Shwebo is a city in Sagaing Region, Burma, 110 km north-west of Mandalay between the Irrawaddy and the Mu rivers. The city was the origin of the Konbaung Dynasty, established by King Alaungpaya in 1752, the dominant political force in Burma after the mid-18th century, it served as Alaungpaya's capital from 1752 to 1760. Up to 1752, Shwebo was a village, called Moksobo of about 300 houses, it lies near the site of the ancient Pyu city-state of Hanlin. On 29 February 1752, the chief of the village Aung Zeya founded the Konbaung Dynasty to resist the upcoming invasion of Lower Burma-based Hanthawaddy forces. Aung Zeya, who assumed the royal title of Alaungpaya, gained the allegiance of 46 surrounding villages, organized defenses building a stockade and digging a moat around Moksobo, he renamed Shwebo. Over the next eight years, Alaungpaya led the reunification of Burma with Shwebo as his capital. Shwebo lost its status as capital after Alaungpaya's death in 1760; the successor Naungdawgyi moved the capital to Sagaing closer to the Irrawaddy river.
Nonetheless, Shwebo continued to be an important region throughout the Konbaung era, providing a disproportionate share of soldiers that served in Konbaung's armies. The region was held as an appanage by the most senior princes the crown prince, it was to Shwebo that Prince of Mindon went in 1853 to raise the standard of rebellion in his successful bid to overthrow his half brother Pagan. Shwebo is famous for its five names. Five titles had been conferred to the city namely: Moksobo, its original name Yadana-Theinhka Konbaung Yangyi-Aung, Shwebo, its modern name. Most of the people knows above names but the name "အယုစြ်ဇပူရ" and "မြေဘုံသာ" are known. Shwebo received 4.37 inches of rainfall on 19 October 2011. It was the record breaking rainfall within 24 hours of October for past 48 years; the previous record was 3.84 inches of 24 October 1993. Shwebo is served by Myanmar Railways's Mandalay-Myitkyina railway line; the city is best reached by pickup truck or bus as the roads from Mandalay and Monywa are in reasonably good shape.
There are highway. Shwebo lies on Mandalay-Myitkyina Union Express Road; as with Monywa, the city is a trade center for agricultural produce beans and sesame from the surrounding plains between the Mu River and the Ayeyarwady River. The major tourist attractions in Shwebo, although few tourists make the journey and facilities are limited, are its numerous Buddhist temples, the reconstruction of Alaungpaya's palace; the city is still surrounded by its ancient moat. There are many pagodas, such as Myodaung Pagoda. Moreover, tourists can visit the ground of ancient Pyu City. Hanlin is one hour drive from Shwebo, it is one of UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Sites. In the hot summer, people who live in Shwebo believe that rain comes when people bring the Shwetaza Buddha Image around the town. There are five Basic Education High Schools in Shwebo; the town is home to Shwebo Government Technological College. Government Technological College was established on 20 January 2007, it is situated in the north-east of Shwebo, about 3 miles, in the east of Shwebo-Myitkyina Mahabyuha Road, about 1.14 miles At the time of building the Shwebo City, the King Alaungpaya built seven places.
"Shwebo Map — Satellite Images of Shwebo", Maplandia Myanmar: the Missing Link from Western China to India’s N. E. States Transit routes from western China through northern Myanmar. Oilseedcrops.org. A community website about Shwebo
Scout badges are worn on the uniforms of members of Scouting organisations across the world in order to signify membership and achievements. There is a great variety of badges, not only between the different national Scouting organisations, but within the programme sections, as well. All badges are now made from cloth and are sewn onto the uniform shirt. In general, there are four types of badges worn by members of Scouting Group identity - Scouts belong to sub-divisions within their national organisations, wear badges which identify which Scout Groups, Scout Districts, Scout Councils, or other divisions.
Japanese occupation of Burma
The Japanese occupation of Burma was the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was occupied by the Empire of Japan. The Japanese had assisted formation of the Burma Independence Army, trained the Thirty Comrades, who were the founders of the modern Armed Forces; the Burmese hoped to gain support of the Japanese in expelling the British, so that Burma could become independent. In 1942 Japan invaded Burma and nominally declared the colony independent as the State of Burma on 1 August 1943. A puppet government led by Ba Maw was installed. However, many Burmese began to believe the Japanese had no intention of giving them real independence. Aung San, father of future opposition leader and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi, other nationalist leaders formed the Anti-Fascist Organisation in August 1944, which asked the United Kingdom to form a coalition with the other Allies against the Japanese. By April 1945, the Allies had driven out the Japanese. Subsequently, negotiations began between the British for independence.
Under Japanese occupation, 170,000 to 250,000 civilians died. Some Burmese nationalists saw the outbreak of World War II as an opportunity to extort concessions from the British in exchange for support in the war effort. Other Burmese, such as the Thakin movement, opposed Burma's participation in the war under any circumstances. Aung San with other Thakins founded the Communist Party of Burma in August 1939. Aung San co-founded the People's Revolutionary Party, renamed the Socialist Party after World War II, he was instrumental in founding the Freedom Bloc by forging an alliance of Dobama Asiayone, ABSU, politically active monks and Ba Maw's Poor Man's Party. After Dobama Asiayone called for a national uprising, an arrest warrant was issued for many of the organisation's leaders including Aung San, who escaped to China. Aung San's intention was to make contact with the Chinese Communists but he was detected by the Japanese authorities who offered him support by forming a secret intelligence unit called the Minami Kikan, headed by Colonel Suzuki with the objective of closing the Burma Road and supporting a national uprising.
Aung San returned to Burma to enlist twenty-nine young men who went to Japan with him to receive military training on Hainan and they came to be known as the "Thirty Comrades". When the Japanese occupied Bangkok in December 1941, Aung San announced the formation of the Burma Independence Army in anticipation of the Japanese invasion of Burma in 1942. For Japan's military leadership, the conquest of Burma was a vital strategic objective upon the opening of hostilities with Britain and the United States. Occupation of Burma would interrupt a critical supply link to China; the Japanese knew that rubber was one of the few militarily vital resources that the United States was not self-sufficient in. It was thought critical that the Allies be denied access to Southeast Asian rubber supplies if they were to accept peace terms favourable to Japan; the BIA formed a provisional government in some areas of the country in the spring of 1942, but there were differences within the Japanese leadership over the future of Burma.
While Colonel Suzuki encouraged the Thirty Comrades to form a provisional government, the Japanese military leadership had never formally accepted such a plan. The Japanese Army turned to Ba Maw to form a government. During the war in 1942, the BIA had grown in an uncontrolled manner, in many districts officials and criminals appointed themselves to the BIA, it was still headed by Aung San. While the BIA had been an irregular force, the BDA was recruited by selection and trained as a conventional army by Japanese instructors. Ba Maw was afterwards declared head of state, his cabinet included both Aung San as War Minister and the Communist leader Thakin Than Tun as Minister of Land and Agriculture as well as the Socialist leaders Thakins Nu and Mya; when the Japanese declared Burma, in theory, independent in 1943, the Burma Defence Army was renamed the Burma National Army. It soon became apparent that Japanese promises of independence were a sham and that Ba Maw was deceived; as the war turned against the Japanese, they declared Burma a sovereign state on 1 August 1943, but this was just another façade.
Disillusioned, Aung San began negotiations with Communist leaders Thakin Than Tun and Thakin Soe, Socialist leaders Ba Swe and Kyaw Nyein which led to the formation of the Anti-Fascist Organisation in August 1944 at a secret meeting of the CPB, the PRP and the BNA in Pegu. The AFO was renamed the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League, roundly opposed the Japanese fascism, proposing a fairer and more equal society. Thakins Than Tun and Soe, while in Insein prison in July 1941, had co-authored the Insein Manifesto which, against the prevailing opinion in the Dobama movement, identified world fascism as the main enemy in the coming war and called for temporary co-operation with the British in a broad allied coalition which should include the Soviet Union. Soe had gone underground to organise resistance against the Japanese occupation, Than Tun was able to pass on Japanese intelligence to Soe, while other Communist leaders Thakins Thein Pe and Tin Shwe made contact with the exiled colonial government in Simla, India.
Japanese soldiers from the 3rd Battalion, the 215th Regiment and the OC Moulmein Kempeitai of the Imperial Japanese Army entered the village of Kalagong on 7 July 1945 and rounded up all the inhabitants for questioning. These soldiers were ordered by Major General Seiei Yamamoto, chief of staff of the 33rd Army, to massacre an estimated 600 Burmese villagers. There were infor
Asia-Pacific Scout Region (World Organization of the Scout Movement)
The Asia-Pacific Scout Region is the divisional office of the World Scout Bureau of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, headquartered in Makati City, with satellite offices in Australia and Japan. The Asia-Pacific Region services Scouting in the land area of Asia south of Siberia and east of Central Asia, the bulk of the Pacific Basin, with the exception of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau, which are under the Interamerican Region by way of the Aloha Council of the Boy Scouts of America; the Asia-Pacific Scout Region has witnessed the births and rebirths of national Scout organizations since the region was founded in 1956. Starting with ten founding members, it grew to 27 member countries by 2016, out of which 25 are full-fledged members and two are associate members, encompassing 30 million Scouts. Eight of the 15 largest Scout associations in the world are in the Region. All the communist states of Central Asia and the Soviet Union have developed or are developing Scouting in the wake of the renaissance in the region.
For several years, communism repressed Scouting in Afghanistan, where it has newly returned, as well as in Mongolia, the first Soviet satellite state since 1924. On the other hand, the World Scout Committee accepted in 2009 the declaration of Gerakan Pramuka Indonesia of having 17 million members for the census 2008; this has directly affected and changed the membership figure in the region, resulting in an increase of 9 million members, which now stands at a total of 24.7 million in 2009. Separated by uneven resources, ethnic groups and technological resources, Scouting in the Asia-Pacific Region enjoys the respect of the public and by governments, a wide array of volunteers encompassing public and private sectors, is powered by a small but committed group of professionals in the Scouting service; the current Regional Chairman is Ahmad Rusdi of Indonesia, the current Regional Director is Jose Rizal Pangilinan of the Philippines. This region is the counterpart of the Asia Pacific Region of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts.
Associate Members of the Asia-Pacific Scout Region include The Scout Association of Macau and the Conseil du Scoutisme polynésien. Potential member countries include: The Asia-Pacific Region contains two of the four countries with no Scouting organization, each of which are due to political constraints within the countries. North Korea Laos The Asia-Pacific Silver Jubilee Celebration was held at the regional gathering at the 27th World Scout Conference in Denmark. APRinbox is the monthly e-newsletter of World Scout Bureau/Asia Pacific Region circulated to Scouts and adult leaders in the global community of the Scout Movement, edited by the Asia Pacific Regional Office in Manila, Philippines; the Suncheon Asia-Pacific Scout Centre offers programs in English based on the Scout method of "learning by doing" – a hands-on experiential learning process in the outdoors through young leaders from the National Scout Organizations. The APR Scout Committee shall consist of ten persons from member National Scout Organizations in the Asia-Pacific Region who shall be elected by the conference by secret ballot for a term of six years.
The chairman of the Committee is the leader of the region, elected between the committee members. The current chairperson is Paul Parkinson from Australia. One of its main functions is to act on behalf of the Conference between its meetings and to appoint subcommittees or study committees as may be needed. There are six subcommittees from 2015 to 2018, which are: Programme, Adult Support, Financial Resources, Scouting Profile and Foundation Management. All the members are nominated from the member NSOs, with the youth representatives, Young Adult Members, who are elected from the Asia-Pacific Regional Youth Forum; the APR Scout Conference are held every three years as to gather all the NSOs to deal with the major regional problem. It is the toppest governing body of the region. 22 APR Scout Conference was held in Japan in 2007. The 23rd Asia-Pacific Regional Scout Conference held from 27 October to 1 November 2009, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia had 440 participants from Asia-Pacific, Arab, Europe and other organizations.
The APR Scout Committee and Sub-committees members are elected by the conference. The next conference will be held in Bangladesh in 2012. Between Conferences there are APR Scout Leaders' Summit; the last Summit was held in India in 2010. Fifty-seven participants from 17 countries attended the 2004 Asia-Pacific Region Youth Forum in Brunei Darussalam in December 2004. Six Youth advisors attended the Regional Committee meetings; the Youth Advisers are Edward Cook, Eko Andrianto of Indonesia, Netsai Khaimarn of Thailand, In Sun Ryu of Korea, Maiya Twayanabasu of Nepal, Aaron Wardle. They advised on helping to manage the next youth forum. 107 participants from 24 countries attended the 6th Asia-Pacific Region Youth Forum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in October 2009. Seven Young Adult Member Group members were elected and they are assigned to the Regional Committee or Sub-committee; the Young Adult Member Group members are Maeedh Mohamed Zahir of Maldives as the new Chairman, Lam Kwok Hei Dicky of Hong Kong, Ari Wijanarko Adipratomo of Indonesia, Seo Ji Eun of Korea, Mohd Hafiz Bin Ariffin of Malaysia, Oliver Lim Zi Kai of Singapore and Krittee Tantivisitkul of Thailand.
They advised on helping to organise and manage the next youth forum in Bangladesh in 2012. The project calls for the selection of Outstanding Scouts in the Asia-Pacific Region from among candidates nominated by member NSOs in the region, the award is to be made at the Asia-Pacific
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The Scout Motto of the Scout movement, in various languages, has been used by millions of Scouts around the world since 1907. Most of the member organizations of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts share this same motto. In English, this motto is most Be Prepared. In the third part of Scouting for Boys Robert Baden-Powell explains the meaning of the phrase: The Scout Motto is: BE PREPARED which means you are always in a state of readiness in mind and body to do your DUTY. Be Prepared in Mind by having disciplined yourself to be obedient to every order, by having thought out beforehand any accident or situation that might occur, so that you know the right thing to do at the right moment, are willing to do it. Be Prepared in Body by making yourself strong and active and able to do the right thing at the right moment, do it. "To do the right thing at the right moment" can be extreme: "Where a man has gone so far as to attempt suicide, a Scout should know what to do with him." "BE PREPARED to die for your country if need be, so that when the moment arrives you may charge home with confidence, not caring whether you are going to be killed or not"The first handbook for Girl Guides, How Girls Can Help to Build Up the Empire by Agnes and Robert Baden-Powell explains: The motto of the Girl Guides is "Be Prepared".
Why is this? It is because, like the other Guides, you have to be prepared at any moment to face difficulties and dangers by knowing what to do and how to do it. Hilary Saint George Saunders' book The Left Handshake: The Boy Scout Movement during the War, 1939–1945 had the first name of each chapter spell out the Scout motto; the chosen names are: Bravery, Purpose, Endurance, Assurance, Reformation and Devotion. Note-many languages have masculine and feminine forms of words – where gender changes the Scout Motto, differences are reflected here; the motto of the Young Pioneers, Always Prepared in various national languages, the Pioneers having been created as an alternative in countries where Scouting was banned The motto of the United States Coast Guard, Semper Paratus or ready
Cub Scouts, Cubs or Wolf Cubs are programs associated with Scouting for young children between 5 and 12, depending on the national organization to which they belong. A participant in the program is called a Cub. A group of Cubs is called a'Pack'; the Wolf Cub program was originated by The Boy Scouts Association in the United Kingdom in 1916 to provide a program for boys who were too young to be Boy Scouts. It was adopted by many other Scouting organizations. Many Scouting organizations, including The Scout Association, no longer use the Wolf Cub program and have replaced it with other programs but have retained the name Cubs. Others, including Traditional Scouting organizations, maintain the original Wolf Cubs program. Cubs programs were open only to boys, while young girls could join the Brownies; some Cub organizations are open to both girls and boys, although not in the same unit. A few organizations operate a Sea Cub version of Cubs; the Wolf Cub scheme was started by The Boy Scouts Association in 1916, nine years after the idea of the Boy Scouts was conceived, in order to cater to the many younger boys who were too young to be Boy Scouts.
During these first years many troops had either allowed younger boys to join or had set up unofficial junior or cadet Scout troops. In 1916, articles in the Headquarters Gazette outlined official "Junior Scout" "Wolf Cub" schemes. However, Robert Baden-Powell wanted something quite different from a watered down Boy Scout program and recognized that too close an association between the junior program and the Boy Scouts would detract from both. Baden-Powell wanted a junior scheme with distinct name and other identity and program. In 1916, Baden-Powell published his own outlines for such a scheme, it was to be called Wolf Cubs. Baden-Powell asked his friend Rudyard Kipling for the use of his Jungle Book history and universe as a motivational frame for the Wolf Cub scheme; the scheme was given a publicity launch at The Boy Scouts Association's Imperial Headquarters in Buckingham Palace Road, Westminster, on Saturday 24 June 1916. Baden-Powell wrote a new book, The Wolf Cub's Handbook, the first edition of, published in December 1916.
He collaborated with Vera Barclay in devising the Wolf Cub training programme and badges, which were published in the second edition. On 16 December 1916, a public display of the new section was held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, to which Kipling was invited. Vera Barclay co founded Wolf Cubs with Baden -Powell in 1916. From the 1960s, many organizations abandoned the Wolf Cub Jungle Book theme; some organizations changed the name to Cubs, Cub Scouts or something similar but retained the Jungle Stories and Cub ceremony as tradition—such as the use of Jungle Book names. Other organizations dropped the Jungle Book theme totally. Cub membership was open only to boys while the Brownies were set up as a parallel section for young girls; this remains the situation in some places. Most member organizations of the World Organization of the Scout Movement admitted girls to Cubs while others have separate co-ed sections with a different theme. Most member organizations of the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe have two single sex sections both named Wolf Cubs and both in the jungle theme.
Cub Scouting has ideals of spiritual and character growth, citizenship training, personal fitness. Cub Scouting provides a positive, encouraging peer group selected leaders who provide good role models and a group setting where values are taught to reinforce positive qualities of character. Cubs are organized in packs, which are sometimes linked to a Scout group, providing a community with all age sections known as a "Scouting family ". Adult leaders of Cub packs take the names of The Jungle Book's main characters. In many countries the leader of the Pack is called Akela. Cubs have a distinctive two-finger salute according to the Jungle theme, in contrast to the three-finger salute of Boy Scouts. However, in the Scout Association of United Kingdom and some of its overseas branches the two-finger salute was replaced by the three-finger salute. Cubs wear a distinctive headdress, a tight-fitting green felt cap with green felt visor, yellow pipings, an emblem at the front — although in some countries this has been replaced by more contemporary headgear or dispensed with entirely.
Just as Scout troops are subdivided into patrols, Cub packs are divided into small teams. Baden-Powell named the team a Six. In most countries Sixes are mixed-age groups with the oldest as sixer. In the Boy Scouts of America, the teams are called dens, with each den serving either boys or girls in the same school grade. Youth leaders from more senior sections of Scouting are encouraged to assist as Cub leaders. In the UK and in Australia these were called Cub Instructors. Within Scouts Australia the term Youth Helper is now formally applied to such persons, whilst in the United Kingdom they are called Young Leaders. In Canada, a Scout who assists in the Cub program is designated as a Kim. In the United States, the term Den Chief is used. In many European countries, Saint Francis of Assisi is the patron saint of Cubs, because of his relationship with wolves; the Baden-Powell Scouts' Association in Australia operate a'Wolf Cub' section between its Koalas program and Boy Scout. Wolf Cub packs are