The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age. It is known in English as the Arabian Nights, from the first English-language edition, which rendered the title as The Arabian Nights' Entertainment; the work was collected over many centuries by various authors and scholars across West and South Asia and North Africa. Some tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Indian, Greek and Turkish folklore and literature. In particular, many tales were folk stories from the Abbasid and Mamluk eras, while others the frame story, are most drawn from the Pahlavi Persian work Hezār Afsān, which in turn relied on Indian elements. What is common throughout all the editions of the Nights is the initial frame story of the ruler Shahryār and his wife Scheherazade and the framing device incorporated throughout the tales themselves; the stories proceed from this original tale. Some editions contain only a few hundred nights.
The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion. Most of the poems are single quatrains, although some are longer; some of the stories associated with The Nights, in particular "Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp", "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves", "The Seven Voyages of Sinbad the Sailor", were not part of The Nights in its original Arabic versions but were added to the collection by Antoine Galland and other European translators. The main frame story concerns Shahryār, whom the narrator calls a "Sasanian king" ruling in "India and China". Shahryār is shocked to learn. In his bitterness and grief, he decides. Shahryār begins to marry a succession of virgins only to execute each one the next morning, before she has a chance to dishonor him; the vizier, whose duty it is to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. Scheherazade, the vizier's daughter, offers herself as the next bride and her father reluctantly agrees. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade does not end it.
The king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion. The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins another one, the king, eager to hear the conclusion of that tale as well, postpones her execution once again; this goes on for one one nights, hence the name. The tales vary widely: they include historical tales, love stories, comedies, poems and various forms of erotica. Numerous stories depict jinns, apes, sorcerers and legendary places, which are intermingled with real people and geography, not always rationally. Common protagonists include the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, his Grand Vizier, Jafar al-Barmaki, the famous poet Abu Nuwas, despite the fact that these figures lived some 200 years after the fall of the Sassanid Empire, in which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set. Sometimes a character in Scheherazade's tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own, that story may have another one told within it, resulting in a richly layered narrative texture.
The different versions have different individually detailed endings but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life. The narrator's standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature. While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble, in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophy, in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen—and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king's curiosity about the sequel would buy her another day of life; the history of the Nights is complex and modern scholars have made many attempts to untangle the story of how the collection as it exists came about. Robert Irwin summarises their findings: In the 1880s and 1890s a lot of work was done on the Nights by Zotenberg and others, in the course of which a consensus view of the history of the text emerged.
Most scholars agreed that the Nights was a composite work and that the earliest tales in it came from India and Persia. At some time in the early 8th century, these tales were translated into Arabic under the title Alf Layla, or'The Thousand Nights'; this collection formed the basis of The Thousand and One Nights. The original core of stories was quite small. In Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, this original core had Arab stories added to it—among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. From the 10th century onwards independent sagas and story cycles were added to the compilation Then, from the 13th century onwards, a further layer of stories was add
A syringe is a simple reciprocating pump consisting of a plunger that fits within a cylindrical tube called a barrel. The plunger can be linearly pulled and pushed along the inside of the tube, allowing the syringe to take in and expel liquid or gas through a discharge orifice at the front end of the tube; the open end of the syringe may be fitted with a hypodermic needle, a nozzle or a tubing to help direct the flow into and out of the barrel. Syringes are used in clinical medicine to administer injections, infuse intravenous therapy into the bloodstream, apply compounds such as glue or lubricant, draw/measure liquids; the word "syringe" is derived from the Greek σύριγξ. Sectors in the syringe and needle market include disposable and safety syringes, injection pens, needleless injectors, insulin pumps, specialty needles. Hypodermic syringes are used with hypodermic needles to inject liquid or gases into body tissues, or to remove from the body. Injecting of air into a blood vessel is hazardous.
The barrel of a syringe is made of plastic or glass has graduated marks indicating the volume of fluid in the syringe, is nearly always transparent. Glass syringes may be sterilized in an autoclave. However, most modern medical syringes are plastic with a rubber piston, because this type seals much better between the piston and the barrel and because they are cheap enough to dispose of after being used only once, reducing the risk of spreading blood-borne diseases. Reuse of needles and syringes has caused spread of diseases HIV and hepatitis, among intravenous drug users. Syringes are commonly reused by diabetics, as they can go through several in a day with multiple daily insulin injections, which becomes an affordability issue for many. Though the syringe and needle are only used by a single person, this practice is still unsafe as it can introduce bacteria from the skin into the bloodstream and cause serious and sometimes lethal infections. In medical settings, single-use needles and syringes reduce the risk of cross-contamination.
Medical syringes are sometimes used without a needle for orally administering liquid medicines to young children or animals, or milk to small young animals, because the dose can be measured and it is easier to squirt the medicine into the subject's mouth instead of coaxing the subject to drink out of a measuring spoon. Syringes come with a number of designs for the area; the most well known of these is the Luer lock, which twists the two together. Bodies featuring a small, plain connection are known as slip tips and are useful for when the syringe is being connected to something not featuring a screw lock mechanism. Similar to this is the catheter tip, a slip tip but longer and tapered, making it good for pushing into things where there the plastic taper can form a tight seal; these can be used for rinsing out wounds or large abscesses in veterinary use. There is an eccentric tip, where the nozzle at the end of the syringe is not in the centre of the syringe but at the side; this causes the blade attached to the syringe to lie in line with the walls of the syringe itself and they are used when the blade needs to get close to parallel with the skin.
Syringes for insulin users are designed for standard U-100 insulin. The dilution of insulin is such. Since insulin vials are 10 mL, each vial has 1000 units. Insulin syringes are made for self injections and have friendly features: shorter needles, as insulin injections are subcutaneous rather than intramuscular, finer gauge needles, for less pain, markings in insulin units to simplify drawing a measured dose of insulin. Low dead space to reduce complications caused by improper drawing order of different insulin strengths. There are needle syringes designed to reload from a built-in tank after each injection, so they can make several or many injections on a filling; these are not used much in human medicine because of the risk of cross-infection via the needle. An exception is the personal insulin autoinjector used by diabetic patients. Venom extraction syringes are different from standard syringes, because they do not puncture the wound; the most common types have a plastic nozzle, placed over the affected area, the syringe piston is pulled back, creating a vacuum that sucks out the venom.
Attempts to treat snakebites in this way are advised against, as they are ineffective and can cause additional injury. Syringes of this type are sometimes used for extracting human botfly larvae from the skin. An oral syringe is a measuring instrument used to measure doses of liquid medicine which are expressed in millilitres, they do not have threaded tips, because other device needs to be screwed onto them. The contents are squirted or sucked from the syringe directly into the mouth of the person or animal. Oral syringes are available in various sizes, from 1 -- larger; the sizes most used are 1 mL, 2.5 mL and 5 mL. A dental syringe is a used by dentists for the injection of an anesthetic, it consists of a breech-loading syringe fitted with a sealed cartridge containing anesthetic solution. The ancillary to
The Usual Suspects
The Usual Suspects is a 1995 neo-noir mystery film directed and co-produced by Bryan Singer and written by Christopher McQuarrie. It stars Stephen Baldwin, Gabriel Byrne, Benicio del Toro, Kevin Pollak, Chazz Palminteri, Pete Postlethwaite, Kevin Spacey; the plot follows the interrogation of Roger "Verbal" Kint, a small-time con man, one of only two survivors of a massacre and fire on a ship docked at the Port of Los Angeles. Through flashback and narration, Kint tells an interrogator a convoluted story of events that led him and his criminal companions to the boat, of a mysterious crime lord—known as Keyser Söze—who controlled them; the film was shot on a $6 million budget and began as a title taken from a column in Spy magazine called The Usual Suspects, after one of Claude Rains' most memorable lines in the classic film Casablanca, Singer thought that it would make a good title for a film. The film was shown out of competition at the 1995 Cannes Film Festival, initially released in a few theaters.
It received favorable reviews and was given a wider release. McQuarrie won an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay and Spacey won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance; the Writers Guild of America ranked the film as having the 35th greatest screenplay of all time. A criminal, Dean Keaton, is lying badly wounded on a ship docked in San Pedro Bay, he is confronted by a mysterious figure whom he calls "Keyser", who shoots him dead and sets fire to the ship. The next day, the police recover twenty-seven bodies and only two survivors: Arkosh Kovash, a Hungarian mobster hospitalized with severe burns, Roger "Verbal" Kint, a con artist with cerebral palsy. U. S. Customs agent Dave Kujan flies from New York City to interrogate Verbal; the events that led Keaton, Michael McManus, Fred Fenster, Todd Hockney, Verbal onto the ship are described by Verbal via flashback. Six weeks earlier in New York and the other four criminals were arrested as suspects in a truck-hijacking, only to be released thanks to Edie Finneran, Keaton's lawyer and girlfriend.
They decided to pull a heist to get revenge on the NYPD. Led by Keaton, they robbed a jewel smuggler being escorted by corrupt cops, netting millions in emeralds and getting over fifty cops arrested, they went to California to fence the jewels through a man named Redfoot, who connects them with another jewel heist. The heist goes badly, the men learn that the job was arranged by a lawyer named Kobayashi, they meet Kobayashi, who says he arranged for their arrests in New York and that his employer, Keyser Söze—a mysterious Turkish crime lord whom each of the men have unwittingly stolen from—has ordered them to raid a ship manned by Argentinian drug dealers and destroy $91 million worth of cocaine being sold on board. Their reward will be the cash brought for the exchange, being freed from Söze's influence. During Kovash's interrogation, it is learned that there was no cocaine on the ship and that Söze was seen on board. Verbal tells Kujan a legend about Söze: that he had murdered his own family when they were being held hostage by Hungarian mobsters, massacred the mobsters and their families before disappearing, doing business only through underlings who did not know who they were working for.
Söze thus became a fearsome urban myth, "a spook story that criminals tell their kids at night". Concluding his story, Verbal reveals; the men attack the ship during the night, killing several Argentinian and Hungarian gangsters before discovering there is no cocaine. Hockney, a prisoner in one of the cabins, McManus, Keaton are killed by an unseen assailant, who sets fire to the ship as Verbal looks on from a hiding place on the dock. Kujan deduces that Keaton must be Söze, as the prisoner killed on the ship was Arturo Marquez, a smuggler who escaped prosecution by claiming he could identify Söze. Marquez was being represented by Edie Finneran, murdered. Kujan claims. Verbal confesses that Keaton had been behind everything, but refuses to testify in court. Verbal's bail is posted and he is released. Moments Kujan realizes that Verbal had been lying, piecing together details for his story from items posted on a crowded bulletin board in the office, the "Kobayashi" brand on the bottom of the coffee mug Kujan was drinking from.
Meanwhile, Verbal walks outside losing his limp and flexing his disabled hand. As Kujan pursues Verbal, a fax arrives from the hospital where Kovash has provided a facial composite of Söze, which looks like Verbal. Kujan misses Verbal by moments as the latter disappears into a car driven by "Kobayashi". Kevin Spacey as Roger "Verbal" Kint:Singer and McQuarrie sent the screenplay for the film to Spacey without telling him which role was written for him. Spacey called Singer and told them that he was interested in the roles of Keaton and Kujan but was intrigued by Kint who, as it turned out, was the role McQuarrie wrote with Spacey in mind. Stephen Baldwin as Michael McManus:Baldwin was tired of doing independent films where his expectations were not met. After Baldwin was finished, Singer told him what he expected and wanted, which impressed Baldwin. Gabriel Byrne as Dean Keaton: Kevin Spacey asked him to do the film, he read the screenplay and turned it down, thinking that the filmmake
Keyser Söze is a fictional character and the main antagonist in the 1995 film The Usual Suspects, written by Christopher McQuarrie and directed by Bryan Singer. According to petty con artist Roger "Verbal" Kint, Söze is a crime lord whose ruthlessness and influence have acquired a legendary mythical, status among police and criminals alike. Further events in the story make these accounts unreliable, and, in a twist ending, a police sketch identifies Kint and Söze as one and the same; the character was inspired by real life murderer John List and the spy thriller No Way Out, which featured a shadowy KGB mole. The character has placed in numerous "best villain" lists over the years, including AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains. Spacey won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, turning him from a character actor into a star. Since the release of the film, the character has become synonymous with infamous criminals. Analysis of the character has focused on the ambiguity of his true identity and whether he exists inside the story's reality.
Though the filmmakers have preferred to leave the character's nature to viewer interpretation, Singer has said he believes Kint and Söze are the same person. Director Bryan Singer and writer Christopher McQuarrie conceived of The Usual Suspects as five felons meeting in a police line-up. A powerful underworld figure responsible for their meeting was added to the plot. McQuarrie combined this plot with another idea of his based on the true story of John List, who murdered his family and started a new life; the name was based on one of McQuarrie's supervisors, though the last name was changed.'KS' are the initials of Kevin Spacey, who played the character. McQuarrie settled on Söze after finding it in a Turkish-language dictionary. Keyser Söze's semi-mythical nature was inspired by Yuri, a rumored KGB mole whose existence nobody can confirm, from the spy thriller No Way Out. Kint was not written to be as intelligent. Spacey and Singer had met at a screening for Public Access. Spacey requested a role in Singer's next film, McQuarrie wrote the role of Kint for him.
McQuarrie said he wanted audiences to dismiss Kint as a minor character, as Spacey was not yet well-known. Spacey made it more obvious that the character is holding back information, though the depth of his involvement and nature of his secrets remain unrevealed. McQuarrie said that he approved of the changes, as it makes the character "more fascinating"; the Usual Suspects consists of flashbacks narrated by Roger "Verbal" Kint, a con artist with cerebral palsy. Verbal has been granted immunity from prosecution provided he assists investigators, including Customs Agent David Kujan and reveals all details of his involvement with a group of career criminals who are assumed to be responsible for the destruction of a freighter ship and the murder of nearly everyone on board. While Kint is telling his story, Kujan learns the name Keyser Söze from FBI agent Jack Baer and demands Kint tell him what he knows. According to Kint, Söze began his criminal career as a petty drug dealer in his native Turkey.
His legendary persona is born when rival Hungarian gangsters invade his house while he is away, rape his wife, hold his children hostage. When Söze arrives, the gangsters demand he surrender his business. Instead, Söze kills his own family and all but one of the Hungarians, who he knows will tell his cohorts what has happened. Once his family is buried, Söze massacres the Hungarian Mafia, killing them, their families, their friends, people who owe them money, he goes underground, never again doing business in person, operating instead through underlings who don't know who they are working for. Söze's ruthlessness is legendary. Over the years, his criminal empire flourishes. Kint describes how he and his cohorts are blackmailed by Söze, through Söze's lawyer Kobayashi, into destroying a large drug shipment belonging to Söze's Argentinian rivals. All but Kint and a Hungarian are killed in the attack. Baer believes there were no drugs and the true purpose of the attack was to eliminate a passenger who could identify Söze.
Kujan confronts Kint with the theory that Söze is one of the four other criminals with whom Verbal had worked: a corrupt former police officer and professional thief named Dean Keaton. Kujan's investigation of Keaton is. In the final sequence, it is revealed that the story that Kint had told Kujan is a fabrication, made up of strung-together details culled from a crowded bulletin board in a messy office; the surviving Hungarian, Arkash Kovash, describes Söze to a sketch artist: the drawing faxed in to the police resembles none other than Verbal Kint. Kujan realizes the truth and pursues Kint, released, his limp gone. Kujan misses Kint by moments as the latter gets into a car, driven by "Kobayashi". A. O. Scott of The New York Times called Keyser Söze the "perfect postmodern sociopath", Quentin Curtis of The Independent described him as "the most compelling creation in recent American film". Jason Bailey of The Atlantic id
An ocean liner is a passenger ship used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans. Liners may carry cargo or mail, may sometimes be used for other purposes. Cargo vessels running to a schedule are sometimes called liners; the category does not include ferries or other vessels engaged in short-sea trading, nor dedicated cruise ships where the voyage itself, not transportation, is the prime purpose of the trip. Nor does it include tramp steamers those equipped to handle limited numbers of passengers; some shipping companies refer to themselves as "lines" and their container ships, which operate over set routes according to established schedules, as "liners". Ocean liners are strongly built with a high freeboard to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean. Additionally, they are designed with thicker hull plating than is found on cruise ships, have large capacities for fuel and other consumables on long voyages; the first ocean liners were built in the mid-19th century.
Technological innovations such as the steam engine and steel hull allowed larger and faster liners to be built, giving rise to a competition between world powers of the time between the United Kingdom and Germany. Once the dominant form of travel between continents, ocean liners were rendered obsolete by the emergence of long-distance aircraft after World War II. Advances in automobile and railway technology played a role. By 2015, the only ship still in service as an ocean liner is the RMS Queen Mary 2 after RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 was retired in 2008. Of the many ships constructed over the decades, only nine ocean liners made. Ocean liners were the primary mode of intercontinental travel for over a century, from the mid-19th century until they began to be supplanted by airliners in the 1950s. In addition to passengers, liners carried cargo. Ships contracted to carry British Royal Mail used the designation RMS. Liners were the preferred way to move gold and other high-value cargoes; the busiest route for liners was on the North Atlantic with ships travelling between Europe and North America.
It was on this route that the fastest and most advanced liners travelled. But while in contemporary popular imagination the term "ocean liners" evokes these transatlantic superliners, most ocean liners were mid-sized vessels which served as the common carriers of passengers and freight between nations and among mother countries and their colonies and dependencies in the pre-jet age; such routes included Europe to African and Asian colonies, Europe to South America, migrant traffic from Europe to North America in the 19th and first two decades of the 20th centuries, to Canada and Australia after the Second World War. Shipping lines are companies engaged in shipping passengers and cargo on established routes and schedules. Regular scheduled voyages on a set route are called "line voyages" and vessels trading on these routes to a timetable are called liners; the alternative to liner trade is "tramping" whereby vessels are notified on an ad-hoc basis as to the availability of a cargo to be transported.
The term "ocean liner" has come to be used interchangeably with "passenger liner", although it can refer to a cargo liner or cargo-passenger liner. Beginning at the advent of the Jet Age, where transoceanic ship service declined, a gradual transition from passenger ships as mean of transportation to nowadays cruise ships started. In order for ocean liners to remain profitable, cruise lines have modified some of them to operate on cruise routes, such as Queen Elizabeth 2 and SS France. Certain characteristics of older ocean liners made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel consumption, deep draught preventing them from entering shallow ports, cabins designed to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort; the Italian Line's SS Michelangelo and SS Raffaello, the last ocean liners to be built for crossing the North Atlantic, could not be converted economically and had short careers. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution and the inter-continental trade rendered the development of secure links between continents imperative.
Being at the top among the colonial powers, the United Kingdom needed stable maritime routes to connect different parts of its empire: the Far East, Australia, etc. The birth of the concept of international water and the lack of any claim to it simplified navigation. In 1818, the Black Ball Line, with a fleet of sailing ships, offered the first regular passenger service with emphasis on passenger comfort, from England to the United States. In 1807, Robert Fulton succeeded in applying steam engines to ships, he built the first ship, powered by this technology, the Clermont, which succeeded in traveling between New York City and Albany, New York in thirty hours before entering into regular service between the two cities. Soon after, other vessels were built using this innovation. In 1816, the Élise became the first steamship to cross the English Channel. Another important advance came in 1819. SS Savannah became the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean, she arrived in Liverpool, England in 27 days.
Most of the distance was covered by sailing. The public enthusiasm for the new technology was not high, as none of the thirty-two people who had booked a seat on board boarded the ship for that historic voyage. Although Savannah had proven that a steamship was cap
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south; the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; the county is low-lying with few hills, is arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. By the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region; the Angles became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and Wessex. Suffolk was divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two; the eastern division was administered from the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk. A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.
On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, Ipswich were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Mid Suffolk, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, Waveney; this act transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire and Colchester from Essex. In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee; the Boundary Committee reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk into two unitary authorities – Ipswich and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk.
In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 general election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government. In 2018 it was determined that Forest Heath and St Edmundsbury would be merged to form a new West Suffolk district, while Waveney and Suffolk Coastal would form a new East Suffolk district; these changes took effect on 1 April 2019. West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath. Many bronze objects, such as swords, arrows, palstaves, daggers, armour, decorative equipment, fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds.
Other finds include traces of barrows. In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State and silver bowls, jewellery and a lyre; the majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables; the continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company has a base in Sudbury; the UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews Farms have some processing units in the county Holton. Southwold is the home of Adnams Brewery; the Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports are at Ipswich, run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main development facility at Martlesham Heath. There are several towns in the county with Ipswich being most populous. At the time