Fairytale fantasy is distinguished from other subgenres of fantasy by the works' heavy use of motifs, plots, from folklore. Literary fairy tales were not unknown in the Roman era: Apuleius included several in The Golden Ass. Giambattista Basile retold many fairy tales in the Pentamerone, an aristocratic frame story and aristocratic retellings. From there, the literary fairy tale was taken up by the French'salon' writers of 17th century Paris and other writers who took up the folktales of their time and developed them into literary forms; the Grimm brothers, despite their intentions being to restore the tales they collected transformed the Märchen they collected into Kunstmärchen. These stories are not regarded as fantasies but as literary fairy tales retrospectively, but from this start, the fairy tale remained a literary form, fairytale fantasies were an offshoot. Fairytale fantasies, like other fantasies, make use of novelistic writing conventions of prose, characterization, or setting; the precise dividing line is not well defined, but it is applied to the works of a single author: George MacDonald's Lilith and Phantastes are regarded as fantasies, while his "The Light Princess", "The Golden Key", "The Wise Woman" are called fairy tales.
This genre may include modern fairy tales, which use fairy tale motifs in original plots, such as The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and The Hobbit, as well as erotic, violent, or otherwise more adult-oriented retellings of classic fairy tales, such as the comic book series Fables. It can include fairy tales with the plot fleshed out with characterization and fuller plots, to form a child's or young adult novel. Many fairytale fantasies are revisionist reversing the moral values of the characters involved; this may be done for a thematic exploration. Writers may make the magic of the fairy tale self-consistent in a fantasy re-telling, based on technological extrapolation in a science fiction, or explain it away in a contemporary or historical work of fiction. Other forms of fantasy comic fantasy, may include fairy tale motifs as partial elements, as when Terry Pratchett's Discworld contains a witch who lives in a gingerbread house, or when Patricia Wrede's Enchanted Forest is rife with princesses and princes trying to fit in their appointed fairy tale roles.
The settings of fairytale fantasies, like the fairy tales they derive from, may owe less to world-building than to the logic of folk tales. Princes can go wandering in the woods and return with a bride without consideration for all the political effects of royal marriages. A common, motif is a world where all the fairy tales take place, the characters are aware of their role in the story even breaking the fourth wall. Other writers may develop the world as as in other subgenres, generating a work, based on setting, a high fantasy, historical fantasy, or contemporary fantasy. Authors who have worked with the genre include such various figures as Oscar Wilde, Kathryn Davis, A. S. Byatt, Italo Calvino, Donald Barthelme, Robert Coover, Margaret Atwood, Kate Bernheimer, James Thurber, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Rikki Ducornet, Robert Bly, Katie Farris and Annette Marie Hyder. List of fairytale fantasies Mythic fiction The Fairy Tale Review: a Journal of Fairy Tale Literature Cabinet des Fees: On-line Journal of Fairy Tale Literature Journal of Mythic Arts: On-line Journal of Fairy Tale Literature SurLaLune Fairy Tales: Modern Interpretations pages for over 45 tales include lists of modern redactions of fairy tales.
Announces new releases in the genre
Fantasy literature is literature set in an imaginary universe but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Magic, the supernatural and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds, it is a story that adults can read. Fantasy is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. Most works of fantasy were written, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films, television programs, graphic novels, video games and art. A number of fantasy novels written for children, such as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, The Harry Potter series and The Hobbit attract an adult audience. Stories involving magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature. Classical mythology is replete with fantastical stories and characters, the best known being the works of Homer and Virgil.
The contribution of the Greco-Roman world to fantasy is vast and includes: The hero's journey. The philosophy of Plato has had great influence on the fantasy genre. In the Christian Platonic tradition, the reality of other worlds, an overarching structure of great metaphysical and moral importance, has lent substance to the fantasy worlds of modern works; the world of magic is connected with the Roman Greek world. With Empedocles, the elements, they are used in fantasy works as personifications of the forces of nature. Other than magic concerns include: the use of a mysterious tool endowed with special powers. India has a long tradition of fantastical characters, dating back to Vedic mythology; the Panchatantra, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BC. It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine". was influential in Europe and the Middle East. It used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science.
Talking animals endowed with human qualities have now become a staple of modern fantasy. The Baital Pachisi, a collection of various fantasy tales set within a frame story is, according to Richard Francis Burton and Isabel Burton, the germ which culminated in the Arabian Nights, which inspired the Golden Ass of Apuleius. Boccacio's Decamerone the Pentamerone and all that class of facetious fictitious literature."The Book of One Thousand and One Nights from the Middle East has been influential in the West since it was translated from the Arabic into French in 1704 by Antoine Galland. Many imitations were written in France. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba; the Fornaldarsagas and Icelandic sagas, both of which are based on ancient oral tradition influenced the German Romantics, as well as William Morris, J. R. R. Tolkien; the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Celtic folklore and legend has been an inspiration for many fantasy works.
The Welsh tradition has been influential, owing to its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton; the Irish Ulster Cycle and Fenian Cycle have been plentifully mined for fantasy. Its greatest influence was, indirect. Celtic folklore and mythology provided a major source for the Arthurian cycle of chivalric romance: the Matter of Britain. Although the subject matter was reworked by the authors, these romances developed marvels until they became independent of the original folklore and fictional, an important stage in the development of fantasy. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative, popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe, they were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures of a knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest, yet it is "the emphasis on love and courtly manners distinguishes it from the chanson de geste and other kinds of epic, in which masculine military heroism predominates."
Popular literature drew on themes of romance, but with ironic, satiric or burlesque intent. Romances reworked legends, fairy tales, history to suit the readers' and hearers' tastes, but by c. 1600 they were out of fashion, Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in his novel Don Quixote. Still, the modern image of "medieval" is more influenced by the romance than by any other medieval genre, the word medieval evokes knights, distressed damsels and other romantic tropes. Romance literature was written in Old French, Anglo-Norman and Provençal, in Portuguese, in Castilian, in English, in Italian and German. During the early 13th century, romances
Ellen Datlow is an American science fiction and horror editor and anthologist. Datlow was the fiction editor of Omni magazine and Omni Online from 1981 through 1998, edited the ten associated Omni anthologies, she co-edited the Year's Best Fantasy and Horror series from 1988 to 2008, followed by the team of Gavin Grant and Kelly Link until the series end) She now edits The Best Horror of the Year published by Night Shade Books. She has edited many original science fiction and horror anthologies on her own, as well as collaborations with Terri Windling, one with Nick Mamatas, one with Lisa Morton, she was editor of the webzine Event Horizon: Science Fiction and Horror from 1998 through 1999, was the editor of Sci Fiction until it ceased publication with its last piece of fiction, December 28, 2005. She is consulting editor for "Tor.com." Datlow won the Hugo Award for Best Professional Editor in 2002 and 2005, the Hugo for Best Short Form Editor in 2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016, 2017. Her editing work has been recognized with five Bram Stoker Awards, ten World Fantasy Awards, two International Horror Guild Awards for Best Anthology, three Shirley Jackson Awards for Best anthology, twelve Locus Awards for Best Editor.
She was named recipient of the 2007 Karl Edward Wagner Award, given at the British Fantasy Convention for "outstanding contribution to the genre." In 2011 she was given the Life Achievement Award by the Horror Writers Association. She is a long time trustee of the Horror Writers Association, she has been the co-host of the Fantastic Fiction reading series at the KGB Bar since 2000, a series which features luminaries and up-and-comers in speculative fiction. The Best Horror of the Year is an annual compendium of the critically acclaimed editor's selections of horror fiction and poetry published in the previous year and has included fiction by Laird Barron, Stephen Graham Jones, Michael Marshall Smith, Joe R. Lansdale and Nicholas Royle; the books contains an annual summation of publishing in the field and a list of "Honorable Mentions." Volume Ten was published in June 2018. The Best of the Best Horror of the Year: Ten Years of Essential Horror Fiction was published in 2018, she has edited the anthologies Nebula Awards Showcase 2009, Darkness: Two Decades of Horror, Lovecraft's Monsters, The Cutting Room, The Monstrous, Nightmares for Tachyon Publications.
Queen Victoria's Book of Spells an anthology edited by Datlow and Terri Windling, was published by Tor Books in 2013, followed by The Doll Collection Mad Hatters and March Hares and The Devil and the Deep. Datlow won the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement in 2014. 1989 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology for The Year's Best Fantasy: First Annual Collection 1990 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology for The Year's Best Fantasy: Second Annual Collection 1992 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology for The Year's Best Fantasy and Horror: Fourth Annual Collection 1995 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology for Little Deaths 1995 World Fantasy Award for Special Award, professional 2000 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology for Silver Birch, Blood Moon 2003 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology for The Green Man 2007 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology for Salon Fantastique 2008 World Fantasy Award for Best Anthology for Inferno 2014 World Fantasy Award for Lifetime Achievement Ellen Datlow at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Official website Ellen Datlow at The Locus Index to Science Fiction Awards
Superhero fiction is a genre of speculative fiction examining the adventures and ethics of costumed crime fighters known as superheroes, who possess superhuman powers and battle powered criminals known as supervillains. The genre falls between hard fantasy and soft science fiction spectrum of scientific realism. Superhero fiction originated from the cultural intermingling of United States literature, it is most associated with American comic books, though it has expanded into other media through adaptations and original works. A superhero is most the protagonist of superhero fiction, although some titles, such as Marvels by Kurt Busiek and Alex Ross, use superheroes as secondary characters. A superhero is a type of stock character possessing "extraordinary or superhuman powers" and dedicated to protecting the public. Since the debut of the prototypical superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes—ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas—have dominated American comic books and crossed over into other media.
The word itself dates to at least 1917. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine. "SUPER HEROES" is a trademark co-owned by Marvel Comics. By most definitions, characters do not require actual superhuman powers to be deemed superheroes, although terms such as costumed crime fighters or masked vigilantes are sometimes used to refer to those such as Batman and Green Arrow without such powers who share other common superhero traits; such characters were referred to as "mystery men" in the so-called Golden Age of Comic Books to distinguish them from characters with super-powers. Superheroes use their powers to counter day-to-day crime while combating threats against humanity by their criminal counterparts, supervillains. Long-running superheroes such as Superman, Spider-Man and Iron Man have a "rogues gallery" of such enemies. One of these supervillains might be the superhero's archenemy. Superheroes will sometimes combat other threats such as aliens, magical/fantasy entities, natural disasters, political ideologies such as Nazism or communism, godlike or demonic creatures.
A supervillain or supervillainess is a variant of the villain character type found in comic books, action movies, science fiction in various media. They are sometimes used as foils to other heroes. Whereas superheroes wield fantastic powers, the supervillain possesses commensurate powers and abilities so that he can present a daunting challenge to the hero. Without actual physical, superhuman or superalien powers, the supervillain possesses a genius intellect that allows him to draft complex schemes or create fantastic devices. Another common trait is possession of considerable resources to help further his aims. Many supervillains share some typical characteristics of real-world dictators and terrorists and have aspirations of world domination or universal leadership. Superheroes and supervillains mirror each other in their powers, abilities, or origins. In some cases, the only difference between the two is that the hero uses his extraordinary powers to help others, while the villain uses his powers for selfish, destructive or ruthless purposes.
Both superheroes and supervillains use alter egos while in action. While sometimes the character's real name is publicly known, alter egos are most used to hide the character's secret identity from their enemies and the public. With superheroes, the duality of their identities is kept a secret and guarded to protect those close to them from being harmed and to prevent them from being called upon even for problems not serious enough to require their attention; this can be a source of drama with the superhero being forced to devise means of getting out of sight to change without revealing their identity, or bearing the price of keeping such a secret. In addition, this narrative trope can allow fantasy character to be in occasional realistic stories without the fantasy element of the sub-genre appearing. With supervillains, by contrast, the duality of their identities is kept a secret and guarded to conceal their crimes from the general public, so that they may inflict greater harm on the general public, to enable them to act and hence illegally, without risk of arrest by law-enforcement authorities.
Death in superhero fiction is permanent, as characters who die are brought back to life through supernatural means or via retcons, the alteration of established facts in the continuity of a fictional work. Fans have termed the practice of bringing back dead characters "comic book death". Another common trait of superhero fiction is the killing off of a superhero's significant other by a supervillain to advance the plot. Comic book writer Gail Simone has coined the term "Women in Refrigerators" to refer to this practice. Many works of superhero fiction occur in a shared fictional universe, sometimes establishing a fictional continuity of thousands of works spread over many decades. Changes to continuity are common, ranging from small changes to established continuity called retcons, to full reboots, erasing all previous continuity, it is common for stories works of superhero fiction to contain established characters and setting while occurring outside of the main canon
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
Historical fantasy is a sub-genre of fantasy that encompasses the Middle Ages as well as sometimes and represents fictitious versions of historic events. This sub-genre is common among high fantasy literature, it can include various elements of medieval European culture and society, including a monarchical government, feudal social structure, medieval warfare, mythical entities common in European folklore. Works of this genre may have plots set in classical antiquity, they have plots based loosely on mythology or legends of Greek-Roman history, or the surrounding cultures of the same era. Historical fantasy takes one of four common approaches: Magic, mythical creatures or other supernatural elements co-exist invisibly with the mundane world, with the majority of people being unaware of it. In this, it has a close similarity to contemporary fantasy; this overlaps with the secret history trope. Alternatively, the author's narrative shows or implies that by the present day, magic will have retreated from the world so as to allow history to revert to the familiar version we know.
An example of this can be found in Lord Dunsany's The Charwoman's Shadow, which takes place in Spain, but which ends with the magician in it removing himself, all creatures of romance, from the world, thereby ending the Golden Age. It can include an alternative history where the past or present has been changed when an actual historical event turned out differently; the story takes place in a secondary world with specific and recognizable parallels to a known place and a definite historical period, rather than taking the geographic and historical "mix and match" favoured by other works of secondary world fantasy. However, many, if not most, works by fantasy authors derive ideas and inspiration from real events, making the borders of this approach unclear. Historical Fantasy may be set in a fictional world which resembles a period from history but is not that actual history. All four approaches have overlapped in the sub-genre of steampunk associated with science fiction literature. However, not all steampunk fantasy belongs to the historical fantasy sub-genre.
After Antoine Galland's translation of One Thousand and One Nights became enormously popular in Europe, many writers wrote fantasy based on Galland's romantic image of the Middle East and North Africa. Early examples included the satirical tales of Anthony Hamilton, Zadig by Voltaire. English-language work in the Arabian fantasy genre includes Rasselas by Samuel Johnson, The Tales of the Genii by James Ridley, Vathek by William Thomas Beckford, George Meredith's The Shaving of Shagpat, Khaled by F. Marion Crawford, James Elroy Flecker's Hassan. In the late 1970s, interest in the sub-genre revived with Hasan by Piers Anthony; this was followed by several other novels reworking Arabian legend: the metafictional The Arabian Nightmare by Robert Irwin, Diana Wynne Jones' children's novel Castle in the Air, Tom Holt's humorous Djinn Rummy and Hilari Bell's Fall of a Kingdom. Celtic fantasy has links to Celtic historical fiction. Celtic historical fantasy includes such works as Katharine Kerr's Deverry series, or Teresa Edgerton's Green Lion trilogy.
These works are based on ancient Celtic cultures. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been used indiscriminately, sometimes with great effect,as in Paul Hazel's Finnbranch trilogy, Yearwood and Winterking. Notable works inspired by Irish mythology included James Stephens' The Crock of Gold, Lord Dunsany's The Curse of the Wise Woman, Flann O'Brien's humorous At Swim-Two-Birds, Pat O'Shea's The Hounds of the Morrigan and novels by Peter Tremayne, Morgan Llywelyn and Gregory Frost; the Welsh tradition has been influential, which has its connection to King Arthur and its collection in a single work, the epic Mabinogion. One influential retelling of this was the fantasy work of Evangeline Walton: The Island of the Mighty, The Children of Llyr, The Song of Rhiannon, Prince of Annwn. A notable amount of fiction has been written in the Welsh area of Celtic fantasy. Scottish Celtic fantasy is less common, but James Hogg, John Francis Campbell, Fiona MacLeod, William Sharp, George Mackay Brown and Deborah Turner Harris all wrote material based on Scottish myths and legends.
Fantasy based on the Breton folklore branch of Celtic mythology does not appear in the English language. However, several noted writers have utilized such material. Merritt in Creep, Shadow! both drew on the Breton legend of the lost city of Ys, while "The Lay of Aotrou and Itroun" by J. R. R. Tolkien is a narrative poem based on the Breton legend of the Corrigan. Classical fantasy is a sub-genre fantasy based on the Greek and Roman myths. Symbolism from classical mythology is enormously influential on Western culture, but it was not until the 19th century that it was used in the context of literary fantasy. Richard Garnett and John Kendrick Bangs used the Greek myths for satirical purposes.20th century writers who made extensive use of the sub-genre included John Erksine, who continued the satirical tradition of classical fantasy in such works as The Private Life of Helen of Troy and Venus, the Lon
Disease in fiction
Diseases, both real and fictional, play a significant role in fiction, with certain diseases like Huntington's disease and tuberculosis appearing in many books and films. Pandemic plagues threatening all human life, such as The Andromeda Strain, are among the many fictional diseases described in literature and film. Genuine plagues have formed the central elements of books from Giovanni Boccaccio's c. 1353 The Decameron onwards. Bocaccio tells the tales of ten people of Florence; the book inspired Geoffrey Chaucer's 14th century Canterbury Tales, which tells the stories of people on pilgrimage in a time of plague. Ingmar Bergman's 1957 film The Seventh Seal is set in Denmark during the Black Death, features a game of chess with Death personified as a monk-like figure. Tuberculosis was a common disease in the 19th century, it appeared in several major works of Russian literature. Fyodor Dostoevsky used the theme of the consumptive nihilist with Katerina Ivanovna in Crime and Punishment. Turgenev did the same with Bazarov in Sons.
In English literature of the Victorian era, major tuberculosis novels include Charles Dickens's 1848 Dombey and Son, Elizabeth Gaskell's 1855 North and South, Mrs. Humphry Ward's 1900 Eleanor. Albert Camus's 1947 The Plague based on cholera in 19th century France, was seen both as fable about the need for people to help each other in the meaningless world seen by existentialism, as alluding to the German invasion of France, fresh in Camus's mind. Huntington's disease appears in many novels, such as Ian McEwan's 2005 Saturday, it was criticised as prejudiced in the medical journal The Lancet for its negative portrayal of the protagonist with the disease. Diseases if infectious, have long been popular themes and plot devices in fiction. Daniel Defoe's pioneering 1722 A Journal of the Plague Year is a fictional diary of a man's life during the plague year of 1665 in England. Mary Shelley's 1826 The Last Man created the genre of "post-apocalyptic pandemic thriller" with her story of a plague, spreading across Europe towards her protagonists in Britain.
Edgar Allan Poe's 1842 "The Masque of the Red Death" is a gothic tale of a plague symbolising the hubris of the wealthy, their nemesis. More Michael Crichton's 1969 The Andromeda Strain is a science fiction thriller about a world-threatening microbe that a military satellite brings down to Earth and wipes out a town in Arizona. White-coated scientists do their best to contain the outbreak. Medical fiction Cestoda#In culture Tirard, Nestor Disease in Fiction, its place in current literature. Rothfield, Lawrence Vital Signs Medical Realism in Nineteenth-Century Fiction. Krémer, René "Les malades imaginés: Diseases in fiction". Acta Cardiologica. Westfahl, Gary. ISBN 0-313-31707-0 Christensen, Allen Conrad Nineteenth-Century Narratives of Contagion. ISBN 0-415-36048-X VanderMeer, Jeff. ISBN 0-553-38339-6