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My Lai Massacre

The Mỹ Lai Massacre was the Vietnam War mass murder of unarmed South Vietnamese civilians by U. S. troops in Sơn Tịnh District, South Vietnam, on 16 March 1968. Between 347 and 504 unarmed people were killed by U. S. Army soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment and Company B, 4th Battalion, 3rd Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd Infantry Division. Victims included men, women and infants; some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies mutilated as were children as young as 12. Twenty-six soldiers were charged with criminal offenses, but only Lieutenant William Calley Jr. a platoon leader in C Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was given a life sentence, but served only three and a half years under house arrest; this war crime, called "the most shocking episode of the Vietnam War", took place in two hamlets of Sơn Mỹ village in Quảng Ngãi Province. These hamlets were marked on the U. S. Army topographic maps as Mỹ Lai and Mỹ Khê; the U. S. Army slang name for the hamlets and sub-hamlets in that area was Pinkville, the carnage was referred to as the Pinkville Massacre.

When the U. S. Army started its investigation, the media changed it to the Massacre at Songmy; the event is referred to as the My Lai Massacre in the United States and called the Sơn Mỹ Massacre in Vietnam. The incident prompted global outrage when it became public knowledge in November 1969; the incident increased to some extent domestic opposition to the U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Three U. S. servicemen who had tried to halt the massacre and rescue the hiding civilians were shunned, denounced as traitors by several U. S. Congressmen, including Mendel Rivers, Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee. Only after 30 years were they recognized and decorated, one posthumously, by the U. S. Army for shielding non-combatants from harm in a war zone. Along with the No Gun Ri massacre in South Korea 18 years earlier, Mỹ Lai was one of the largest publicized massacres of civilians by U. S. forces in the 20th century. Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade, 23rd Infantry Division, arrived in South Vietnam in December 1967.

Though their first three months in Vietnam passed without any direct contact with People's Army of Vietnam or Viet Cong forces, by mid-March the company had suffered 28 casualties involving mines or booby-traps. Two days before the My Lai massacre, the company had lost a popular sergeant to a land mine. During the Tet Offensive in January 1968, attacks were carried out in Quảng Ngãi by the VC 48th Local Force Battalion. U. S. military intelligence assumed that the 48th Battalion, having retreated and dispersed, was taking refuge in the village of Sơn Mỹ, in Quảng Ngãi Province. A number of specific hamlets within that village—designated Mỹ Lai through My Lai — were suspected of harboring the 48th. Sơn Mỹ was located southwest of a VC stronghold throughout the war. In February and March 1968, the U. S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam was aggressively trying to regain the strategic initiative in South Vietnam after the Tet Offensive, the search-and-destroy operation against the 48th Battalion thought to be located in Sơn Mỹ became a small part of America's grand strategy.

Task Force Barker, a battalion-sized ad hoc unit of 11th Brigade, was to be employed for the job. It was formed in January 1968, composed of three rifle companies of the 11th Brigade, including Charlie Company, led by Lieutenant Colonel Frank A. Barker. Sơn Mỹ village was included in the area of operations of TF Barker; the area of operations was codenamed Muscatine AO, after Muscatine County, the home county of the 23rd Division's commander, Major General Samuel W. Koster. In February 1968, TF Barker had tried to secure Sơn Mỹ, with limited success. After that, the village area began to be called Pinkville by TF Barker troops. On 16–18 March, TF Barker planned to engage and destroy the remnants of the 48th Battalion hiding in the Sơn Mỹ village area. Before the engagement, Colonel Oran K. Henderson, the 11th Brigade commander, urged his officers to "go in there aggressively, close with the enemy and wipe them out for good". In turn, LTC Barker ordered the 1st Battalion commanders to burn the houses, kill the livestock, destroy food supplies, destroy the wells.

On the eve of the attack, at the Charlie Company briefing, Captain Ernest Medina told his men that nearly all the civilian residents of the hamlets in Sơn Mỹ village would have left for the market by 07:00, that any who remained would be VC or VC sympathizers. He was asked whether the order included the killing of children; those present gave differing accounts of Medina's response. Some, including platoon leaders, testified that the orders, as they understood them, were to kill all VC and North Vietnamese combatants and "suspects", to burn the village, pollute the wells, he was quoted as saying, "They're all VC, now go and get them", was heard to reply to the question "Who is my enemy?", by saying, "Anybody, running from us, hiding from us, or appeared to be the enemy. If a man was running, shoot him, sometimes if a woman with a rifle was running, shoot her."At Calley's trial, one defense witness testified that he remembered Medina instructing to destroy everything in the village, "walking, crawling or growing".

Charlie Company was to enter the village of Sơn Mỹ spearheaded by 1st Platoon, engage the enemy, flush them out. The other two companies from TF Barker were ord

Clare Stone

Clare Stone is a Canadian actress. She has appeared in such films and television works as Would Be Kings, The Jane Show, Mom at Sixteen, Samantha: An American Girl Holiday, Shattered City: The Halifax Explosion, Beautiful Girl, Mr. Nobody. Stone has starred in CBC Television's Wild Roses as Charlotte Henry and in the episode "Run to Me" of CTV's Flashpoint series as Sarah Porter. Stone was nominated for a Gemini Award - Best Performance by an Actress in a Featured Supporting Role in a Dramatic Program or Mini-Series - in 2008. Stone now works in pediatric psychiatry. Stone lives in Toronto with fiancé Noah Reid. Clare Stone on IMDb

Jacqueline Poelman

Helina Jacomina Poelman is a former Dutch sprinter. Poelman was trained at an athletics club in Roden, her first major international tournament were the 1991 European Junior Championships in Thessaloniki, where she did not reach the final on the 100 nor the 200 m. Only a year at the World Junior Championships she won the silver medal on the 100 m, finishing second, while she became fourth on the 200 m. In the same year she was part of the Dutch 4 × 100 m relay team during the Olympics in Barcelona, eliminated in the series. Poelman won the bronze medal on the 200 m at the 1994 European Championships, held in Paris. For a long time this was her last international achievement. Only in 2002 Poelman worked on her comeback after a few years without hardly any competition, because she finished her study. At the European Championships however she reached the seventh position on the 200 m. In 2003 Jacqueline Poelman was a member of the Dutch 4 × 100 m relay team that participated in the World Championships in Paris.

Together with Joan van den Akker, Pascal van Assendelft and Annemarie Kramer the team nominated itself for the 2004 Summer Olympics, realising the twelfth time out of twenty teams in competition. It is true the final remained beyond reach, but the Dutch four set a season’s fastest time, scoring 43.96. During the Olympic Games in Athens in 2004 she was again part of the same Dutch 4 × 100 m relay team, they did not finish, because of a disqualification after a wrong baton change. A year at the European Indoor Championships she won another bronze medal on the 200 m. On September 3, 2006 Poelman ran her last race at the Arena Games in Hilversum. Outdoor 100 metres - 11.27 200 metres - 23.00 400 metres - 52.84 Indoor 60 metres - 7.26 200 metres - 23.36 Heere, Aad. 1870–2000, 130 jaar atletiek in Nederland. Landgraaf: Groenevelt b.v. ISBN 90-901286-7-0. Bijkerk, Ton. Olympisch Oranje. Haarlem: De Vrieseborch. ISBN 90-6076-522-2. Werkgroep Statistiek KNAU. Statistisch jaarboek 2006. Arnhem: KNAU. Website about Jacqueline Poelman

Auditorium Shores

Auditorium Shores is an urban park located in downtown Austin, within the larger Town Lake Park. Its name refers to its location between the former Palmer Auditorium and the shores of Lady Bird Lake; the park is known as the site of major music performances at South by Southwest and Fun Fun Fun Fest, as well as a number of other events. Auditorium shores is located on the south shore of Lady Bird Lake west of South 1st Street. To its south are the Long Center and Palmer Events Center; the Town Lake Hike and Bike Trail passes through the park from west to east near the shore. The site includes a memorial statue of late Austin resident Stevie Ray Vaughan, who played a number of concerts at Auditorium Shores; the park is known for its large off-leash dog area by the water and its scenic view of the downtown Austin skyline. Auditorium Shores has long been a popular site for music performances, is known today as a central site for several regional and national music festivals, such as Fun Fun Fun Fest and South by Southwest.

It was the site of the Austin Aqua Festival in the 1980s and'90s, hosts some events for the Austin Food & Wine Festival. On May 25, 1987, the Gregg Allman performance at Auditorium Shores was recorded by the King Biscuit Flower Hour and broadcast at a date; the park was opened in 1959 in conjunction with the completion of Palmer Auditorium. Auditorium Shores and the surrounding Town Lake Park received some improvements and renovations in conjunction with Palmer Auditorium's repurposing as the Long Center in 1999. In 2013 C3 Presents, the company that operates the Austin City Limits Festival and the Austin Food & Wine Festival, announced that it would donate $3.5 million to fund renovations to the park, some of which would reduce the space for off-leash dogs. The City Council's decision to make these changes created some controversy over concerns that C3's large donation had allowed it to influence the council's decision to reduce the dog park. In 2015 the Austin City Council gave the East Lawn of the park the name "Vic Mathias Shores," in honor of Vic Mathias, a former Austin business leader who co-founded the Austin Aqua Festival.

In November, 1998, City of Austin voters authorized creation of the Town Lake Park Community Events Center Venue Project, funded by a tax on local car rentals to fund its construction. The project consisted of a new Palmer Events Center, development of a major metropolitan redevelopment on adjacent parkland, a parking garage to serve both as well as the new Long Center for the Performing Arts; the parkland extended from Barton Springs Road to Lady Bird Lake and from South First Street to Lee Barton Drive, thus including Auditorium Shores Park. Under a Memorandum of Understanding, in Spring 1999, project stakeholders and nationally recognized professional planners and architects guided creation of a master plan for the project. In May–July, 1999, stakeholders and City Council accepted the master plan, along with a financing plan developed by Assistant City Manager Jim Smith, that would fund complete build-out of the finished project by 2007; the finance plan allowed construction funding for the PEC to exceed the City’s bonding authority, for park development to be completed in four phases on an accelerated schedule thanks to an inter-department line of credit of up to $6 million.

But in October 1999, staff presented to City Council the bond covenants contract governing the construction bond sale, the terms of which redefined the project and the financing authorized by voters and by Council. The bond covenants undermined the adopted Jim Smith finance plan by specifying a car rental tax funds dispersal "waterfall" such that covering any operations and maintenance shortfall for the PEC would take complete priority over any park construction funding; the staff presentation of the covenants to City Council made no mention of rental tax dollars being redirected to O&M, the covenants were adopted on consent without discussion. Jim Smith’s August 2000 financial update to Council insisted that the park financing was on track and might be accelerated though its underpinnings had been destroyed. Council remained uninformed of the waterfall until Spring 2002; the stakeholders who had brought the project to the City and had been given a formal oversight role were not informed at all until mid-2003.

Though the ballot language had only specified that the rental tax would fund construction, the bond covenants had redefined the ballot word "construction" to include operations and maintenance, had reduced the designation of park development to "any other legal purpose" under state law. The financial impact of the waterfall scheme on the park project was devastating. Phase I of the park, the landscaping around the PEC, had been covered during the facility construction. Phase II, the development of what is now known as Butler Park, was delayed twice, for nearly three and a half years, resulting in a $4.43 million cost in lost park features and donations. Though allocated Phase II funding, along with a $480,000 donation from the Junior League of Austin, declined by the City because of the delay, would have been adequate to construct Butler Park in 2002, by 2005 it was not; the waterfall guaranteed that all subsequent funding that the voters had authorized for park funding was being redirected to PEC operations and maintenance.

Phases III and IV, covering the Auditorium Shores and lakefront area, were removed from the financial plan altogether, with staff citing insufficient funding. The Convention Center Department enriched its employees with the windfall


Penicillamine, sold under the trade names of Cuprimine among others, is a medication used for the treatment of Wilson's disease. It is used for people with kidney stones who have high urine cystine levels, rheumatoid arthritis, various heavy metal poisonings, it is taken by mouth. Common side effects include rash, loss of appetite, nausea and low blood white blood cell levels. Other serious side effects include liver problems, obliterative bronchiolitis, myasthenia gravis, it is not recommended in people with lupus erythematosus. Use during pregnancy may result in harm to the baby. Penicillamine works by binding heavy metals. Penicillamine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1970, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.55 to $1.20 a dose. A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about £178 as of 2019. In the United States the costs of the medication increased from about 500 USD to 24,000 USD per month in 2016.

It is used as a chelating agent: In Wilson's disease, a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism, penicillamine treatment relies on its binding to accumulated copper and elimination through urine. Penicillamine was the second line treatment for arsenic poisoning, after dimercaprol, it is no longer recommended. In cystinuria, a hereditary disorder in which high urine cystine levels lead to the formation of cystine stones, penicillamine binds with cysteine to yield a mixed disulfide, more soluble than cystine. Penicillamine has been used to treat scleroderma. Penicillamine can be used as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug to treat severe active rheumatoid arthritis in patients who have failed to respond to an adequate trial of conventional therapy, although it is used today due to availability of TNF inhibitors and other agents, such as tocilizumab and tofacitinib. Penicillamine works by reducing numbers of T-lymphocytes, inhibiting macrophage function, decreasing IL-1, decreasing rheumatoid factor, preventing collagen from cross-linking.

Bone marrow suppression, anorexia and diarrhea are the most common side effects, occurring in ~20–30% of the patients treated with penicillamine. Other possible adverse effects include: Nephropathy Hepatotoxicity Membranous glomerulonephritis Aplastic anemia Antibody-mediated myasthenia gravis and Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome, which may persist after its withdrawal Drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus Elastosis perforans serpiginosa Toxic myopathies Unwanted breast growth Penicillamine is a trifunctional organic compound, consisting of a thiol, an amine, a carboxylic acid, it is structurally similar to the α-amino acid cysteine, but with geminal dimethyl substituents α to the thiol. Like most amino acids, it is a colorless solid that exists in the zwitterionic form at physiological pH. Of its two enantiomers, L-penicillamine is toxic; that enantiomer has no antibiotic properties itself. A variety of penicillamine–copper complex structures are known. John Walshe first described the use of penicillamine in Wilson's disease in 1956.

He had discovered the compound in the urine of patients who had taken penicillin, experimentally confirmed that it increased urinary copper excretion by chelation. He had initial difficulty convincing several world experts of the time of its efficacy, as they held that Wilson's disease was not a problem of copper homeostasis but of amino acid metabolism, that dimercaprol should be used as a chelator. Studies confirmed both the copper-centered theory and the efficacy of D-penicillamine. Walshe pioneered other chelators in Wilson's such as triethylene tetramine dihydrochloride and tetrathiomolybdate. Penicillamine was first synthesized by John Cornforth under supervision of Robert Robinson. Penicillamine has been used in rheumatoid arthritis since the first successful case in 1964. "Penicillamine". Drug Information Portal. U. S. National Library of Medicine

Pollex (moth)

Pollex is a genus of moths of the family Erebidae. Subgenus Bilobiana Fibiger, 2007 The flavimacula species-group: Pollex laosi Fibiger, 2007 Pollex flavimacula Fibiger, 2007 Pollex parunkudai Fibiger, 2007 Pollex diehli Fibiger, 2007 Pollex abovia Fibiger, 2007 Pollex kangeani Fibiger, 2007 Pollex lomboki Fibiger, 2007 Pollex silaui Fibiger, 2007 Pollex balabaci Fibiger, 2007 Pollex newguineai Fibiger, 2007 Pollex utarai Fibiger, 2007 Pollex sulawesii Fibiger, 2007 Pollex merisulawesii Fibiger, 2007 Pollex modus Fibiger, 2008 The speideli species-group: Pollex philippini Fibiger, 2007 Pollex lobifera Pollex sapamori Fibiger, 2007 Pollex poguei Fibiger, 2007 Pollex speideli Fibiger, 2007 Pollex parabala Fibiger, 2007 Pollex mindai Fibiger, 2007 Pollex angustiae Fibiger, 2007 The schintlmeisteri species-group: Pollex schintlmeisteri Fibiger, 2007 The bulli species-group: Pollex oculus Fibiger, 2007 Pollex bulli Fibiger, 2007 Pollex taurus Fibiger, 2007 The hamus species-group: Pollex hamus Fibiger, 2007 Pollex sansdigit Fibiger, 2007 The spina species-group: Pollex flax Fibiger, 2007 Pollex paraspina Fibiger, 2007 Pollex spina Fibiger, 2007 The diabolo species-group: Pollex diabolo Fibiger, 2007 The spastica species-group: Pollex spastica Fibiger, 2007 The mindanaoi species-group: Pollex mindanaoi Fibiger, 2007 The dumogai species-group: Pollex dumogai Fibiger, 2007 The circulari species-group: Pollex kononenkoi Fibiger, 2007 Pollex palopoi Fibiger, 2007 Pollex circulari Fibiger, 2007 Pollex pouchi Fibiger, 2007 Subgenus Proma Fibiger, 2007 The jurivetei species-group: Pollex lafontainei Fibiger, 2007 Pollex archi Fibiger, 2007 Pollex jurivetei Fibiger, 2007 Pollex serami Fibiger, 2007 The maxima species-group: Pollex maxima Fibiger, 2007 Pollex paramaxima Fibiger, 2007 Subgenus Pollex Fibiger, 2007 Pollex crispus Fibiger, 2007 Pollex furca Fibiger, 2007 Fibiger, M. 2007: Revision of the Micronoctuidae.

Part 1, Taxonomy of the Pollexinae. Zootaxa, 1567: 1-116. Abstract & excerpt