Everyman is a novel by Philip Roth, published by Houghton Mifflin in May 2006. It won the PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction in 2007, it is Roth's third novel to receive the prize. The book begins at the funeral of its protagonist; the remainder of the book, which ends with his death, looks mournfully back on episodes from his life, including his childhood, where he and his older brother, worked in his father's shop, Everyman's Jewelry Store. He has been married three times, with two sons from his first marriage who resent him for leaving their mother, one daughter from his second marriage who treats him with kindness and compassion, though he divorced her mother after beginning an affair with a 24-year-old Danish model, who subsequently became his third wife. Having divorced her as well, he has moved in his old age to a retirement community at the New Jersey shore, where he lives alone and attempts to paint, having passed up a career as an artist early in his life to work in advertising in order to support himself and his family.
The book traces the protagonist's feelings as he gets old and sick, his reflections of his own past, which has included his share of misdeeds and mistakes, as he ponders his impending death. The unnamed everyman, while an ordinary man and not a famous novelist, has much in common with Philip Roth; the audiobook version is narrated by George Guidall and published by Recorded Books in 2006. Everyman is the title of a fifteenth-century English morality play whose eponymous protagonist is "called" by death and must account for his life on earth before God. About the play, Roth said the following in a late 2005 interview: The classic is called Everyman, it's from 1485, by an anonymous author, it was right in between the birth of Shakespeare. The moral was always "Work hard and get into heaven", "Be a good Christian or go to hell". Everyman is the main character and he gets a visit from Death, he thinks it's some sort of messenger, but Death says, "I am Death" and Everyman's answer is the first great line in English drama: "Oh, thou comest when I had thee least in mind."
When I thought of you least. Philip Roth Discusses Everyman - from NPR's Fresh Air radio-show Roth Returns with Life and Death of Everyman - from NPR
The Dying Animal
The Dying Animal is a short novel by the US writer Philip Roth. It tells the story of senior literature professor David Kepesh, renowned for his literature-themed radio show. Kepesh is destroyed by his inability to comprehend emotional commitment; the Dying Animal is the third book in a series portraying the life of the fictional professor, preceded by The Breast and The Professor of Desire. Kepesh is fascinated by a student in one of his courses. An erotic liaison is formed between the two. Despite his fevered devotion to Consuela, the sexually promiscuous professor maintains a concurrent affair with a previous lover, now divorced, he is reluctant to expose himself to the scrutiny or ridicule that might follow from an introduction to Consuela's family. It is implied that he fears such a meeting would expose the implausible age gap in their relationship. Kepesh limits their relationship to the physical instead of embarking upon any deeper arrangement. In the end, Kepesh is destroyed by his indecisiveness, the fear of senescence, his lust and jealousy.
Consuela never subsequently finds a lover who can show the same level of devotion to her body as Kepesh had. After some years of estrangement, she asks him to take nude photographs of her because she will be losing one of her breasts to a life-saving mastectomy. Most editions display a cover picture. In the novel, Consuela sends Kepesh a postcard depicting Le grand nu, Kepesh surmises that the figure in the painting is her alter ego; the Isabel Coixet film Elegy, which premiered at the 2008 Berlinale, is based on The Dying Animal. Hanft, Lucas, "The Animal in Man Roth returns to introspection and the Id; the Dying Animal", Yale Review of Books, Fall 2001 issue Mars-Jones, Adam, "The sexual licence fee: Philip Roth's narrative drive suffers in this coda to his great works, The Dying Animal", The Observer, Sunday July 1, 2001 Scott, A. O. "Alter Alter Ego: Philip Roth brings back David Kepesh a breast", New York Times, May 27, 2001. Summary and Questions for Discussion
Exit Ghost is a 2007 novel by Philip Roth. It is the ninth, last, novel featuring Nathan Zuckerman; the plot centers on Zuckerman's return home to New York after eleven years in New England. The purpose of Zuckerman's journey, which he takes the week before the 2004 U. S. presidential election, is for him to undergo a medical procedure that might cure or reduce his incontinence. While in New York, Zuckerman meets Amy Bellette, whom he had last encountered during a visit to the writer E. I. Lonoff's house in December, 1956, as depicted in Roth's novel The Ghost Writer. Zuckerman agrees to a housing swap with a young writing couple, Billy Davidoff and Jamie Logan, becomes attracted to Logan. In his hotel room at night, Zuckerman writes a play, He and She, composed of imagined conversations between him and Logan. Through Davidoff and Logan, Zuckerman meets Richard Kliman, a young, brash Harvard graduate, working on a biography of Lonoff. Kliman was Logan's boyfriend in college; because of Kliman's zealous interest in a scandalous secret from Lonoff's adolescence, neither Zuckerman nor Bellette wants to help him complete his project.
Zuckerman may be motivated by his own confused feelings about Logan and Kliman. Although critics once considered that Lonoff and neglected, was modelled on the writer Bernard Malamud, he now seems to be based on a number of writers. Henry Roth is a major influence. Roth's biographer is Steven G. Kellman, it is known that Philip Roth has read the novels of Henry Roth, though some of these remain unpublished. The rationale for Henry Roth is that in his novels published after his death he reveals that he had an incestuous affair with his sister when he was young. In Exit Ghost it is revealed that Lonoff had an incestuous affair with his sister — which led to his writer's block — and the fact that while content to teach in oblivion, he never published again. American politics forms a backdrop to the novel. Zuckerman and Logan watch the results of the 2004 presidential election together. Logan, whose father always voted Republican, was enraged and devastated by the results; the older Zuckerman, though not pleased, was more philosophical and was able to place the results into a more historical context.
The stage direction, "exit ghost" appears in three of William Shakespeare's plays: Hamlet and Julius Caesar. In a BBC interview, Roth stated. Last year in the summer I was going to see a production of Macbeth here in America, I re-read the script that afternoon, I came upon the Banquo scene, ghost scene, it just leaped out —'exit ghost' — and that's the title of my book, so I just lifted it." In the novel Jamie and Billy read Macbeth aloud to each other, marveling grimly at its relevance to George W. Bush's first administration; the title refers to that of the first Zuckerman book, The Ghost Writer. At one point, Bellette says to Zuckerman that Lonoff told her, "Reading/writing people, we are finished, we are ghosts witnessing the end of a literary era." Critic Michiko Kakutani in The New York Times called the novel "elegiac" and "a kind of valedictory bookend to The Ghost Writer, adding "Mr. Roth has created a melancholy, if funny, meditation on aging, mortality and the losses that come with the passage of time."
Exit Ghost, Houghton Mifflin, publisher
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Philip Milton Roth was an American novelist and short-story writer. Roth's fiction set in his birthplace of Newark, New Jersey, is known for its intensely autobiographical character, for philosophically and formally blurring the distinction between reality and fiction, for its "sensual, ingenious style" and for its provocative explorations of American identity. Roth first gained attention with the 1959 novella Goodbye, for which he received the U. S. National Book Award for Fiction, he became one of the most awarded American writers of his generation. His books twice received the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle award, three times the PEN/Faulkner Award, he received a Pulitzer Prize for his 1997 novel American Pastoral, which featured one of his best-known characters, Nathan Zuckerman, a character in many of Roth's novels. The Human Stain, another Zuckerman novel, was awarded the United Kingdom's WH Smith Literary Award for the best book of the year. In 2001, in Prague, Roth received the inaugural Franz Kafka Prize.
Philip Roth was born in Newark, New Jersey, on March 19, 1933, grew up at 81 Summit Avenue in the Weequahic neighborhood. He was the second child of an insurance broker. Roth's family was Jewish, his parents were second-generation Americans. Roth's father's parents came from Kozlov near Lviv / Lemberg in Galicia, he graduated from Newark's Weequahic High School in or around 1950. As Arnold H. Lubasch wrote in the New York Times in 1969, "It has provided the focus for the fiction of Philip Roth, the novelist who evokes his era at Weequahic High School in the acclaimed Portnoy's Complaint.... Besides identifying Weequahic High School by name, the novel specifies such sites as the Empire Burlesque, the Weequahic Diner, the Newark Museum and Irvington Park, all local landmarks that helped shape the youth of the real Roth and the fictional Portnoy, both graduates of Weequahic class of'50." The Weequahic Yearbook describes Roth as "A boy of real intelligence, combined with wit and common sense." He was known as a comedian during his time at school.
Roth attended Rutgers University in Newark for a year transferred to Bucknell University in Pennsylvania, where he earned a B. A. magna was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He received a scholarship to attend the University of Chicago, where he earned an M. A. in English literature in 1955 and worked as an instructor in the university's writing program. That same year, rather than wait to be drafted, Roth enlisted in the army, but he suffered a back injury during basic training and was given a medical discharge, he dropped out after one term. Roth taught creative writing at the University of Princeton University, he continued his academic career at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught comparative literature before retiring from teaching in 1991. Between the end of his studies and the publication of his first book in 1959, Roth served two years in the United States Army and wrote short fiction and criticism for various magazines, including movie reviews for The New Republic. Roth's work first appeared in print in the Chicago Review while he was studying, teaching, at the University of Chicago.
His first book, Columbus, contains the novella Goodbye and four short stories. It won the National Book Award in 1960, he published his first full-length novel, Letting Go, in 1962. In 1967 he published, it is based in part on the life of Margaret Martinson Williams, whom Roth married in 1959. The publication in 1969 of his fourth and most controversial novel, Portnoy's Complaint, gave Roth widespread commercial and critical success, causing his profile to rise significantly. During the 1970s Roth experimented in various modes, from the political satire Our Gang to the Kafkaesque The Breast. By the end of the decade Roth had created his alter ego Nathan Zuckerman. In a series of self-referential novels and novellas that followed between 1979 and 1986, Zuckerman appeared as either the main character or an interlocutor. Sabbath's Theater may have Roth's most lecherous protagonist, Mickey Sabbath, a disgraced former puppeteer. In complete contrast, American Pastoral, the first volume of his so-called second Zuckerman trilogy, focuses on the life of virtuous Newark star athlete Swede Levov, the tragedy that befalls him when Levov's teenage daughter becomes a domestic terrorist during the late 1960s.
I Married a Communist focuses on the McCarthy era. The Human Stain examines identity politics in 1990s America; the Dying Animal is a short novel about eros and death that revisits literary professor David Kepesh, protagonist of two 1970s works, The Breast and The Professor of Desire. In The Plot Against America, Roth imagines an alternative American history in which Charles Lindbergh, aviator hero and isolationist, is elected U. S. president in 1940, the U. S. negotiates an understanding with Hitler's Nazi Germany and embarks on its own program of anti-Semitism. Roth's novel Everyman, a meditation on illness, aging and death, was published in May 2006. For Everyman Roth won his third PEN/Faulkner Award. Exit Ghost, which again features Nathan Zuckerman, was released in October 2007, it was the last Zuckerman novel. Indignation, Roth's 29th book, was published on September 16, 2008. Set in 1951, during the Korean War, it follows Marcus Messner's departure from Newark to Ohio's Wines
The Counterlife is a novel by the American author Philip Roth. It is the fourth full novel to feature the fictional novelist Nathan Zuckerman; when The Counterlife was published, Zuckerman had most appeared in a novella called The Prague Orgy, the epilogue to the omnibus volume Zuckerman Bound. The novel is divided into five parts, each of which presents a variation on the same basic situation. Parts I and IV are independent of any other part in the novel, whereas Parts II, III, V form a more or less continuous narrative. Part I, "Basel," opens with what appears to be an excerpt from the diary of Jewish novelist Nathan Zuckerman. Nathan talks about his brother, Henry Zuckerman, a suburban dentist, having an affair with his assistant Wendy. Henry, has developed a serious heart condition, the medicine has made him impotent; the only alternative to the medication is a life-threatening operation. Henry, unwilling to surrender the possibility of sex, turns to his estranged brother for advice. Nathan tries to dissuade Henry from doing the operation, tells him that he will adjust, but Henry only becomes desperate with time.
At this point the narration shifts into the third person, revealing that this "diary entry" was in actuality the eulogy that Nathan had planned to give at Henry's funeral: the operation had killed him. Nathan decides not to give the eulogy, concluding that it would embarrass his brother's family. At the funeral, Henry's wife Carol delivers the eulogy instead, in which she attributes the operation to Henry's love for her. Nathan is skeptical of her sincerity and wonders how much she knew of her husband's multiple affairs, he pities his brother, whom he characterizes as a man so desperate to escape his middle-class existence that he preferred death to its stifling stability. Part II, "Judea," resets the narrative of the novel thus far: in this section, Henry has survived the operation to fix his heart condition and restore sexual function, yet rather than resume his previous life, Henry has chosen to abscond to Israel and live in a West Bank settlement. Nathan is sent to Israel by Carol to persuade Henry to return to his family.
In Israel, Nathan meets with a variety of Jews who share their diverse perspectives with him, including a crazed fan named Jimmy who accosts him at the Wailing Wall. Nathan confronts Henry at his settlement, where Henry and the settlers castigate him for betraying his fellow Jews. Nathan meets the settlement's charismatic leader, who delivers a rabid soliloquy about the importance of settling Judea and Samaria. Nathan confronts Henry and suggests that the settlement leader reminds him of their father, this might account for part of his influence on Henry. Henry responds angrily that what matters is not whether or not the leader is a father-figure, but who controls Judea. Unable to talk sense into Henry, Nathan is forced to return home without his brother. Part III, "Aloft," continues the "counterlife" begun in Part II. Nathan is flying back to the United States. Jimmy reveals that he has smuggled a grenade onto the plane, he intends to send a message about Jews no longer being beholden to their traumatic history, asks Nathan to assist him.
Shortly thereafter, security officials attack and arrest Jimmy and Nathan, whom they accuse of colluding with him. Nathan feels humiliated both by the interrogation and by the fact that the security officials have never heard of him. Part IV, "Gloucestershire," represents the third discrete'counterlife' in the novel. In this section, Nathan is the impotent brother with a heart condition, he and Henry have remained estranged. Nathan cooperates well with the medication, but he soon finds himself tempted by Maria, an English expatriate who lives upstairs with her daughter and diplomat husband, they begin to have an affair and Nathan considers having the operation. Maria urges him not to take such an enormous risk for her, he explains that it would allow him to fulfill his greatest desire—to settle down as a family man, by marrying Maria, adopting her daughter, moving to the United Kingdom. The operation fails and Nathan dies; the section shifts focus to Henry Zuckerman. Despite his misgivings, Henry attends Nathan's funeral.
He is offended by the eulogy, in which an editor praises Nathan's controversial novel Carnovsky. Henry has accused the novel of humiliating the entire Zuckerman family: indeed, its publication was the cause of their estrangement. After leaving the funeral, Henry decides to inspect Nathan's apartment for anything that could embarrass him, he bribes his way in and finds diary records that reveal a decade-old affair. Henry destroys the diary records; this draft contains Parts I, II, III, V of the novel and Henry reacts to it with anger. Henry feels, he thereafter destroys Parts I, II, III, leaving behind Part V only because it does not mention him at length. Part IV concludes by focusing on Maria herself. Maria is discussing the recent death of Nathan with her therapist, she relates how she searched Nathan's apartment after his death and found the draft of his unfinished novel. She objects that Nathan exaggerated her family in it, inventing character flaws to make them more interesting and serve his own purposes.
Maria confesses that Nathan's portrait of her isn't like her at all, but is instead what Nathan must hav
Patrimony: A True Story
Patrimony: A True Story is a memoir by American writer Philip Roth. It was first published by Simon & Schuster in 1991. Roth's memoir recounts the life and death of his father, Herman Roth, from an inoperable brain tumor. "In keeping with the unseemliness of my profession," as Roth puts it in a late chapter, the author wrote his memoir during his father's medical trials. The tone, he explained, was not meant to be one of anger. "It was more bewilderment. This was all new to me, all new to him, I felt powerless to find a way to help him. We went through this experience together." Patrimony received the 1992 National Book Critics Circle Award for autobiography. It was his second Book Critics Circle Award, after a 1987 fiction prize for The Counterlife; the book was enthusiastically received. Entertainment Weekly's critic L. S. Klepp gave the memoir an "A": " Blunt and devout and bracing, Patrimony is a triumph of unflinching memory." Robert M. Adams, in The New York Review of Books called Roth's work "a major achievement."
R. Z. Sheppard, in Time, viewed the book's concerns as ethnic: "There is a great distance between Portnoy's Complaint, with its stage-Jewish parents, Patrimony, the perfect eulogy for a stiff-necked elder of the tribe, yet in celebrating his father, by implication the source of his own character, Roth has not strayed from the long path he has cut for himself: to dramatize the adventure of assimilation in all its anxiety and fertile illusions. As a writer and a son, he has now dotted the i's and crossed the t's." In The New York Times Book Review and future U. S. Poet Laureate Robert Pinsky wrote, "In a cunningly straightforward way,'Patrimony' tells one of the central true stories many Americans share nowadays: the agonized, sometimes comic labor of a family and a dying parent who must deal with all the loyalties and grudges of their past while coping with their transformed future as dictated by the invasive benign pressures of modern medicine and its technologies, bureaucratically organized.
The struggle that Mr. Roth portrays in ebullient detail could be summarized abstractly as the effort to keep death as it once was — a phenomenon of one particular human body and soul... It is a spirit that corresponds to the gloriously pragmatic, unpredictable genius of Philip Roth's narrative gifts." The cover photograph shows two generations of Roths: the author's father, older brother Sandy, the writer himself, as a boy. This memoir is included in the fifth volume of Philip Roth's collected works Novels and Other Narratives 1986–1991, published by the Library of America. Robert Pinsky on Patrimony L. S. Klepp in Entertainment Weekly on Patrimony R. Z. Sheppard in Time on Patrimony