The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul
Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby was an American singer and actor. The first multimedia star, Crosby was a leader in record sales, radio ratings, motion picture grosses from 1931 to 1954, his early career coincided with recording innovations that allowed him to develop an intimate singing style that influenced many male singers who followed him, including Perry Como, Frank Sinatra, Dick Haymes, Dean Martin. Yank magazine said that he was "the person who had done the most for the morale of overseas servicemen" during World War II. In 1948, American polls declared him the "most admired man alive", ahead of Jackie Robinson and Pope Pius XII. In 1948, Music Digest estimated that his recordings filled more than half of the 80,000 weekly hours allocated to recorded radio music. Crosby won an Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Father Chuck O'Malley in the 1944 motion picture Going My Way and was nominated for his reprise of the role in The Bells of St. Mary's opposite Ingrid Bergman the next year, becoming the first of six actors to be nominated twice for playing the same character.
In 1963, Crosby received the first Grammy Global Achievement Award. He is one of 33 people to have three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in the categories of motion pictures and audio recording, he was known for his collaborations with longtime friend Bob Hope, starring in the Road to... films from 1940 to 1962. Crosby influenced the development of the postwar recording industry. After seeing a demonstration of a German broadcast quality reel-to-reel tape recorder brought to America by John T. Mullin, he invested $50,000 in a California electronics company called Ampex to build copies, he convinced ABC to allow him to tape his shows. He became the first performer to pre-record his radio shows and master his commercial recordings onto magnetic tape. Through the medium of recording, he constructed his radio programs with the same directorial tools and craftsmanship used in motion picture production, a practice that became an industry standard. In addition to his work with early audio tape recording, he helped to finance the development of videotape, bought television stations, bred racehorses, co-owned the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team.
Crosby was born on May 3, 1903 in Tacoma, Washington, in a house his father built at 1112 North J Street. In 1906, his family moved to Spokane and in 1913, his father built a house at 508 E. Sharp Avenue; the house sits on the campus of Gonzaga University. It functions today as a museum housing over 200 artifacts from his life and career, including his Oscar, he was the fourth of seven children: brothers Laurence Earl, Everett Nathaniel, Edward John, George Robert. His parents were Harry Lowe Crosby, a bookkeeper, Catherine Helen "Kate", his mother was a second generation Irish-American. His father was of English descent. Through another line on his father's side, Crosby is descended from Mayflower passenger William Brewster. On November 8, 1937, after Lux Radio Theatre's adaptation of She Loves Me Not, Joan Blondell asked Crosby how he got his nickname: Crosby: "Well, I'll tell you, back in the knee-britches day, when I was a wee little tyke, a mere broth of a lad, as we say in Spokane, I used to totter around the streets, with a gun on each hip, my favorite after school pastime was a game known as "Cops and Robbers", I didn't care which side I was on, when a cop or robber came into view, I would haul out my trusty six-shooters, made of wood, loudly exclaim bing! bing!, as my luckless victim fell clutching his side, I would shout bing! bing!, I would let him have it again, as his friends came to his rescue, shooting as they came, I would shout bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing! bing!"Blondell: "I'm surprised they didn't call you "Killer" Crosby!
Now tell me another story, Grandpa! Crosby: "No, so help me, it's the truth, ask Mister De Mille."De Mille: "I'll vouch for it, Bing."That story was pure whimsy for dramatic effect and the truth is that a neighbor - Valentine Hobart - named him "Bingo from Bingville" after a comic feature in the local paper called "The Bingville Bugle" which the young Harry liked. In time, Bingo got shortened to Bing. In 1917, Crosby took a summer job as property boy at Spokane's "Auditorium," where he witnessed some of the finest acts of the day, including Al Jolson, who held him spellbound with ad libbing and parodies of Hawaiian songs, he described Jolson's delivery as "electric."Crosby graduated from Gonzaga High School in 1920 and enrolled at Gonzaga University. He did not earn a degree; as a freshman, he played on the university's baseball team. The university granted him an honorary doctorate in 1937. Today, Gonzaga University houses a large collection of photographs and other material related to Crosby.
In 1923, Crosby was invited to join a new band composed of high school students a few years younger than himself. Al Rinker, Miles Rinker, James Heaton, Claire Pritchard and Robert Pritchard, along with drummer Crosby, formed the Musicaladers, who performed at dances both for high school students and club-goers; the group disbanded after two years. Crosby and Al Rinker obtained work at the Clemmer Theatre in Spokane. Crosby was a member of a vocal trio called'The Three Harmo
A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
The Yama Yama Man
"The Yama Yama Man" was a comical song for the Broadway show The Three Twins, published in 1908 by M. Witmark & Sons with music by Karl Hoschna and lyrics by Collin Davis, it became popular after Bessie McCoy's animated performance in a satin Pierrot clown costume with floppy gloves and a cone hat. At age 20, she became an overnight sensation on Broadway and was known thereafter as the "Yama Yama Girl"; the lyrics contain topical references of the era such as street cars and ladies' fashion while the refrain is about a comical bogeyman—the Yama Yama Man—who is "ready to spring out at you unaware". Bessie McCoy's song and dance routine was a standard into the 1930s with a prestigious lineage of imitators including Ada Jones, Marilyn Miller, Irene Castle and Ginger Rogers. Bessie McCoy's signature performance was key in establishing the song's popularity. According to Marjorie Farnsworth, "thousands came to see Bessie sing and dance as the Yama Yama Girl and came to see her again.... Her knack of dancing the songs became so effective that she did them in pantomime with the audience filling in the words."
According to Joe Laurie Jr she was one of the most imitated routines in Vaudeville. Nell Brinkley, who saw McCoy perform, described her thus: she swings on her heel and leaps away into a wild fantastic headlong dance—the dance of a crazy king's clown, half girl, half wild boy, heady with the wine of the Spring air at twilight … The black satin of her bloomers fills like sails, they ripple and flatten against her body, her hair flies in loose flax around her face, her face is a vivid white candle flame in the yellow aureole of her hair … Her feet might be bounding white balls carrying her body with them in their tireless, leaping flight. She circles madly around the boards and rebounding from the jutting points of the painted mock scenery, like an imprisoned moth, or an elf hunting for some lost thing and fearful of being caught, she is wonderful. The July 25, 1908, edition of Billboard magazine reported the following story how the Yama song originated; when The Three Twins was rehearsing in Chicago, prior to first opening, Karl Hoschna, the composer, was asked to furnish a "pajama man song".
He wrote one called The Pajama Man only to learn that it could not be used owing to another pajama number booked at the Whitney Opera House the next day. Gus Sohlke, the stage director, happened to pass a toy store and saw in the window a doll built out of triangles. Realizing that this had never been used in stage work he decided to have a triangular man chorus in place of The Pajama Man; that afternoon as he, Collin Davis and Hoschna sat together wondering what they would call the song, Sohlke kept repeating Pajama jama yama yama. He brightened up and cried "Did either of you fellows hear of a Yama Yama Man?" Of course neither one had and Sohlke confirmed "Neither have I! Lets call the new song Yama Yama Man". Davis set to work to write a lyric around the title and that night Sohlke and Hoschna locked themselves in a room with Bessie McCoy and rehearsed the Yama song and dance for five hours. Ada Jones recorded "Yama Yama Man" in 1909 for Victor Light Opera Company; the lyrics for verse two and three were changed, verse two being more bawdy.
It was the most popular song of her career. Stanley Kirkby recorded a version around 1912 accompanied by banjo. In 1909, the Cuban dance orchestra Orquesta De Enrique Pena recorded a version in a traditional Cuban style. In 1909, the young dancer Irene Foote began imitating Bessie McCoy's "Yama Yama Man" in amateur theatricals. Irene's mother would take her around to Broadway producers auditioning her talent using the Yama routine, but with little success. Irene had a successful career in modern dance with her husband Vernon Castle and in 1939 Ginger Rogers played Irene in the biographical film The Story of Vernon and Irene Castle, in which Rogers re-enacts Irene imitating Bessie McCoy's "Yama Yama Man" routine during an audition. In Warner's Look For The Silver Lining, June Haver plays Marilyn Miller imitating Ginger Rogers imitating Irene Foote imitating Bessie McCoy's performance; the song led to a spin-off children's novel Yama Yama Land by Grace Duffie Boylan. Francis Scott Fitzgerald mentioned it in The Beautiful and Damned.
In 1967, actor George Segal released an LP titled "The Yama Yama Man", the title track is a ragtime version with horns and banjos. Segal released the album due to his popularity doing same on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson". In 1989, the Madison, Wisconsin punk band Tar Babies released a song "Yama Yama Man" on their album Honey Bubble but it has no connection musically or lyrically with the original, in name only; the song continued to find an audience into the 21st century with a jazzy cover by Californian group The High Sierra Jazz Band that includes animated singing, faithful to the original lyrics and spirit of the song. The song was released on their album "We Got'Em". In 1918, the cartoonist Max Fleischer created Koko the Clown, who appears to owe much to the Yama Yama Girl costume. Both Koko and Bessie McCoy wore clothing of loose black material, with three large white pom-poms in front and a white-trimmed neck frill. Both wore white foot coverings, white gloves with long fingers, a hat with the same white pom-pom as in front.
A 1922 sheet music drawing makes the connection explicit, saying "Out of the Inkwell, the New Yama Yama Clown", showing a picture of Koko. Verse 1 & 2: About the subject of the song; these are the only two verses sung in the play. Verse 3: Ladies fashion of the period involved elaborate hats
Shine On, Harvest Moon
"Shine On, Harvest Moon" is a popular early-1900s song credited to the married vaudeville team Nora Bayes and Jack Norworth. It was one of a series of Moon-related Tin Pan Alley songs of the era; the song was debuted by Norworth in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1908 to great acclaim. It became a pop standard, continues to be performed and recorded in the 21st century. During the vaudeville era, songs were sold outright, the purchaser would be credited as the songwriter. John Kenrick's Who's Who in Musicals credits the song's writers as Gus Edwards. However, David Ewen's All the Years of American Popular Music credits Dave Stamper, who contributed songs to 21 editions of the Ziegfeld Follies and was Bayes' pianist from 1903 to 1908. Vaudeville comic Eddie Cantor credited Stamper in his 1934 book Ziegfeld - The Great Glorifier; the earliest commercially successful recordings were made in 1909 by Harry Macdonough and Elise Stevenson, Ada Jones and Billy Murray, Frank Stanley and Henry Burr, Bob Roberts.
Note: The months in the chorus have been sung in different orders. The Ada Jones and Billy Murray recording linked on this article has it as April, January, Ju-u-une or July. Flanagan and Allen, Mitch Miller and Leon Redbone used January, June or July. Oliver Hardy, in his rendition from The Flying Deuces, used January, June or July; the song has had a long history with Hollywood movies. In 1932, animation great Dave Fleischer directed a short titled Shine On Harvest Moon. A 1938 Roy Rogers western was named after the song, as was a 1944 biographical film about Bayes and Norworth; the song has been featured in dozens including Along Came Ruth and The Great Ziegfeld. Laurel and Hardy performed a song-and-dance routine to the song in their 1939 RKO film The Flying Deuces; the song was featured in A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, The Eddy Duchin Story, Pennies from Heaven. There was a popular British 1980s comedy drama called Shine on Harvey Moon; the song was featured in the 2013 video game BioShock Infinite.
It was referenced by Don Rickles in the 1971 Friars Club roast of Jerry Lewis when he said, "Just hope and pray, Shine on Harvest Moon they know." And Gidney and Cloyd the moon creatures performed the first line of the refrain on an episode of Rocky and His Friends in 1959-60. The song was sung in the pilot episode of the Cartoon Network misiseries “Over The Garden Wall”; the Backyardigans episode "The Key to the Nile" featured a song called "Please and Thank You" to the tune of this song. 1931 – Art Gillham's recording of the song for Columbia was praised by Walter Winchell 1931 – Ruth Etting revived the song in the Ziegfeld Follies 1931 – The Boswell Sisters recorded their own arrangement of the revived hit 1933 – Kate Smith 1939 – Laurel and Hardy perform it in their film The Flying Deuces 1949 – Vaughn Monroe on Victor 1705 1950 – Chordettes on Columbia LP 6111 "Harmony Time" 1951 – Jerry Gray and his orchestra 1954 – John Serry Sr. and his accordion ensemble for RCA Thesaurus 1955 – Four Aces "B" side to their #1 hit "Love Is A Many Splendored Thing" 1955 – Moon Mullican performed the song live 1957 – Bonnie Guitar on Dot LP 25069 "Moonlight And Shadows" 1957 – Coleman Hawkins and Ben Webster both perform sax in a nearly five-minute jazz version on the album Coleman Hawkins Encounters Ben Webster 1958 – Mitch Miller recorded it in a medley with "For Me and My Gal" on the album More Sing Along With Mitch 1958 – William Frawley, who portrayed Fred Mertz on I Love Lucy, recorded the song as part of his LP homage to Vaudeville, Bill Frawley Sings the Old Ones 1958 – Billy Vaughn on Dot LP 25156 "Billy Vaughn Plays" 1960 – Jaye P. Morgan on MGM 12924 1960 – Teresa Brewer on Coral LP 57329 Naughty Naughty Naughty 1960 – Rosemary Clooney 1960 – Bing Crosby and Rosemary Clooney.
They recorded the song in 1960 for use on their radio show and it was subsequently included in the CD Bing & Rosie - The Crosby-Clooney Radio Sessions. 1961 – Bing Crosby included the song in a medley on his album 101 Gang Songs 1962 – Platters 1963 – Nino Tempo and April Stevens on Atco LP 156 "Deep Purple" 1964 – Allan Sherman parodied the song as "Shine On, Harvey Bloom" on his album For Swingin' Livers Only! 1965 – Mance Lipscomb recorded the song live for Arhoolie Records on Texas Songster in a Live Performance 1976 – Leon Redbone recorded the song for his album Double Time 1989 – Eight-year-old Britney Spears sang a rendition of the song in her video audition for the Mickey Mouse Club. 1992 – Kirsten Cooke and Arthur Bostrom perform it as the characters Michelle Dubois and Officer Crabtree in the sitcom'Allo'Allo!. Carmen Silvera as Madame Edith sings the number during the closing credits of the same episode. 2005 – Bobby Bare recorded the song as part of his album The Moon was Blue 2007 – Marah recorded the song for their EP, Can't Take It with You 2012 – Lon Milo DuQuette recorded it along with 11 originals on Baba Lon II 2017 – Mree recorded her own rendition of the song as "Harvest Moon"Liza Minnelli performed the song many times as part of her repertoire, it appears on several of her recordings.
Rodeo Dough is a short animated film by Columbia pictures, stars the comic strip character Krazy Kat. Krazy Kat and his spaniel sweetheart are cowpokes, they are kissing each other. On the way, they find a flyer on a post, promoting a rodeo event which offers considerable prize money; the spaniel asks Krazy to register but the cat is too timid at first. When the spaniel flirts him, Krazy becomes obliged to try his luck. Krazy meets up with the other contestants; the other contestants laugh at him because of his short stature but Krazy keeps his cool. After a few moments, the games begin and the first challenge involves taming a bodacious bronco; the first two competitors give their shot but they both only lasted a dozen seconds. Krazy receives his turn to the field; because of his lack of rodeo background, Krazy was running away while the bronco chases him all over the place. Watching in stands and fearing for her boyfriend's life, the spaniel tosses a lasso around the surging steed, stopping it in place.
The bronco, not realizing, thinks it is under a spell implemented by the cat. Capitalizing on the opportunity, Krazy helds out and vibrates his paws, attempting to use hypnosis though he does not possess such ability; the naive bronco, still paranoid about the "spell," obeys the cat's command and goes tap dancing. This is a victory for Krazy. Following the challenge with the bronco, other acts just for entertainment take center stage. First a trio of colts dance in the field. Next, Krazy exhibits moves with a lariat, some pintos momentarily take part in his performance. Comes the final challenge where Krazy encounters a fierce bull. Once more, the cat tries to apply hypnotism. Recalling what happened to the bronco, the bull believes Krazy can control minds, thus taking the cat's order to do a ballet. In this, Krazy is declared winner of the event, the spectators are delighted. After collecting his prize money in two cash bags, Krazy boards his own horse, he comes to the stands and approaches his sweetheart.
The spaniel is amazed by how things turned out, affectionately asks Krazy to carry her along. Krazy puts her on his lap; the two run into the horizon. Songs mentioned in the short include I'm My Pony Boy; the short is included in the Columbia Cartoon Collection: Volume 1. Rodeo Dough at the Big Cartoon Database
The Peerless Quartet was an American vocal group that recorded in the early years of the twentieth century. They formed to record for Columbia Records, where they were credited as the Columbia Quartet or Columbia Male Quartet. From about 1907, when they began to record for record labels other than Columbia, they were more known as the Peerless Quartet; the Peerless Quartet was one of the most commercially successful groups of the acoustic era and made hundreds of recordings, including popular versions of songs such as "Sweet Adeline", "By the Light of the Silvery Moon", "Let Me Call You Sweetheart", "I Want A Girl". The group continued to record with many changes of personnel, they were led until 1910 by Frank C. Stanley, thereafter by tenor Henry Burr; the first cylinder recordings by the Columbia Male Quartet were made in the late 1890s. The earliest version of the group included first tenor Albert Campbell, second tenor James Kent "Jim" Reynard, baritone Joe Belmont and bass Joe Majors; the same line-up recorded in 1901–02 as the Climax Quartette for Climax discs, a predecessor of Columbia's own discs, although recordings under that name were by a different group.
Over the next few years, Reynard was first replaced by George J. Gaskin, around 1902, by Henry Burr. Majors was first replaced by Tom Daniels and in about 1903, by Frank C. Stanley. On some recordings, Belmont was replaced by Bob Roberts. By 1904, the group's membership had stabilized as tenors Albert Campbell and Henry Burr, baritone Steve Porter, bass Frank C. Stanley. Frank Stanley became the group's lead singer and manager, and, as freelance musicians, the group began recording for other labels as well as Columbia, they recorded as the Peerless Quartet for Zonophone from 1907. The group's most successful early recordings included "You're The Flower of My Heart, Sweet Adeline" for Columbia in 1904, "Honey Boy" for Columbia and Zonophone in 1907. In 1909, Arthur Collins replaced Steve Porter, who continued to record as a solo performer and in duos, they continued to have success in 1910, notably with "By the Light of the Silvery Moon", which they recorded for Columbia and Everlasting, "Silver Bell", recorded for Victor and Everlasting.
Frank C. Stanley died of pleurisy in 1910, he was replaced in the group by John H. Meyer, Henry Burr took over as their lead singer and manager, a position he retained until the group dissolved in 1928; the Peerless Quartet's popularity peaked in the years between 1911 and 1918. Their most successful recordings over the period included "I Want A Girl" and "Let Me Call You Sweetheart". In his book Pop Memories 1890–1954, music archivist and statistician Joel Whitburn assessed a variety of sources such as Talking Machine World's lists of top-selling recordings, Billboard's sheet music and vaudeville charts, to estimate the most successful recordings of the period, he concluded that the Peerless Quartet had 102 "top ten" hits in all between 1904 and 1926, in the decade 1910–1919 had more successful recordings than any other musician or group. Although Whitburn's methods of assessment have been criticized, this broadly confirms statements that the group were the most popular of their era. In addition, Henry Burr, Albert Campbell and Arthur Collins recorded successfully as solo singers: Burr and Collins, in particular, were two of the most popular singers of the first two decades of the century.
The group accompanied other singers including Ada Jones, Byron G. Harlan, George O'Connor, Irving Kaufman. Burr and Meyer recorded together as the Sterling Trio. In 1918, Collins was replaced by Frank Croxton; the line-up of Burr, Campbell and Croxton remained together until 1925 and continued to record for Columbia and Victor. They had diminishing success, but in 1922 made the first recording of "Way Down Yonder in New Orleans" a rock and roll hit song. After that line-up disbanded in 1925, Burr formed a new version of the Peerless Quartet, with himself, Carl Mathieu, Stanley Baughman and James Stanley; the line-up made a film at that time with Pathé Films. The quartet disbanded in 1928, though Burr continued to record thereafter; the Peerless Quartet are acknowledged as one of the major influences on the development of barbershop vocal harmony music. They were inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2003.'The Peerless Quartet' Vocal Group Hall of Fame Page Recordings at the Internet Archive: as the Columbia Quartet as the Peerless Quartet Peerless Quartet recordings, from the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara Library.
Popular American Recording Pioneers, 1895–1925 by B. Lee Cooper, Tim Gracyk, Frank W. Hoffman. ISBN 0-7890-1220-0 Discography of the Peerless Quartet on Victor Records from the Encyclopedic Discography of Victor Recordings Peerless Quartet Peerless Quartet