A myriad is technically the number ten thousand. More a myriad may be an indefinitely large number of things; the Aegean numerals of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations included a single unit to denote tens of thousands. It was written with a symbol composed of a circle with four dashes. In Classical Greek numerals, a myriad was written as a capital mu: Μ, as lower case letters did not exist in Ancient Greece. To distinguish this numeral from letters, it was sometimes given an overbar: M. Multiples were written above this sign, so that for example M δ ϕ π β would equal 4,582×10,000 or 45,820,000; the etymology of the word myriad itself is uncertain: it has been variously connected to PIE *meu- in reference to the waves of the sea and to Greek myrmex in reference to their swarms. The largest number named in Ancient Greek was the myriad hundred million. In his Sand Reckoner, Archimedes of Syracuse used this quantity as the basis for a numeration system of large powers of ten, which he used to count grains of sand.
In English, myriad is most used to mean "some large but unspecified number". It may be either an adjective or a noun: both "there are myriad people outside" and "there is a myriad of people outside" are in use; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary notes that confusion over the use of myriad as a noun "seems to reflect a mistaken belief that the word was and is still properly only an adjective... however, the noun is in fact the older form, dating to the 16th century. The noun myriad has appeared in the works of such writers as Milton and Thoreau, it continues to occur in reputable English.""Myriad" is infrequently used in English as the specific number 10,000. Owing to the possible confusion with the generic meaning of "large quantity", this is restricted to translation of other languages like ancient Greek and Hindi where numbers may be grouped into sets of 10,000; such use permits the translator to remain closer to the original text and avoid repeated and unwieldy mentions of "tens of thousands": for example, "the original number of the crews supplied by the several nations I find to have been twenty-four myriads" and "What is the distance between one bridge and another?
Twelve myriads of parasangs". Most European languages include variations of "myriad" with similar meanings to the English word. Additionally, the prefix myria- indicating multiplication times ten thousand, was part of the original metric system adopted by France in 1795. Although it was not retained after the 11th CGPM conference in 1960, myriameter is sometimes still encountered as a translation of the Scandinavian mile of 10 kilometers, or in some classifications of wavelengths as the adjective myriametric; the myriagramme was a French approximation of the avoirdupois quartier of 25 pounds and the myriaton appears in Isaac Asimov's Foundation novel trilogy. In Modern Greek, the word "myriad" is used to denote 10,000, but a million is ekatommyrio and a thousand million is disekatommyrio. In East Asia, the traditional numeral systems of China and Japan are all decimal-based but grouped into ten thousands rather than thousands; the character for myriad is 萬 in traditional script and 万 in simplified form in both mainland China and Japan.
The pronunciation varies within China and abroad: wàn, wan5, bān, maan6, vạn. Vietnam is peculiar within the Sinosphere in rejecting Chinese numerals in favor of its own: vạn is less common than the native mười nghìn and its numerals are grouped in threes; because of this grouping into fours, higher orders of numbers are provided by the powers of 10,000 rather than 1,000: In China, 10,0002 was 萬萬 in ancient texts but is now called 億 and sometimes written as 1,0000,0000. Conversely, Chinese and Korean do not have native words for powers of one thousand: what is called "one million" in English is "100萬" in the Sinosphere, "one billion" in English is "十億" or "十萬萬" in the Sinosphere. Unusually, Vietnam employs its former translation of 兆, một triệu, to mean 1,000,000 rather than the Chinese figure; the PRC government has adapted the word 兆 to mean the scientific prefix mega-, but transliterations are used instead for giga-, tera-, other larger prefixes. This has caused confusion in areas related to the PRC such as Hong Kong and Macau, where 兆 is still used to mean 10,0003. 萬 and 万 are frequently employed colloquially in expressions, clichés, chengyu in the senses of "vast", "numerous", "numberless", "infinite".
A skeleton key is a 万能钥匙, the emperor was the "lord of myriad chariots", the Great Wall is called 万里长城, Zhu Xi's statement 月映万川 had the sense of supporting greater empiricism in Chinese philosophy, Ha Qiongwen's popular 1959 propagand
Kwon Na-ra (changed her name to Kwon Ah-yoon, known by her stage name Nara, is a South Korean singer and actress. She is best known as one of the original members of the South Korean girl group Hello Venus. Nara became an acting trainee for Fantagio Entertainment, she joined the girl group Hello Venus as a founding member where she went by the stage name "Nara". They debuted on May 2012 with the mini-album Venus, which contained four tracks; the single "Venus" reached number 35 on the Gaon chart. Aside from her group activities, Nara appeared as a cameo role as a stewardess on the 20th episode of the SBS drama Take Care of Us, Captain with fellow Hello Venus member, Yooyoung. In 2017, Nara played her first major acting role in SBS's romantic comedy drama Suspicious Partner. In 2018, Nara starred tvN's melodrama My Mister, followed by SBS legal drama Your Honor. In 2019, Nara got her first lead role in the KBS' medical prison drama Doctor Prisoner. In June 2019, Nara signed with new agency A-Man Project
Criticism of monarchy can be targeted against the general form of government—monarchy—or more to particular monarchical governments as controlled by hereditary royal families. In some cases, this criticism can be curtailed by legal restrictions and be considered criminal speech, as in lèse-majesté. Monarchies in Europe and their underlying concepts, such as the Divine Right of Kings, were criticized during the Age of Enlightenment, which notably paved the way to the French Revolution and the proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy in France. Earlier, the American Revolution had seen the Patriots suppress the Loyalists and expel all royal officials. In this century, monarchies are present in the world in many forms with different degrees of royal power and involvement in civil affairs: Absolute monarchies in Brunei, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the Vatican City; the twentieth century, beginning with the 1917 February Revolution in Russia and accelerated by two world wars, saw many European countries replace their monarchies with republics, while others replaced their absolute monarchies with constitutional monarchies.
Reverse movements have occurred, with brief returns of the monarchy in France under the Bourbon Restoration, the July Monarchy, the Second French Empire, the Stuarts after the English Civil War and the Bourbons in Spain after the Franco dictatorship. The selection of sovereigns does not involve democratic principles, such as in Elective monarchy in states they head. For hereditary monarchies, royal power transmission is carried from generation to generation, with the title and associated power passing down to an heir. Several royal families are criticized in the world and their legitimacy challenged for example: The Bahraini protests were aimed at achieving greater political freedom and equality for the majority Shia population, expanded to a call to end the monarchy of Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa following a deadly night raid on 17 February 2011 against protesters at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama, known locally as Bloody Thursday. A Belgian association, the Republican Circle, launched the petition "Abolition of Monarchy in Europe" to the attention of the European Parliament in March 2008, highlighting what they perceive as the incompatibility of the monarchy with several international declarations: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Debate between monarchists and republicans in Canada has been taking place since before the country's Confederation in 1867. Republican action has taken the form of protests on Victoria Day, the former Canadian sovereign's official birthday, lobbying of the federal and provincial governments to eliminate Canadian royal symbols, legal action against the Crown in relation to the Oath of Citizenship and the Act of Settlement 1701; the debate has been stronger in the French-speaking province of Québec, in which a substantial sovereignty movement exists against both the federation of Canada and its Crown. The legitimacy of King Mohammed VI was contested by some in the February 20 Movement of 2011 that attempted to challenge the monarchic system for the first time in the history of this country. In August 2012, the Swedish Defense Minister Karin Enström said that Saudi Arabia could be called a dictatorship. There have been frequent protests against the perceived royal dictatorship of the Al Saud family and calls for prisoners held without charge or trial to be released.
In early 2012, protestors chanted slogans against the House of Saud and Minister of Interior Nayef, calling Nayef a "terrorist", "criminal" and "butcher". Crackdowns on protesters prevented further expression of dissent. Republicanism Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union as adapted at Lisbon Charter of Human Rights European Parliament’s explanation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights Petition to the European Parliament. Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR
The 2014 Trinidad and Tobago Goal Shield was the fifth season of the Lucozade Sport Goal Shield, a knockout tournament competition for Trinidad and Tobago teams competing in the TT Pro League. W Connection entered as the cup holders having defeated North East Stars 4–3 in a penalty shootout in the 2013 final. Continuing from previous seasons, the competition not only allowed the winner and runner-up healthy purses at the end of the tournament, but more so give an added incentive for more goals to be scored throughout the tournament. In particular, the winner of the competition was awarded TT$30,000 plus an additional TT$3,000 for every goal scored in the final, TT$2,000 for every goal in the semifinals, TT$1,000 for each goal scored in the quarterfinals. Whereas, the runner-up was awarded TT$10,000 plus TT$1,500 for every goal scored in the final, TT$1,000 for every goal in the semifinals, TT$500 for each goal scored in the quarterfinals. Since the league expanded to nine clubs for the 2013–14 TT Pro League season, the competition re-introduced the qualifying round to narrow the number of teams prior to the quarterfinals.
Seeding was determined from the league standings at the end of fixtures held on 29 March 2014. W Connection entered the competition as top seeded team in the competition; the remaining top seeds were Central FC, North East Stars, Point Fortin Civic after placing second and fourth in the league table at the time of the draw. The draw for the quarterfinals took place on 31 March 2014 at the Capital Plaza in Port of Spain; the quarterfinal matches to be played on 4 April in Ato Boldon Stadium resulted in Central FC facing Caledonia AIA and Point Fortin Civic against Defence Force. The following night in Couva, W Connection will face the winner of the qualifying round between the bottom two in the league table, San Juan Jabloteh and St. Ann's Rangers, North East Stars against Police; the schedule for the 2014 Lucozade Sport Goal Shield, as announced by the TT Pro League: All matches were played for 90 minutes duration, at the end of which if the match was still tied, penalty-kicks were used to determine the match winner.
The competition kicked off with the qualifying round between the San Juan Jabloteh and St. Ann's Rangers, which represented the bottom of the 2013–14 TT Pro League league table; the San Juan Kings used goals on either side of the half from Jean-Luc Rochford and Micah Lewis to advance to the quarterfinals to face W Connection. In the quarterfinals, all four of the higher seeds progressed. In the early match in Couva on 4 April, Central FC defeated the Stallions of Morvant/Laventille with a 4–0 win, which included a first-half brace from Willis Plaza. However, the Akini Adams stole the spotlight in the late match between Point Fortin Civic and Defence Force. Acting as a stand-in goalkeeper, Adams saved two kicks in the penalty shootout, after the match ended 1–1, to help Point Fortin advance to the semifinals. After the match, Adams dedicated the win to his brother Akeem Adams, who died on 30 December 2013 from a heart attack suffered in September while playing for Ferencváros in Hungary; the following day, W Connection won convincingly over San Juan Jabloteh after scoring three goals in the first half.
North East Stars used a brace from Keron Cummings to upend Police and advance to the semifinals. On 11 April, W Connection and Central FC won their semifinal contests to advance to the final on 25 April at Ato Boldon Stadium in Couva. In the first semifinal, Central FC defeated North East Stars 2–0 following goals from their two young strikers. W Connection used a lone goal from Hashim Arcia in the 53rd minute to defeat Point Fortin Civic 1–0. In the final on 25 April, Central FC scored two goals in succession from Rundell Winchester and Marvin Oliver to power the Couva Sharks to their first Goal Shield title. For his performance in the final, Winchester was named the Most Valuable Player after providing his second goal of the tournament and setting up the winning goal from Oliver. Official Website
The Mundialito was a global invitational tournament for national teams in women's association football. Held on four occasions in the northern region of Italy since 1984, it was one of the most prestigious women's football events, prior to the advent of the Women's World Cup and Women's Olympic Football; the first edition of the tournament was played in Japan in September 1981. Italy drew 1–1 with Denmark beat Japan 9–0, while England beat Japan 4–0 but lost 1–0 to Denmark. Japan–Denmark and England–Italy fixtures were not played. In 1984 and 1985, the teams first played round-robin within a single pool a further match to decide the winner and third place. In 1986 and 1988, the preliminary round was contested within two groups, each sending a team to participate in the final match; the most successful teams were England with two titles. The 1985 tournament was notable for the international debut of the United States women's national soccer team. Another more recent international tournament for women's football teams, the Algarve Cup, has been unofficially known as the Mundialito.
RSSSF.com history page, with links to full results
Captain Joseph Bertin was one of the first authors to write about the game of chess. David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld in The Oxford Companion to Chess call his book The Noble Game of Chess "the first worthwhile chess book in the English language". B. Goulding Brown, writing in the December 1932 British Chess Magazine, called it the first original English chess book. Bertin was a Huguenot born at Castelmoron-sur-Lot in the 1690s, he came to England during his youth, became a naturalized citizen in 1713, married in 1719. In 1726, he joined a line regiment serving in the West Indies, he was promoted to the rank of Captain, was released from the Army as an invalid. In 1735 he published a small volume entitled The Noble Game of Chess. In the same year, he was recommissioned in a Regiment of Invalids and, according to Hooper and Whyld, "In all probability he died soon afterwards."The Noble Game of Chess was sold only at Slaughter's Coffee House. It contained opening analysis and useful advice about the middlegame, laid down 19 rules for chess play.
Most of them are still useful today. Some examples: "2. Never play your Queen, till your game is tolerably well opened, that you may not lose any moves. "3. You must not give useless checks, for the same reason." "8. Consider well before you play, what harm your adversary is able to do to you, that you may oppose his designs." "18. To play well the latter end of a game, you must calculate who has the move, on which the game always depends." Bertin attached great value to maintaining White's first-move advantage. The book contained 26 games, with each variation analyzed being treated as a separate game, they were divided into "gambets" and "the close-game". At left is a chess problem from page 54 of Bertin's book. White wins with 1. Qd7+! Kxd7 2. Nbc5+ Kd8 3. Ne6+ Kd7 4. Nac5+ dxc5 5. Nxc5+ Ke8 6. Ne6+ Kd7 7. Ba4+ Bc6 8. Bxc6+ Kxe6 9.d5#