Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini was an Italian opera composer, called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi". Puccini's early work was rooted in traditional late-19th-century romantic Italian opera, he developed his work in the realistic verismo style, of which he became one of the leading exponents. Puccini's most renowned works are La bohème, Madama Butterfly, Turandot, all of which are among the important operas played as standards. Puccini was born Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini in Lucca, Italy in 1858, he was one of nine children of Michele Albina Magi. The Puccini family was established in Lucca as a local musical dynasty by Puccini's great-great-grandfather – named Giacomo; this first Giacomo Puccini was maestro di cappella of the Cattedrale di San Martino in Lucca. He was succeeded in this position by his son, Antonio Puccini, by Antonio's son Domenico, Domenico's son Michele; each of these men studied music at Bologna, some took additional musical studies elsewhere.
Domenico Puccini studied for a time under Giovanni Paisiello. Each composed music for the church. In addition, Domenico composed several operas, Michele composed one opera. Puccini's father Michele enjoyed a reputation throughout northern Italy, his funeral was an occasion of public mourning, at which the then-famed composer Giovanni Pacini conducted a Requiem. With the Puccini family having occupied the position of maestro di cappella for 124 years by the time of Michele's death, it was anticipated that Michele's son Giacomo would occupy that position as well when he was old enough. However, when Michele Puccini died in 1864, his son Giacomo was only six years old, thus not capable of taking over his father's job; as a child, he participated in the musical life of the Cattedrale di San Martino, as a member of the boys' choir and as a substitute organist. Puccini was given a general education at the seminary of San Michele in Lucca, at the seminary of the cathedral. One of Puccini's uncles, Fortunato Magi, supervised his musical education.
Puccini got a diploma from the Pacini School of Music in Lucca in 1880, having studied there with his uncle Fortunato, with Carlo Angeloni, who had instructed Alfredo Catalani. A grant from Queen Margherita, assistance from another uncle, Nicholas Cerù, provided the funds necessary for Puccini to continue his studies at the Milan Conservatory, where he studied composition with Stefano Ronchetti-Monteviti, Amilcare Ponchielli, Antonio Bazzini. Puccini studied at the conservatory for three years. In 1880, at the age of 21, Puccini composed his Mass, which marks the culmination of his family's long association with church music in his native Lucca. Puccini wrote an orchestral piece called the Capriccio sinfonico as a thesis composition for the Milan Conservatory. Puccini's teachers Ponchielli and Bazzini were impressed by the work, it was performed at a student concert at the conservatory on 14 July 1883, conducted by Franco Faccio. Puccini's work was favorably reviewed in the Milanese publication Perseveranza, thus Puccini began to build a reputation as a young composer of promise in Milanese music circles.
After the premiere of the Capriccio sinfonico and Puccini discussed the possibility that Puccini's next work might be an opera. Ponchielli invited Puccini to stay at his villa, where Puccini was introduced to another young man named Ferdinando Fontana. Puccini and Fontana agreed to collaborate on an opera; the work, Le Villi, was entered into a competition sponsored by the Sozogno music publishing company in 1883. Although it did not win, Le Villi was staged at the Teatro Dal Verme, premiering on 31 May 1884. G. Ricordi & Co. music publishers assisted with the premier by printing the libretto without charge. Fellow students from the Milan Conservatory formed a large part of the orchestra; the performance was enough of a success. Revised into a two-act version with an intermezzo between the acts, Le Villi was performed at La Scala in Milan, on 24 January 1885. However, Ricordi did not publish the score until 1887. Giulio Ricordi, head of G. Ricordi & Co. music publishers, was sufficiently impressed with Le Villi and its young composer that he commissioned a second opera, which would result in Edgar.
Work was begun in 1884. Puccini finished primary composition in 1887 and orchestration in 1888. Edgar premiered at La Scala on 21 April 1889 to a lukewarm response; the work was withdrawn for revisions after its third performance. In a Milanese newspaper, Giulio Ricordi published a defense of Puccini's skill as a composer, while criticizing Fontana's libretto. A revised version met with success at the Teatro del Giglio in Puccini's native Lucca on 5 September 1891. In 1892, further revisions reduced the length of the opera from four acts to three, in a version, well received in Ferrara and was performed in Turin and in Spain. Puccini made further revisions in 1901 and 1905. Without the personal support of Ricordi, Edgar might have cost Puccini his career. Puccini had eloped with his former piano student, the married Elvira Gemignani, Ricordi's associates were willing to turn a blind eye to his life style as long as he was successful; when Edg
University of Vienna
The University of Vienna is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. It is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna has developed into one of the largest universities in Europe, one of the most renowned in the Humanities, it is associated with 20 Nobel prize winners and has been the academic home to a large number of scholars of historical as well as of academic importance. The University was founded on 12 March 1365 by Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria, his two brothers, Dukes Albert III and Leopold III, hence the additional name "Alma Mater Rudolphina". After the Charles University in Prague and Jagiellonian University in Kraków, the University of Vienna is the third oldest university in Central Europe and the oldest university in the contemporary German-speaking world; the University of Vienna was modelled after the University of Paris. However, Pope Urban V did not ratify the deed of foundation, sanctioned by Rudolf IV in relation to the department of theology.
This was due to pressure exerted by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, who wished to avoid competition for the Charles University in Prague. Approval was received from the Pope in 1384 and the University of Vienna was granted the status of a full university, including the Faculty of Catholic Theology; the first university building opened in 1385. It grew into the biggest university of the Holy Roman Empire, during the advent of Humanism in the mid-15th century was home to more than 6,000 students. In its early years, the university had a hierarchical cooperative structure, in which the Rector was at the top, while the students had little say and were settled at the bottom; the Magister and Doctors constituted the four faculties and elected the academic officials from amidst their ranks. The students, but all other Supposita, were divided into four Academic Nations, their elected board members graduates themselves, had the right to elect the Rector. He presided over the Consistory which included procurators of each of the nations and the faculty deans, as well as over the University Assembly, in which all university teachers participated.
Complaints or appeals against decisions of faculty by the students had to be brought forward by a Magister or Doctor. Being considered a Papal Institution, the university suffered quite a setback during the Reformation. In addition, the first Siege of Vienna by Ottoman forces had devastating effects on the city, leading to a sharp decline, with only 30 students enrolled at the lowest point. For King Ferdinand I, this meant that the university should be tied to the church to an stronger degree, in 1551 he installed the Jesuit Order there. With the enacting of the Sanctio Pragmatica edict by emperor Ferdinand II in 1623, the Jesuits took over teaching at the theological and philosophical faculty, thus the university became a stronghold of Catholicism for over 150 years, it was only in the Mid-18th century that Empress Maria Theresa forced the university back under control of the monarchy. Her successor Joseph II helped in the further reform of the university, allowing both Protestants and Jews to enroll as well as introducing German as the compulsory language of instruction.
Big changes were instituted in the wake of the Revolution in 1848, with the Philosophical Faculty being upgraded into equal status as Theology and Medicine. Led by the reforms of Leopold, Count von Thun und Hohenstein, the university was able to achieve a larger degree of academic freedom; the current main building on the Ringstraße was built between 1884 by Heinrich von Ferstel. The previous main building was located close to the Stuben Gate on Iganz Seipel Square, current home of the old University Church and the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Women were admitted as full students from 1897; the remaining departments followed suit, although with considerable delay: Medicine in 1900, Law in 1919, Protestant Theology in 1923 and Roman Catholic Theology in 1946. Ten years after the admission of the first female students, Elise Richter became the first woman to receive habilitation, becoming professor of Romance Languages in 1907. In the late 1920s, the university was in steady turmoil because of anti-democratic and anti-Semitic activity by parts of the student body.
Professor Moritz Schlick was killed by a former student while ascending the steps of the University for a class. His murderer was released by the Nazi Regime. Following the Anschluss, the annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi regime, in 1938 the University of Vienna was reformed under political aspects and a huge number of teachers and students were dismissed for political and "racial" reasons. In April 1945, the 22-year-old Kurt Schubert acknowledged doyen of Judaic Studies at the University of Vienna, was permitted by the Soviet occupation forces to open the university again for teaching, why he is regarded as the unofficial first rector in the post-war period. On 25 April 1945, the constitutional lawyer Ludwig Adamovich senior was elected as official rector of the University of Vienna. A large degree of participation by students and university staff was realized in 1975, however the University Reforms of 1993 and 2002 re-established the professors as the main decision makers.
However as part of the last refo
Solomiya Amvrosiivna Krushelnytska was a Ukrainian soprano, considered to be one of the brightest opera stars of the first half of the 20th century. Solomiya Krushelnytska was born in 1872, in the village of Bielawińce, Austria-Hungary. After several years of moving from village to village, in 1878 her father, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest Ambrosiy Vasilyovych Krushelnytsky, settled with his large family in the village of Bila on the outskirts of the regional metropolis of Ternopil. In addition to Solomiya, the noble-born family included her mother Teodora Maria, sisters Olha/Olga, Hanna/Anna and Maria, brothers Antin and Volodymyr. In her memoirs, Solomiya's niece Daria/Odarka Bandriwska writes that as a child, the future diva came to learn a fair number of Ukrainian folk songs from the residents of the various villages in which her family had lived; as a teenager, Solomiya went on to secondary education courses in the booming town of Ternopil, connected by rail line with the provincial seat of Lviv to the West.
In Ternopil, she befriended fellow musicians such as future composer Denys Sichynsky, whom she would follow to the Lviv Conservatory in her study of music. Her first public performances took place in Ternopil, beginning in 1883, where she would meet for the first time with intellectuals such as civic leader and composer Ostap Nyzhankivsky, writer, political activist, lifelong friend Ivan Franko. In 1891, she entered the Lviv Conservatory, where she would study under the tutelage of Valery Wysocki. Before graduating, she debuted professionally on April 15, 1893 in the role of Leonora in a production of Donizetti's La favorita at the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. Following her debut, Solomiya went on to place "Silver" at her graduating concours. Solomiya Krushelnytska followed her 1893 professional debut with additional performances at the Lviv Opera. On the advice of Gemma Bellincioni, who witnessed Solomiya's talents in Lviv that summer, the young Krushelnytksa would travel to Italy in the fall of 1893 to pursue further vocal studies.
After her father took out a loan for her travels, Solomiya arrived in Milan where she would study under Fausta Crespi, while living with Bellincioni's mother. It was under Crespi's tutelage that Solomiya transitioned from her previous training as a mezzo-soprano to a lyric-dramatic soprano. For the following 3 years, she would divide her time between Milan and Lviv, returning for engagements with the Lviv Opera in order to pay for her ongoing studies in Italy. Solomiya would go on to perform in Odessa, Warsaw, St Petersburg, the Paris Grand Opera, Naples and Alexandria, Rome. In 1904, she famously became a savior of Puccini's Madama Butterfly; the opera had been booed by the audience at its premiere in Milan's La Scala, but three months in Brescia, a revised version of the work, with Krushelnytska singing the leading role, was a major success. Her schedule, during her studies in Milan, included vocal lessons, acting lessons, learning new parts, learning new languages – for six hours every day.
Her "leisure time" included visits to museums and historic sites, attendance at operatic and theatrical performances. She maintained active correspondence with friends and acquaintances, covering such issues as the fate of her native Ukraine, problems of culture read books. In addition, Krushelnytska appeared in performances of the music and drama school L'Armonia. On tours, she sang in five productions during a single week, she could learn a part in a new opera in two days, develop the character of a role in another three or four. Her repertoire totaled 63 parts. In the history of music, Krushelnytska is known as an active promoter of the works of her contemporaries, of Richard Wagner. In 1902 she starred in a successful production of Lohengrin in Paris. In 1906 she appeared to acclaim at Milan's La Scala in Richard Strauss's Salome, conducted by Arturo Toscanini, she performed in other theatres across Europe, Algeria, Brazil and others. In 1910, Krushelnytska married Italian attorney and the mayor of Viareggio, Alfredo Cesare Augusto Riccioni.
In 1920, at the height of her career, she left the opera world, three years started concert tours, performing in Western Europe and the USA. Her knowledge of eight languages allowed her to include in her concert programs songs of many nations, she works by Ukrainian composers. Prior to the death of her mother Teodora in 1907, Solomiya's family convinced her to purchase a residence in Lviv, to use whenever she returned from touring, to provide a comfortable living space for the rest of the family for her mother towards the end of her life. In 1903, Solomiya purchased a building located on what is now Krushelnytska Street, uphill from the campus of Lviv University. Built and designed by Jakub Kroch in 1884, the large building had several floors of living space occupied by members of Krushelnytska's immediate family. Solomiya's brother-in-law Karl Bandriwsky was asked to oversee the management of the building once apartments began be rented out following the departure of her siblings after marriage.
With a facade featuring heavy rustication decorated with ornamental statuary of lyrical muses by Leonard Marconi, the building became known as Lviv's Stonehouse of Music, a haven for intellectuals, visiting artists and impresari
John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father. He is known for his preaching and public speaking, his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Divine Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, his ascetic sensibilities; the epithet Χρυσόστομος denotes his celebrated eloquence. Chrysostom was among the most prolific authors in the early Christian Church, exceeded only by Augustine of Hippo in the quantity of his surviving writings, he is honored as a saint in the Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches, as well as in some others. The Eastern Orthodox, together with the Byzantine Catholics, hold him in special regard as one of the Three Holy Hierarchs; the feast days of John Chrysostom in the Eastern Orthodox Church are 27 January. In the Roman Catholic Church he is recognized as a Doctor of the Church and commemorated on 13 September in the current General Roman Calendar and on 27 January in the older calendar.
Other churches of the Western tradition, including some Anglican provinces and some Lutheran churches commemorate him on 13 September. However, certain Lutheran churches and Anglican provinces commemorate him on the traditional feast day of 27 January; the Coptic Church recognizes him as a saint. John was born in Antioch in 349 to Greek parents from Syria. Different scholars describe his mother Anthusa as a pagan or as a Christian, his father was a high-ranking military officer. John's father died soon after his birth and he was raised by his mother, he was tonsured as a reader. It is sometimes said that he was bitten by a snake when he was ten years old, leading to him getting an infection from the bite; as a result of his mother's influential connections in the city, John began his education under the pagan teacher Libanius. From Libanius, John acquired the skills for a career in rhetoric, as well as a love of the Greek language and literature; as he grew older, John became more committed to Christianity and went on to study theology under Diodore of Tarsus, founder of the re-constituted School of Antioch.
According to the Christian historian Sozomen, Libanius was supposed to have said on his deathbed that John would have been his successor "if the Christians had not taken him from us". John lived in extreme asceticism and became a hermit in about 375; as a consequence of these practices, his stomach and kidneys were permanently damaged and poor health forced him to return to Antioch. John was ordained as a deacon in 381 by Saint Meletius of Antioch, not in communion with Alexandria and Rome. After the death of Meletius, John separated himself from the followers of Meletius, without joining Paulinus, the rival of Meletius for the bishopric of Antioch, but after the death of Paulinus he was ordained a presbyter in 386 by Evagrius, the successor of Paulinus. He was destined to bring about reconciliation between Flavian I of Antioch and Rome, thus bringing those three sees into communion for the first time in nearly seventy years. In Antioch, over the course of twelve years, John gained popularity because of the eloquence of his public speaking at the Golden Church, Antioch's cathedral his insightful expositions of Bible passages and moral teaching.
The most valuable of his works from this period are his Homilies on various books of the Bible. He was concerned with the spiritual and temporal needs of the poor, he spoke against abuse of wealth and personal property:Do you wish to honour the body of Christ? Do not ignore him when he is naked. Do not pay him homage in the temple clad in silk, only to neglect him outside where he is cold and ill-clad, he who said: "This is my body" is the same who said: "You saw me hungry and you gave me no food", "Whatever you did to the least of my brothers you did to me"... What good is it if the Eucharistic table is overloaded with golden chalices when your brother is dying of hunger? Start by satisfying his hunger and with what is left you may adorn the altar as well, his straightforward understanding of the Scriptures – in contrast to the Alexandrian tendency towards allegorical interpretation – meant that the themes of his talks were practical, explaining the Bible's application to everyday life. Such straightforward preaching helped Chrysostom to garner popular support.
He founded a series of hospitals in Constantinople to care for the poor. One incident that happened during his service in Antioch illustrates the influence of his homilies; when Chrysostom arrived in Antioch, the bishop of the city, had to intervene with Emperor Theodosius I on behalf of citizens who had gone on a rampage mutilating statues of the Emperor and his family. During the weeks of Lent in 387, John preached more than twenty homilies in which he entreated the people to see the error of their ways; these made a lasting impression on the general population of the city: many pagans converted to Christianity as a result of the homilies. As a result, Theodosius' vengeance was not as severe. In the autumn of 397, John was appointed Archbishop of Constantinople, after having been nominated without his knowledge by the eunuch Eutropius, he had to leave Antioch in secret due to fears that the departure of such a popular figure would cause civil unrest. During his time as Archbishop he
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna
The University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna is an Austrian university located in Vienna, established in 1817. Today, with a student body of over three thousand, it is the largest institution of its kind in Austria, one of the largest in the world. In 1817, it was established by the Society for the Friends of Music, it has had several names: Vienna Conservatory, Vienna Academy and in 1909 it was nationalized as the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts. In 1998, the university assumed its current name to reflect its university status, attained in a wide 1970 reform for Austrian Arts Academies. With a student body of more than 3000, the Universität für Musik und Darstellende Kunst Wien is one of the largest arts universities in the world; the university consists of 24 departments including the Max Reinhardt Seminar, Vienna Film Academy and the Wiener Klangstil. MDW facilities include the Schönbrunn Palace Theater, Antonio Vivaldi Room, Salesian Convent, St. Ursula Church, Lothringerstrasse and the Anton Von Webern Platz.
Modern film studios were completed on the university campus in 2004, offering the Vienna Film Academy modern equipment. The University organizes around 10 competitions, including the International Beethoven Piano Competition, it presents an acclaimed students’ film festival every two years. The MDW may be considered a "feeder" institution to all major orchestras in Austria, with a particular association with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Calls for a music conservatory in Vienna started in 1808. In 1811 an "outline for a music education institution" for Vienna was published. A year the Society for the Friends of Music was formed, with the foremost aim of establishing a conservatory; the Vienna Conservatory was founded in 1817. It was meant to be modeled on the Paris Conservatory, due to a lack of funds, it began as a singing school. Antonio Salieri was the Conservatory's first director. In 1819, it hired violinist Joseph Böhm, by 1827 offered courses in most orchestral instruments; the conservatory's finances were unstable.
Tuition fees were introduced in 1829. The state funded the conservatory from 1841 to 1844 and from 1846 to 1848. In 1848 political unrest caused the state to discontinue funding, the Conservatory did not offer courses again until 1851. With support from the state and the city, finances again stabilized after 1851. Despite growing state subsidy, The Society for the Friends of Music, which founded the Conservatory, remained in control of the institution. However, by a January 1, 1909 imperial resolution the school was nationalized and became the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts; until 1844, when Gottfried Preyer, professor of harmony and composition became director, the director of the conservatory was not a member of faculty, but a member of the Society for the Friends of Music. Joseph Hellmesberger, Sr. was director from 1851 to 1893. From 1907 Wilhelm Bopp had been the director of Conservatory; the Conservatory was still dominated by the aging Robert Fuchs and Hermann Grädener, both of whom, but Fuchs, Bopp considered to be anachronistic and out of touch.
In 1912, attempting to rejuvenate the conservatory Bopp offered teaching positions to Franz Schreker and Arnold Schoenberg. Schoenberg declined the offer, his teaching duties were carried through with great success and by January 1913 he was awarded a full professorship. Bopp was instrumental in the 1909 nationalization of the Conservatory; the administration of the Academy was now assigned to a state-appointed president, an artistic director and a board of trustees. After the end of World War I, the State Academy was again reorganized. President Karl Ritter von Wiener resigned and conductor Ferdinand Löwe was elected director by the teachers. In 1922, Joseph Marx took over, he wanted the Academy to be granted University status. After the Anschluss, many teachers and students were dismissed on racial grounds. In 1941, the Academy became a Reich University. After World War II, the institution became a State Academy again. In the process of Denazification, fifty-nine teachers were dismissed. Only five of the teachers dismissed in 1938 were reinstated.
By laws introduced in 1948 and 1949 the institution was granted the status of "Art Academy." In 1970, the "Law on the Organization of Art Colleges" gave all Art Academies University status, in 1998 the title of "Art Academy" was changed to "Art University." Institut für Komposition, Elektroakustik und TonmeisterInnen-Ausbildung aka ELAK is part of MDW and focuses on electroacoustic music, composing of contemporary music, sound art. Department of Composition and Electroacoustics Department of Conducting Department of Music Analysis and History Department of Keyboard Instruments Department of String Instruments Leonard Bernstein Department of Wind and Percussion Instruments Joseph Haydn Department for Chamber Music and Special Ensembles Department of Organ, Organ Research and Church Music Department of Voice and Music Theatre Max Reinhardt Seminar Department of Drama Film Academy Vienna Department of Film and Television Department of Music Education Department of Music and Movement Education Department of Music Therapy Department of Stylistic Research in Music Department of Popular Music Ludwig van Beethoven Department of Keyboards in Music Education He
The Holodomor was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians. It is known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, sometimes referred to as the Great Famine or The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33, it was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country. During the Holodomor, millions of inhabitants of Ukraine, the majority of whom were ethnic Ukrainians, died of starvation in a peacetime catastrophe unprecedented in the history of Ukraine. Since 2006, the Holodomor has been recognized by Ukraine and 15 other countries as a genocide of the Ukrainian people carried out by the Soviet government. Early estimates of the death toll by scholars and government officials varied greatly. According to higher estimates, up to 12 million ethnic Ukrainians were said to have perished as a result of the famine. A U. N. joint statement signed by 25 countries in 2003 declared that 7–10 million perished.
Research has since narrowed the estimates to between 7.5 million. According to the findings of the Court of Appeal of Kiev in 2010, the demographic losses due to the famine amounted to 10 million, with 3.9 million direct famine deaths, a further 6.1 million birth deficits. Some scholars believe that the famine was planned by Joseph Stalin to eliminate a Ukrainian independence movement. Using Holodomor in reference to the famine emphasises its man-made aspects, arguing that actions such as rejection of outside aid, confiscation of all household foodstuffs, restriction of population movement confer intent, defining the famine as genocide; the causes are still a subject of academic debate, some historians dispute its characterization as a genocide. The word Holodomor translated from Ukrainian means "death by hunger", or "killing by hunger, killing by starvation". Sometimes the expression is translated into English as "murder by hunger or starvation". Holodomor is a compound of the Ukrainian words holod meaning "hunger" and mor meaning "plague".
The expression moryty holodom means "to inflict death by hunger". The Ukrainian verb moryty means "to poison somebody, drive to exhaustion or to torment somebody"; the perfective form of the verb moryty is zamoryty – "kill or drive to death by hunger, exhausting work". The word was used in print in the 1930s in Ukrainian diaspora publications in Czechoslovakia, by 1978 by Ukrainian immigrant organisations in the United States and Canada. However, in the Soviet Union – of which Ukraine was a constituent republic – references to the famine were controlled after de-Stalinization in 1956. Historians could speak only of'food difficulties', the use of the word golod/holod was forbidden. Discussion of the Holodomor became more open as part of Glasnost in the late 1980s. In Ukraine, the first official use of the word was a December 1987 speech by Volodymyr Shcherbytskyi, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, on the occasion of the republic's seventieth anniversary.
An early public usage in the Soviet Union was in February 1988, in a speech by Oleksiy Musiyenko, Deputy Secretary for ideological matters of the party organisation of the Kiev branch of the Union of Soviet Writers in Ukraine. The term may have first appeared in print in the Soviet Union on 18 July 1988, in his article on the topic. "Holodomor" is now an entry in the modern, two-volume dictionary of the Ukrainian language, published in 2004. The term is described as "artificial hunger, organised on a vast scale by a criminal regime against a country's population." The famine affected the Ukrainian SSR as well as the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the spring of 1932 and from February to July 1933, with the greatest number of victims recorded in the spring of 1933. Between 1926 and 1939, the Ukrainian population increased by 6.6%, whereas Russia and Belarus grew by 16.9% and 11.7%, respectively. From the 1932 harvest, Soviet authorities were able to procure only 4.3 million tons as compared with 7.2 million tons obtained from the 1931 harvest.
Rations in town were drastically cut back, in the winter of 1932–33 and spring of 1933 people in many urban areas were starved. The urban workers were supplied by a rationing system, but rations were cut. At the same time, workers were shown agitprop movies, where all peasants were portrayed as counterrevolutionaries hiding grain and potatoes at a time when workers, who were constructing the "bright future" of socialism, were starving; the first reports of mass malnutrition and deaths from starvation emerged from two urban areas of the city of Uman, reported in January 1933 by Vinnytsia and Kiev oblasts. By mid-January 1933, there were reports about mass "difficulties" with food in urban areas, undersupplied through the rationing system, deaths from starvation among people who were withdrawn from the rationing supply; the withdrawal was to comply with the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine Decree of December 1932. By the beginning of February 1933, according to reports from local authorities and Ukrainian GPU, the most affected area was Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, which suffered from epidemics of typhus and malaria.
Odessa and Kiev oblasts were third, respectively. By mid-March, most of the reports of starvation originated from Kiev Oblast. By mid-April 1933, Kharkiv Oblast reached the top of the most affected list, while Kiev, Dn