Lou Marsh Trophy
The Lou Marsh Trophy known as the Lou Marsh Memorial Trophy and Lou Marsh Award, is a trophy, awarded annually to Canada's top athlete, professional or amateur. It is awarded with the vote taking place in December, it was first awarded in 1936. It is named in honour of Lou Marsh, a prominent Canadian athlete and former sports editor of the Toronto Star. Marsh died in 1936 and the trophy was named in his honour; the trophy stands around 75 centimetres high. The words "With Pick and Shovel" appear above the engraved names of the winners; the voting panel consists of sports media voters from across the country including representatives from the Toronto Star, The Canadian Press, FAN590, The Globe and Mail, CBC, Rogers Sportsnet, CTV/TSN, La Presse and the National Post. The Trophy has been won by 61 individual athletes and three pairs. Wayne Gretzky has won the trophy four times, more than any other athlete, while Barbara Ann Scott has won the trophy three times, more than any other woman, it was not awarded from 1942 to 1944 due to World War II.
There were ties between different athletes in 1978 and 1983. The most recent winner is alpine skier Mikael Kingsbury. Key* = Also won the Lionel Conacher Award as Canadian male athlete of the year ^ = Also won the Bobbie Rosenfeld Award as Canadian female athlete of the year Terry Fox, awarded the Lou Marsh Trophy for the Marathon of Hope rather than participation in a sport in general, is not included in this table. List of members of Canada's Sports Hall of Fame Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame Lionel Conacher Award Bobbie Rosenfeld Award Canadian Press Team of the Year Award Velma Springstead Trophy Sports in Canada Athlete of the Year The Lou Marsh Legacy: Honouring Canada's Top Athletes in the Virtual Museum of Canada
Speed skating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, marathon speed skating. In the Olympic Games, long-track speed skating is referred to as just "speed skating", while short-track speed skating is known as "short track"; the ISU, the governing body of both ice sports, refers to long track as "speed skating" and short track as "short track skating". An international federation was founded in the first for any winter sport; the sport enjoys large popularity in the Netherlands and South Korea. There are top international rinks in a number of other countries, including Canada, the United States, Italy, Japan and Kazakhstan. A World Cup circuit is held with events in those countries plus two events in the Thialf ice hall in Heerenveen, Netherlands; the standard rink for long track is 400 meters long, but tracks of 200, 250 and 3331⁄3 meters are used occasionally.
It is one of the one with the longer history. International Skating Union rules allow radius of curves. Short track speed skating takes place on a smaller rink the size of an ice hockey rink, on a 111.12 m oval track. Distances are shorter than in long-track racing, with the longest Olympic individual race being 1500 meters. Event are held with a knockout format, with the best two in heats of four or five qualifying for the final race, where medals are awarded. Disqualifications and falls are not uncommon. There are variations on the mass-start races. In the regulations of roller sports, eight different types of mass starts are described. Among them are elimination races, where one or more competitors are eliminated at fixed points during the course. Races have some rules about disqualification if an opponent is unfairly hindered. In long track speed skating any infringement on the pairmate is punished, though skaters are permitted to change from the inner to the outer lane out of the final curve if they are not able to hold the inner curve, as long as they are not interfering with the other skater.
In mass-start races, skaters will be allowed some physical contact. Team races are held. Relay races are held in short track and inline competitions, but here, exchanges may take place at any time during the race, though exchanges may be banned during the last couple of laps. Most speed skating races are held on an oval course. Oval sizes vary. Inline skating rinks are between 125 and 400 metres, though banked tracks can only be 250 metres long. Inline skating can be held on closed road courses between 400 and 1,000 metres, as well as open-road competitions where starting and finishing lines do not coincide; this is a feature of outdoor marathons. In the Netherlands, marathon competitions may be held on natural ice on canals, bodies of water such as lakes and rivers, but may be held on artificially frozen 400 m tracks, with skaters circling the track 100 times, for example; the roots of speed skating date back over a millennium to Scandinavia, Northern Europe and the Netherlands, where the natives added bones to their shoes and used them to travel on frozen rivers and lakes.
In contrast to what people think, ice skating has always been an activity of joy and sports and not a matter of transport. For example, winters in the Netherlands have never been stable and cold enough to make ice skating a way of travelling or a mode of transport; this has been described in 1194 by William Fitzstephen, who described a sport in London. In Norway, King Eystein Magnusson King Eystein I of Norway, boasts of his skills racing on ice legs; however and speed skating was not limited to the Netherlands and Scandinavia. It was iron-bladed skates. By 1642, the first official skating club, The Skating Club Of Edinburgh, was born, and, in 1763, the world saw its first official speed skating race, on the Fens in England organized by the National Ice Skating Association. While in the Netherlands, people began touring the waterways connecting the 11 cities of Friesland, a challenge which led to the Elfstedentocht. By 1851, North Americans had discovered a love of the sport, indeed the all-steel blade was developed there.
The Netherlands came back to the fore in 1889 with the organization of the first world championships. The ISU was born in the Netherlands in 1892. By the start of the 20th century and speed skating had come into its own as a major popular sporting activity. Organized races on ice skates developed in the 19th century. Norwegian clubs hosted competitions with races in Christiania drawing five-digit crowds. In 1884, the Norwegian Axel Paulsen was named Amateur Champion Skater of the World after winning competitions in the United States. Five years a sports club in Amsterdam held an ice-skating event they called a world championship, with participants from Russia
Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in France; the modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The original five Winter Olympic sports were bobsleigh, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, skating; the Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936, interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II, resumed in 1948. Until 1992, the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year, in accordance with the 1986 decision by the IOC to place the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years, the next Winter Olympic Games after 1992 were held in 1994.
The Winter Olympic Games have evolved since their inception. Sports and disciplines have been added and some of them, such as Alpine skiing, short track speed skating, freestyle skiing and snowboarding, have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic programme; some others, including curling and bobsleigh, have been discontinued and reintroduced. Still others, such as speed skiing and skijoring, were demonstration sports but never incorporated as Olympic sports; the rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It generated income via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising, which has become lucrative for the IOC; this allowed outside interests, such as television companies and corporate sponsors, to exert influence. The IOC has had to address numerous criticisms over the decades like internal scandals, the use of performance-enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians, as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympic Games. Countries have used the Winter Olympic Games as well as the Summer Olympic Games to proclaim the superiority of their political systems.
The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents by twelve different countries. They have been held four times in the United States, three times in France and twice each in Austria, Japan, Italy and Switzerland; the Winter Olympic Games have been held just once each in Germany and Herzegovina, Russia and South Korea. The IOC has selected Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, the host of the 2026 Winter Olympics will be selected on June 23, 2019; as of 2018, no city in the Southern Hemisphere has applied to host the cold-weather-dependent Winter Olympic Games, which are held in February at the height of the Southern Hemisphere's summer. To date, twelve countries have participated in every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Great Britain, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the United States. Six of these countries have won medals at every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Norway and the United States; the only country to have won a gold medal at every Winter Olympic Games is the United States.
Germany leads the all-time medal table of the Winter Olympic Games both on number of gold and overall medals won, followed by Norway and the United States. A predecessor, the Nordic Games, were organised by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and every fourth year thereafter until 1926. Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin, he attempted to have winter sports figure skating, added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Four figure skating events were contested, at which Ulrich Salchow and Madge Syers won the individual titles. Three years Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden; the organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports.
The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Germany. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I; the first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Summer Olympics, were held in Antwerp and featured figure skating and an ice hockey tournament. Germany, Hungary and Turkey were banned from competing in the games. At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics, would host a separate "International Winter Sports Week" under the patronage of the IOC. Chamonix was chosen to host this "week" of events; the games proved to be
1992 Winter Olympics
The 1992 Winter Olympics known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France. They were the last Winter Olympics to be held the same year as the Summer Olympics, the first where the Winter Paralympics were held at the same site. Albertville was selected as host in 1986, beating Sofia, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo and Berchtesgaden; the games were the third Winter Olympics held in France, after Chamonix in 1924 and Grenoble in 1968, the fifth Olympics overall in the country. Only some of the skating and the opening and closing ceremonies took place in Albertville, while the rest of the events took place in the villages of Courchevel, La Plagne, Les Arcs, Les Menuires, Les Saisies, Méribel, Pralognan-la-Vanoise and Val d'Isère. Sixty-four nations with 1,801 athletes participated in the games, including the Unified Team which represented non-Baltic former Soviet republics. Germany participated as a unified team, while five newly independent European countries debuted, as did six "warm-weather" countries.
Short track speed skating and women's biathlon made their debut as an Olympic sport. The games were the last Winter Games until 2014 to have demonstration sports, consisting of curling, ski ballet and speed skiing, it was the last Olympics to have an outdoor speed skating rink. The games were succeeded by the 1992 Winter Paralympics from 25 March to 1 April. Norwegians won every male cross-country skiing race, with Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang both collecting three gold. Ski jumper Toni Nieminen, 16, became the youngest male gold medalist of a Winter Olympic event. Petra Kronberger won both the combined event and the slalom, while Bonnie Blair won both the 500 m and 1000 m speed skating events and Gunda Niemann took both of the longest races. Kim Kihoon earned gold medals in both men's short track events. Ye Qiaobo of China won the country's first medal in the Winter Olympics, a silver in women's 500 metres speed skating. Annelise Coberger of New Zealand won the southern hemisphere's first Winter Olympic medal—a silver in the women's slalom.
Nicolas Bochatay was killed during a training session. Germany won the most gold; the vote to select the host city of the 1992 Winter Olympics was conducted on 17 October 1986, in Lausanne, Switzerland, at the 91st IOC Session. A record of seven different locales bid for these Games; the 1992 Olympic Winter Games marked the last time both the Winter and Summer games were held in the same year. The 1992 Olympics marks the last time France hosted the Olympics. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Albertville 1992 Winter Olympics at USD 2.0 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 137% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Albertville 1992 compares with costs of USD 2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of USD 51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD 3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. Magique was the Olympic mascot of these Games, was a little imp in the shape of a star and a cube, it was created by Philippe Mairesse and was presented in 1989. His star shape symbolises dreams and imagination, his colours come with a red hat and a blue costume. There were 57 events contested in 6 sports. See the medal winners, ordered by sport: This was the final time demonstration sports were included in the Winter Olympics programme.
Curling – Competed for the first time since 1924. It became a regular discipline in 1998. Freestyle skiing – Although moguls skiing was an official discipline and ski ballet were still considered demonstration events. Speed skiing – A death occurred during a training session; the sport has not been included in the Winter Olympics program. A total of 64 nations sent athletes to compete in these Games. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, six states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia and Lithuania had their own teams. Croatia and Slovenia, who were making their first appearance at the Winter Olympics, competed as independent nations after leaving Yugoslavia; the UN sanctions against Yugoslavia that saw them miss the 1992 Summer Olympics had yet to come into effect. The German team won most medals in the games, with a total of 10 gold medals, 10 silver and 6 bronze, it was the first time since the 1936 Winter Olympics that Germany competed with a unified team after the reunification.
Making their debuts were Algeria, Brazil, Honduras and Swaziland. It would be the only appearance for both Honduras and Swaziland in Winter Olympics to date; the 1992 Games are the last ones. Albertville Halle Olympique – Figure Skating and Short track spee
International Biathlon Union
The International Biathlon Union is the international governing body of biathlon. Its headquarters are in Austria; the International Biathlon Union was founded in London on 2 July 1993. This occurred when the National Biathlon Union in London/Heathrow decided to exclude biathlon from the World federation UIPMB, which it had been part of since 1953, forcing biathlon to form their own international federation. During the congress the new federation elected their executive committee and the 57 existing members of the UIPMB were automatically transferred to the IBU; however the International Olympic Committee did not recognise the IBU as an international Olympic winter sport federation until August 1998. In the same year the Global Association of International Sports Federations declared the IBU as a proper member; the IBU settled in Salzburg, Austria in June 1999. A congress is held every two years, is considered the most important organ of the IBU according to its constitution; the first congress was held in Salzburg, in 1994 in Östersund, Sweden in 1996, Austria in 1998, Canada in 2000, France in 2002, the 2004 congress was held in Varna, Bulgaria.
The first extensive board meeting took place in August 1993 in Germany. Since over 50 board meetings have been held. Since the foundation of the IBU, seven World Championships for men and women have been held, as well as ten junior World Championships. There have been two youth World Championships held. There have been 84 World Cups, the European Championships have been conducted for both senior and junior athletes since the 1994/95 season; the first summer biathlon World Championships took place in Hochfilzen, Austria in 1996. During the 1999/2000 season the IBU assumed the management of archery biathlon from FITA, archery biathlon World Cups and World Championships have been held since 2002. In the first Winter Olympics in which biathlon was included there were three events and up until the 2006 games, four. From 2006 onward there have been five biathlon events, and from 2014, six with the inclusion of the Mixed Relay. In August 1993 a Secretary-General was appointed, a secretary for the staff added in 1995.
A World Cup coordinator was put in place in the 1997/98 season. This coordinator was promoted to sports director before the start of the 2002/03 season. In April 2001 a communication director position was created to handle the part of communication and media, for the partner and supplier area. In March 2001 the chairman of the IBU legal committee is responsible for all legal interests, as the legal advisor for the IBU. In 2018 the IBU underwent a corruption scandal with its President Anders Besseberg and General Secretary Nicole Resch accused of accepting bribes from Russia; the IBU is a non-profit organization, in the sense that the IBU's income would be spread among the athletes, those who had fared worst with the end of the Soviet Union. The IBU has contracts with APF Marketing Services. There are sponsor advertisements along all the biathlon courses, the most notable ones being Viessmann, Krombacher, Adidas, E. ON Ruhrgas/ Erdgas, the main sponsor. IFS acts as Official Data Partner and Polar as Timing Partner benefitting from visibility in all TV graphics relating to time measurement.
Most of the sponsors are German and Eastern European, where most of the interest in biathlon is. The IBU keep their administrative expenses at a minimum, have created a financial reserve, so that if losses in income occur, such as a cancellation of an Olympic Games, the IBU would be able to draw on the reserve to ensure the survival of biathlon; the biathlon events most people are familiar with are the World Cup events, the season for the elite athletes. The men and women that finish in the top ten in the overall leader board have their travel and accommodation paid for the next season by the IBU. During the 2002/03 season EUR 2.7 million was made available for bonuses and competition participation, development programmes, bonuses for events, free access of data and result services, free execution of the accreditation. In the 1994/95 season prize money awarded in World Cup events was 1500DM for first place, 1000DM for second place and 500DM for third place. However, due to an increase in sponsorship money, increased attendance, television audience, prize money for first place is now 9000EUR, over EUR 1.69 million was made available for prize money.
In 1996, as part of the IBU development project, partnership contracts were established with some companies, which supplied free materials and equipment, to the less fortunate member federations. The IBU now has partnership contracts with five companies, equipment contracts with fifteen; these contracts insure the IBU can supply free, good quality clothing and equipment in large quantities to national federations. And during the 2002/03 season the IBU secured a contract with VW-Sponsoring, so that VW-busses are available to most of the teams taking part in IBU competitions. Biathlon at the Winter Olympics Biathlon World Championships Biathlon World Cup Biathlon Junior World Championships List of shooting sports organizations Official website
Robert Charles "Bob" Pirie was a Canadian freestyle swimmer, who competed internationally during the 1930s. Pirie was unanimously selected as the Lou Marsh Trophy winner for 1939, recognizing Canada's top athlete; that year, in Hawaii, he broke the 220-yard world record long held by Johnny Weissmuller and finished third in the U. S. national championships in the 110-yard and 220-yard freestyle races, with Japanese swimmers taking the top two spots in both races. At the time, he held every Canadian freestyle swimming record from 100 metres to two miles. Earlier, Pirie won bronze in freestyle events at the 1934 British Empire Games, his sister, Irene Pirie won individual silver and bronze freestyle medals at the same games. Four years at the 1938 British Empire Games, Pirie won gold in the 110-yard freestyle and the 440-yard freestyle events, silver in the 1650-yard freestyle race. Pirie participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics. In the 400-metre freestyle and 1500-metre freestyle, he was eliminated in the semi-finals.
He was a member of the Canadian relay team which finished seventh in the 4×200-metre freestyle relay. Pirie was inducted into the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame in 1975; the Bob Pirie Trophy is presented each year by Swim Ontario to the top male swimmer in Ontario as selected by the Ontario Swimming Coaches' Association. The female swimmer of the year receives the Irene Pirie Trophy. Pirie was posthumously inducted into the Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 2015. List of Commonwealth Games medallists in swimming
1994 Winter Olympics
The 1994 Winter Olympics known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway. Lillehammer failed losing to Albertville. Lillehammer was awarded the 1994 Winter Olympics in 1988, after beating United States. Lillehammer is the northernmost city to host the Winter Games and the Olympic Games overall; the Games were the first to be held in a different year from the Summer Olympics, the first and only one to be held two years after the previous winter games. The Games were the second Winter Olympics hosted in Norway, after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, the fourth Olympics in the Nordic countries, after the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm and the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. Although many events took place in Lillehammer, skating took place in Hamar, some ice hockey matches were placed in Gjøvik, while Alpine skiing was held in Øyer and Ringebu. Sixty-seven countries and 1,737 athletes participated in sixty-one events.
Fourteen countries made their debut in the Winter Olympics, of which nine were former Soviet republics. The Games saw the introduction of stricter qualifying rules, reducing the number of under-performing participants from warm-weather countries. New events were two new distances in short track speed skating and aerials, while speed skating was moved indoors. Nearly two million people spectated the games, which were the first to have the Olympic truce in effect; the games were succeeded by the 1994 Winter Paralympics from 10 to 19 March. Manuela Di Centa and Lyubov Yegorova dominated women's cross-country skiing, taking five and four medals, respectively. A crowd of over 100,000 saw. Vreni Schneider won a complete set of medals in Alpine skiing, while Norway took a medal sweep in the men's combined. Nancy Kerrigan had, before the games, been clubbed by Tonya Harding's associate, but managed to take silver in ladies' singles. Johann Olav Koss won three speed skating events, while 13-year-old Kim Yoon-Mi became the youngest-ever Olympic gold medalist.
Sweden beat Canada in a dramatic penalty shootout in the ice hockey final. With 11 gold medals, Russia won the most events, while with 26, Norway collected the most medals overall. Planning of the Lillehammer bid started in 1981, following Falun, Sweden's failed bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics, losing to Calgary respectively, it was supported by the government to help stimulate the economy of the inland counties. Lillehammer bid for the 1992 Games, but came fourth in the voting with the games awarded to Albertville. In 1986, the International Olympic Committee voted to separate the Summer and Winter Games, held in the same year since the latter's inception in 1924, arrange them in alternating even-numbered years. A new bid was launched for the 1994 Games, modified with an indoor speed skating venue and an additional ice hall in Lillehammer. Additional government guarantees were secured. Three other locations bid for the games: Östersund and Sofia; the 94th IOC Session, held in Seoul on 15 September 1988, voted Lillehammer the host for the Games.
Until the 2018 Winter Olympics, the Lillehammer Olympics were the last Winter Games to date to be held in a town, rather than be centered in a city. 1.21 million tickets were sold for the games. LOOC estimated. In addition, 180,000 seats were used by the VIPs; the overall responsibility for the games was held by the Lillehammer Olympic Organizing Committee, created on 14 November 1988 and led by Gerhard Heiberg. It was reorganized several times with various subsidiaries, but from 1993 consisted of a single company owned 51% by Lillehammer Municipality, 24.5% by the Government of Norway and 24.5% by the Norwegian Olympic Committee. The government had issued a guarantee for the games, covered the expenses related to infrastructure; the total costs of the games was 7.4 billion Norwegian krone, of which NOK 0.95 billion was expenditure by the ministries, NOK 4.48 billion was for operations and event expenses, NOK 1.67 billion was for investments. The games had a revenue of NOK 2.71 billion, of which NOK 1.43 billion was from television rights, NOK 0.65 billion was from sponsors, NOK 0.15 billion was from ticket sales.
Production of the broadcasting, which costs NOK 462 million, was the responsibility of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, with assistance from the CTV Television Network and the European Broadcasting Union. NRK had 1,424 people working at the Olympics, while international broadcasters sent an additional 4,050 accredited broadcasting personnel; the transmission rights for the games were held by EBU in Europe, CBS in the United States, NHK in Japan, CTV in Canada, the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, Nine Network in Australia, as well as other broadcasters in other countries. The total transmission rights price was 350 million United States dollars. In part because of the Harding–Kerrigan affair, the viewship in the United States is still the highest for Winter Olympics. NOK 460 million was used on information technology, with the main system running on an IBM AS/400. 3,500 terminals were in use during the game based on the Info'94 system. Seiko delivered the time-keeping devices. Telecommunications were delivered including signal transmission.
This included a mobile radio network with nine base stations. As part of its promotional activities, the