Myocarditis known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle. Symptoms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, decreased ability to exercise, an irregular heartbeat; the duration of problems can vary from hours to months. Complications may include heart failure due to cardiac arrest. Myocarditis is most due to a viral infection. Other causes include bacterial infections, certain medications and autoimmune disorders. A diagnosis may be supported by an electrocardiogram, increased troponin, heart MRI, a heart biopsy. An ultrasound of the heart is important to rule out other potential causes such as heart valve problems. Treatment depends on the cause. Medications such as ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, diuretics are used. A period of no exercise is recommended during recovery. Corticosteroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may be useful in certain cases. In severe cases an implantable cardiac defibrillator or heart transplant may be recommended. In 2013, about 1.5 million cases of acute myocarditis occurred.
While people of all ages are affected, the young are most affected. It is more common in males than females. Most cases are mild. In 2015 cardiomyopathy, including myocarditis, resulted in 354,000 deaths up from 294,000 in 1990; the initial descriptions of the condition are from the mid-1800s. The signs and symptoms associated with myocarditis are varied, relate either to the actual inflammation of the myocardium or to the weakness of the heart muscle, secondary to the inflammation. Signs and symptoms of myocarditis include the following: Chest pain Congestive heart failure Palpitations Dullness of heart sounds Sudden death Fever Symptoms in young children tend to be more nonspecific, with generalized malaise, poor appetite, abdominal pain, chronic cough. Stages of the illness will present with respiratory symptoms with increased work of breathing, is mistaken for asthma. Since myocarditis is due to a viral illness, many patients give a history of symptoms consistent with a recent viral infection, including fever, diarrhea, joint pains, becoming tired.
Myocarditis is associated with pericarditis, many people with myocarditis present with signs and symptoms that suggest myocarditis and pericarditis at the same time. A large number of causes of myocarditis have been identified, but a cause cannot be found. In Europe and North America, viruses are common culprits. Worldwide, the most common cause is Chagas' disease, an illness endemic to Central and South America, due to infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In viral myocarditis, the Coxsackie B family of the single-stranded RNA viruses, in particular the plus-strand RNA virus Coxsackievirus B3 and Coxsackievirus B5 are the most frequent cause. Many of the causes listed below those involving protozoa, parasites, autoimmune disorders, drugs are causes of eosinophilic myocarditis. Viral Protozoan Bacterial Fungal Parasitic Bacterial myocarditis is rare in patients without immunodeficiency. Drugs, including alcohol and some other forms of chemotherapy, antipsychotics, e.g. clozapine some designer drugs such as mephedrone Allergic Rejection after a heart transplant Autoantigens Toxins Heavy metals Electric shock and radiation Most forms of myocarditis involve the infiltration of heart tissues by one or two types of pro-inflammatory blood cells and macrophages plus two respective descendants of these cells, NK cells and macrophages.
Eosinophilic myocarditis is a subtype of myocarditis in which cardiac tissue is infiltrated by another type of pro-inflammatory blood cell, the eosinophil. Eosinophilic myocarditis is further distinguished from non-eosinophilic myocarditis by having a different set of causes and recommended treatments. Coxsackie B B3 and B5, has been found to interact with coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor and decay-accelerating factor. However, other proteins have been identified that allow Coxsackieviruses to bind to cardiac cells; the natural function of CAR and mechanism that the Coxsackievirus uses to infect the cardiac muscle is still unknown. The mechanism by which coxsackie B viruses trigger inflammation is believed to be through the recognition of CBV virions by Toll-like receptors. Myocarditis refers to an underlying process that causes injury of the heart, it does not refer to inflammation of the heart as a consequence of some other insult. Many secondary causes, such as
Gravity Probe A was a space-based experiment to test the equivalence principle, a feature of Einstein's theory of relativity. It was performed jointly by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; the experiment sent a hydrogen maser, a accurate frequency standard, into space to measure with high precision the rate at which time passes in a weaker gravitational field. Masses cause distortions in spacetime, which leads to the effects of length contraction and time dilation, both predicted results of Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity; because of the bending of spacetime, an observer on Earth should measure a different rate at which time passes than an observer, sufficiently high up in Earth's atmosphere. This effect is known as gravitational time dilation; the experiment was a test of a major consequence of Einstein's general relativity, the equivalence principle. The equivalence principle states that a reference frame in a uniform gravitational field is indistinguishable from a reference frame, under uniform acceleration.
Further, the equivalence principle predicts that phenomenon of different time flow rates, present in a uniformly accelerating reference frame, will be present in a stationary reference frame, in a uniform gravitational field. The probe was launched on June 18, 1976 from the NASA-Wallops Flight Center in Wallops Island, Virginia; the probe was carried via a Scout rocket, attained a height of 10,000 km, while remaining in space for 1 hour and 55 minutes, as intended. It returned to Earth by splashing down into the Atlantic Ocean; the objective of the Gravity Probe A experiment was to test the validity of the equivalence principle. The equivalence principle was a key component of Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, states that the laws of physics are the same regardless of whether you consider a uniformly accelerating reference frame or a reference frame, acted upon by uniform gravitational field; the equivalence principle can be understood by picturing a rocket ship in two scenarios.
First, imagine a rocket ship, at rest on the Earth's surface. Now, imagine a rocket ship that has escaped Earth's gravitational field and is accelerating upwards at a constant 9.81 m/s² due to thrust from its rockets. This example shows that a uniformly accelerating reference frame is indistinguishable from a gravitational reference frame. Further, the equivalence principle guarantees that phenomena that are caused by inertial effects will be present due to gravitational effects. Imagine, for example, a beam of light, shined horizontally across a rocket ship, accelerating uniformly upwards. According to an observer outside the rocket ship, the floor of the rocket ship accelerates up towards the light beam. Therefore, the light beam does not seem to travel on a horizontal path according to the inside observer, rather the light seems to bend down toward the floor; this is an example of an inertial effect. The equivalence principle states that this inertial phenomenon will occur in a gravitational reference frame as well.
Indeed, the phenomenon of gravitational lensing states that matter can bend light, this phenomenon has been observed by the Hubble Telescope. Time dilation refers to the expansion or contraction in the rate at which time passes, was the subject of the Gravity Probe A experiment. Under Einstein's theory of general relativity, matter distorts the surrounding spacetime, so that space gets bent to the way a sheet of fabric would bend if a bowling ball were dropped in the middle of the sheet, but the distortion manifests itself in the time direction as well: time would appear for a distant observer to flow more in the vicinity of a massive object. For example, the metric, surrounding a spherically symmetric gravitating body, has a smaller coefficient at d t 2 closer to the body, which means slower rate of time flow there. There is a similar idea of time dilation occurrence in Einstein's theory of special relativity; such time dilation appears in the Rindler coordinates, attached to a uniformly accelerating particle in a flat spacetime.
Such a particle would observe time passing faster on the side it is accelerating towards and more on the opposite side. From this apparent variance in time, Einstein inferred that change in velocity affects the relativity of simultaneity for the particle. Einstein's equivalence principle generalizes this analogy, stating that an accelerating reference frame is locally indistinguishable from an inertial reference frame with a gravity force acting upon it. In this way, the Gravity Probe A was a test of the equivalence principle, matching the observations in the inertial reference frame of the Earth's surface affected by gravity, with the predictions of special relativity for the same frame treated as being accelerating upwards with respect to free fall reference, which can thought of being inertial and gravity-less; the 100 kg Gravity Probe A spacecraft housed the atomic hydrogen maser system that ran throughout the mission. Maser is an acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, is similar to a laser, as it produces coherent electromagnetic waves in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The probe was lau
Miss Republic of the Philippines 2015-2016 is the revival of Miss Republic of the Philippines pageant, once-popular national beauty pageant that first staged in 1969 under Ferdie Villar of Spotlight Promotions. The winner was chosen as the official delegate of the Philippines to the Miss World pageant. After a 38-year hiatus, Miss Republic of the Philippines is in its comeback under the new ownership of philanthropist, Lynette Padolina, CEO of the revived organization; the international competition for the winner will be announced in 2nd quarter of 2016, aside from the cash prize and scholarship grant for a four-year college course or post-graduate studies and will tour extensively to promote Philippine tourism and culture. The quest is the equivalent of the Miss America scholarship pageant organization. Https://www.facebook.com/Miss-Republic-of-the-Philippines-812859088797255/timeline/
Marilyn Ivy is an associate professor of anthropology at Columbia University. She received a Ph. D. in anthropology from Cornell University, an M. A. in history from the University of Hawaii, a B. A. in Asian studies from the University of Oklahoma. Prior to teaching at Columbia, Ivy taught at the University of Chicago and the University of Washington, her research has involved Japanese culture and politics and been focused on the question of modernity. Her first book, Discourses of the Vanishing: Modernity, Japan, published by University of Chicago Press in 1995, traces the experience of modern Japanese culture during its emergence alongside the formation of the Japanese nation-state to recent anxieties about the possible or potential loss of national identity. Ivy joined the faculty of Columbia University in 1997 and has taught courses on contemporary Japanese aesthetics and technology, as well as on modern and critical theory of anthropology, she lives in New York City with her husband John Pemberton an associate professor of anthropology at Columbia, their daughter Alice Ivy-Pemberton.
Both professors are affiliated with the Weatherhead East Asian Institute and Ivy serves on the Editorial Committee of the academic journal Public Culture. Ivy, Marilyn. 1995. Discourses of the Vanishing: Modernity, Japan Ivy, Marilyn. 2010. "The Art of Cute Little Things: Nara Yoshitomo's Parapolitics," in Mechademia Ivy, Marilyn. 2009. "Dark Enlightenment: Naitô Masatoshi's Flash" in Photographies East: Histories of the Camera in East and Southeast Asia, ed. by Rosalind Morris. 2008. "Benedict's Shame" Cabinet, no. 31. 2008. "Trauma's Two Times: Japanese Wars and Postwars." in Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 16:1: 153-176. 2006. "Revenge and Recapitation in Recessionary Japan" In Japan after Japan: Social and Cultural Life from the Recessionary 1990s to the Present, ed. by Tomiko Yoda and Harry Harootunian Ivy, Marilyn. 1998. “Mourning the Japanese Thing,” in Nicholas B. Dirks, ed. In Near Ruins: Cultural Theory of the End of the Century. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Ivy, Marilyn. 1996.
“Tracking the Mystery Man with the 21 Faces.” Critical Inquiry 23:11-36. Ivy, Marilyn. 1996. “Ghostlier Demarcations: Textual Fantasy and the Origins of Japanese Nativist Ethnology.” In Culture and Contexture: Readings in Anthropology and Literary Study, edited by E. Valentine Daniel and Jeffrey M. Peck, 296-322. Berkeley: The University of California Press. Ivy, Marilyn. 1993. “Have You Seen Me?: Recovering the Inner Child in Late Twentieth-Century America.” Social Text, no. 37:227-252. Ivy, Marilyn. 1989. “Critical Texts, Mass Artifacts: The Consumption of Knowledge in Postmodern Japan.” In Postmodernism and Japan, edited by H. D. Harootunian and Masao Miyoshi, 21-46. Durham and London: Duke University Press. 1. Weatherhead East Asian Institute Faculty Bio 2. Columbia Anthropology Faculty Page
Cameron McLean is an Australian former racing driver. McLean began racing at age 14 in karts, he came to prominence when he won the 1995 Australian Sports Sedan Championship in a BMW M3. McLean won the 1998 Privateers' Cup in the Australian Super Touring Championship. In 1999 he moved to the V8 Supercars category with Greenfield Mowers Racing, winning the Privateers award in the 1999 Shell Championship Series. From there, he was always a regular in the endurance races. For 2001 and 2002, he drove for private team Paragon Motorsports, but was never able to land a full-time drive with a professional outfit. McLean drove with a number of different leading teams in the enduros, including Dick Johnson Racing, Kmart Racing, Stone Brothers Racing, Ford Performance Racing and Garry Rogers Motorsport, his best V8 Supercar result came in the 2004 Sandown 500 where he finished second for Stone Brothers Racing, driving with Russell Ingall. McLean finished fourth in the 2001 Bathurst 1000 with Greg Ritter, driving for Dick Johnson Racing.
Super Touring 1000 Super Touring register Driver Database stats Racing reference profile
Amicable Society for a Perpetual Assurance Office is considered the first life insurance company in the world. Amicable Society was founded in London in 1706 by Sir Thomas Allen, 2nd Baronet; the first plan of life insurance was that each member paid a fixed annual payment per share on from one to three shares with consideration to age of the members being twelve to fifty-five. At the end of the year a portion of the "amicable contribution" was divided among the wives and children of deceased members and it was in proportion to the amount of shares the heirs owned. Amicable Society started with 2000 members. A modification from Amicable's life insurance was developed by "The Society for Equitable Assurances on Lives and Survivorships." This new life insurance society was developed by Halley, De Moivre, Simpson, De Parcieux, Dodson. The reason for the new society was because Dodson, over 45, wanted to have his life insured but was turned down by the Amicable Society, so formed a new society. In 1757 a petition for a charter of incorporation was submitted.
It was worked on for four years, but turned down in 1761. In 1762 a modification of the original terms was agreed upon and the society started a business of life insurance; the society was referred to as the "Equitable" and it issued policies for life insurance of fixed sums on single or joint lives, or on survivorships, for any term. Equitable's life insurance was different than Amicable's in that the premiums were regulated according to age. Anybody could be insured and were admitted regardless of their state of health and other circumstances; the initial scheme of Equitable had many imperfections, but through time developed into life insurance as we know it today. Due to Equitable's new type of insurance, Amicable changed its policies in 1807, it had various premium fees to be paid on policies obtainable according to age and health. In 1866 the Amicable Society was acquired by the Norwich Union Life Insurance Society; the motto of the Amicable Society was prudens simplicitas. The choice of creatures above their coat of Arms may refer to Jesus' saying, be wise as serpents, gentle as doves.
Amicable Society, The charters, acts of Parliament, by-laws of the corporation of the Amicable Society for a perpetual assurance office and Rivington, 1854 Anzovin, Famous First Facts 2000, item # 2422, H. W. Wilson Company, ISBN 0-8242-0958-3 Baynes, Thomas Spencer, The Encyclopædia Britannica: a dictionary of arts and general literature, Volume 13, H. G. Allen, 1888 Price, Observations on reversionary payments: on schemes for providing annuities for widows, for persons in old age.