylor was introduced in a 1960 episode of The Danny Thomas Show, which led to the series The Andy Griffith Show. Leonard is informally credited with developing the practice of using an episode of a series as a backdoor pilot episode for new series, in which a guest star is introduced as a new character with the intention of using this character as the basis for a new show, he was the executive producer on Gomer Pyle U. S. M. C. and had a cameo on the show as a Hollywood Producer who has to do 34 takes on a movie scene before Sgt Carter does it right! Leonard has the distinction of being one of the first two Miller Lite spokesmen.
Using his trademark accent, he told the audience, "I was at first reluctant to try Miller Lite, but I was persuaded to do so by my friend, Large Louis." One of his last acting roles was a guest appearance on the TV series Cheers, in which he played Sid Nelson, the proprietor of "The Hungry Heifer," Norm Peterson's favorite eating establishment. Leonard died on January 11, 1997, at the age of 89, he was buried at Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in California. Bill Cosby, whom Leonard cast in I Spy, described Leonard as "my last father" when he dedicated an episode of Cosby to both Leonard and his slain son Ennis Cosby. Bill Cosby included an impersonation of Sheldon Leonard in one track of his 1966 hit comedy album Wonderfulness; the track, "Niagara Falls", describes Sheldon Leonard's honeymoon at Niagara Falls. In "Monkees Marooned", the eighth episode of the second season of The Monkees, a character named "Leonard Sheldon", speaking with Leonard's accent, approaches Peter Tork on the street, much like "The Tout" and persuades Tork to trade his guitar for a treasure map.
His name served as a namesake for the characters Sheldon Cooper and Leonard Hofstadter in the American sitcom The Big Bang Theory, because the writers are fans of his work. Actor Producer The Danny Thomas Show, he appeared onscreen as Phil Brokaw. The Andy Griffith Show; the Dick Van Dyke Show. He appeared onscreen in the season 3 episode "Big Max Calvada". Gomer Pyle, USMC, he appeared onscreen in the season 5 episode "A Star is Not Born". I Spy. My World and Welcome to It From a Bird's Eye View Shirley's World Director The Andy Griffith Show The Danny Thomas Show The Dick Van Dyke Show My Favorite Martian I Spy Lassie Leonard, Sheldon, and The Show Goes On: Hollywood Adventures. Limelight, 1995, ISBN 0-87910-184-9 Sheldon Leonard on IMDb Sheldon Leonard at the TCM Movie Database Sheldon Leonard at the Internet Broadway Database Sheldon Leonard at museum.tv
James Allen Whitmore Jr. was an American film and television actor. During his career, Whitmore won three of the four EGOT honors: a Tony, a Grammy, an Emmy. Whitmore won a Golden Globe and was nominated for two Academy Awards. Born in White Plains, New York, to Florence Belle and James Allen Whitmore, Sr. a park commission official, Whitmore attended Amherst Central High School in Snyder, New York, for three years, before transferring to the Choate School in Wallingford, Connecticut, on a football scholarship. He went on to study at Yale University, but he had to quit playing football after injuring his knees. After giving up football, he turned to the Yale Dramatic Society and began acting. While at Yale, he was a member of Skull and Bones, was among the founders of the Yale radio station. Whitmore graduated with a major in government from Yale University; when World War II broke out, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps Reserve while finishing his degree. He graduated from Yale University in 1944 served in the United States Marine Corps in the South Pacific, emerged from the Marines as a lieutenant.
After World War II, Whitmore studied acting at the American Theatre Wing and the Actors Studio in New York. At this time, Whitmore met Nancy Mygatt, they married in 1947, the couple had three sons before their divorce in 1971. The eldest son, James III, found success as a television actor and director under the name James Whitmore, Jr; the second son, became the public spokesman for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. The youngest son, was a Forest Service Snow Ranger and firefighter before he launched his own construction company. In 1979, Whitmore and Mygatt remarried. Whitmore was married to actress Audra Lindley from 1972 until 1979, he co-starred in several stage performances with her both after their marriage. These included Elba. In 2001, he married author Noreen Nash. Whitmore is the grandfather of Survivor: Gabon contestant Matty Whitmore. In 2010, James Whitmore, Jr. and his two children, actress-director Aliah Whitmore and artist-production designer Jacob Whitmore, formed the theatre group Whitmore Eclectic.
They perform in California. In his years, Whitmore spent his summers in Peterborough, New Hampshire, performing with the Peterborough Players. Although not always politically active, in 2007, Whitmore generated some publicity with his endorsement of Barack Obama for U. S. President. In January 2008, Whitmore appeared in television commercials for the First Freedom First campaign, which advocates preserving "the separation of church and state" and protecting religious liberty. "An avid flower and vegetable gardener, Whitmore was known to TV viewers as the longtime commercial pitchman for Miracle-Gro garden products."A Democrat, he supported the campaign of Adlai Stevenson during the 1952 presidential election. Following World War II, Whitmore appeared on Broadway in the role of the sergeant in Command Decision. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer gave Whitmore a contract, but his role in the film adaptation was played by Van Johnson, his first major picture for MGM was Battleground, in a role, turned down by Spencer Tracy, to whom Whitmore bore a noted physical resemblance.
He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for this role, won the Golden Globe Award as Best Performance by an Actor In A Supporting Role. Other major films included Angels in the Outfield, The Asphalt Jungle, The Next Voice You Hear and Beyond, Kiss Me, Them!, Oklahoma!, Black Like Me, Guns of the Magnificent Seven, Tora! Tora! Tora!, Give'em Hell, Harry!, a one-man show for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of former U. S. President Harry S Truman. In the film Tora! Tora! Tora!, he played Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey. Whitmore appeared during the 1950s on many television anthology series, he was cast as Father Emil Kapaun in the 1955 episode "The Good Thief" in the ABC religion anthology series Crossroads. Other roles followed on Jane Wyman Presents the Fireside Theater, Lux Video Theatre, Kraft Theatre, Studio One in Hollywood, Schlitz Playhouse, Matinee Theatre, the Ford Television Theatre. In 1958, he carried the lead with Ward Bond.
In the 1960-1961 television season, Whitmore starred in his own ABC crime drama, The Law and Mr. Jones, in the title role, with Conlan Carter as legal assistant C. E. Carruthers and Janet De Gore as Jones' secretary; the program ran in the 10:30 pm Eastern half-hour slot on Friday. It returned in April 1962 for 13 additional episodes on Thursdays. In 1963, Whitmore played Captain William Benteen in The Twilight Zone episode "On Thursday We Leave for Home." He appeared twice in Twelve O'Clock High. In 1965, Whitmore guest-starred as Col. Paul "Pappy" Hartley in Season 1, Episode 32 "The Hero" and as Col. Harry Connelly in 1966 Season 3, Episode 12 "The Ace", he appeared in an episode of Combat! Titled "The Cassock", as a German officer masquerading as a Catholic priest. In 1967, he guest-starred as a security guard in The Invaders episode, "Quantity: Unknown"; that same year, Whitmore appeared on an episode of ABC's Custer starring Wayne Maunder in the title role. In 1968, he appea
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo