Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College is one of the wealthiest constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, with an estimated financial endowment of £273 million as of 2018. Magdalen stands next to the River Cherwell and has within its grounds a deer park and Addison's Walk; the large, square Magdalen Tower is an Oxford landmark, it is a tradition, dating to the days of Henry VII, that the college choir sings from the top of it at 6 a.m. on May Morning. Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor. Wayneflete had founded a university hall named Magdalen Hall in 1448; the founder's statutes included provision for a choral foundation of men and boys and made reference to the pronunciation of the name of the college in English. The college received another substantial endowment from the estate of Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle in Norfolk. A second university hall named Magdalen Hall emerged on a site adjacent to Magdalen College, moved to Catte Street in 1822 and became Hertford College in 1874.
Magdalen's prominence since the mid-20th century owes much to such famous fellows as C. S. Lewis and A. J. P. Taylor, its academic success to the work of such dons as Thomas Dewar Weldon. Like many of Oxford's colleges, Magdalen admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after more than half a millennium as a men-only institution. In 2015, Magdalen topped Oxford's Norrington Table of college undergraduate examination results, its average score over the 2006–2016 period is the best among the colleges; the college grounds stretch north and east from the college, include most of the area bounded by Longwall Street, the High Street, St Clement's. The Great Tower was built between 1492 and 1509 by William Orchard, is an imposing landmark on the eastern approaches to the city centre; the hall and chapel were built at similar times, though both have undergone some changes in the intervening years. The Cloister or Great Quad has been altered several times since then. In 1822, the north side was in bad shape, was knocked down while most of the fellows were away from college.
It was rebuilt shortly afterwards. In the early 1900s, renovations were performed, it was returned to a more mediaeval character. Student rooms were installed in the roof space in the 1980s; the New Building was built across a large lawn to the north of the Great Quad beginning in 1733. Its spacious setting is due to the builders' intentions to create an new quad, but only one side was completed. Edward Gibbon and C. S. Lewis had their rooms in this building and as many rooms are occupied by tutors, the few student rooms are sought after; the college has four other quads. The irregularly shaped St John's Quad is the first on entering the college, includes the Outdoor Pulpit and old Grammar Hall, it connects to the Great Quad via the Perpendicular Gothic Founders Tower, richly decorated with carvings and pinnacles and has carved bosses in its vault. The Chaplain's Quad runs to the foot of the Great Tower. St Swithun's Quad and Longwall Quad date from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, make up the southwest corner of the college.
The Grove Buildings are the newest, built in the 1990s in a traditional style. The Waynflete Building, located across Magdalen Bridge from the main college site, was designed by Booth and Pinckheard and completed in 1964; this large meadow occupies most of the north west of the college's grounds, from the New Buildings and the Grove Quad up to Holywell Ford. During the winter and spring, it is the home of a herd of fallow deer, it is possible to view the meadow from the path between New Buildings and Grove Quad, from the archway in New Buildings. In the 16th century, long before the introduction of the deer, the grove consisted of gardens and bowling greens. During the Civil War, it was used to house a regiment of soldiers. At one point in the 19th century it was home to three traction engines belonging to the works department of the college. By the 20th century it had become well-wooded with many large trees, but most of them were lost to Dutch elm disease in the 1970s; this triangular meadow lies to the east of the college, bounded on all sides by the River Cherwell.
In the spring, it is filled with the flower Fritillaria meleagris, which gives it an attractive green-purple colour. These flowers grow in few places, have been recorded growing in the meadow since around 1785. Once the flowering has finished, the deer are moved in for autumn. In wet winters, some or all of the meadow may flood, as the meadow is lower lying than the surrounding path. All around the edge of the meadow is a tree-lined path, Addison's Walk, it is a beautiful and tranquil walk, favoured by students and visitors alike. It links the college with Holywell Ford, the Fellows' Garden. Located to the north east of the Meadow, directly behind the new building of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies; this long and narrow garden follows the Cherwell to the edge of the University Parks. In spring, the ground is covered with flowers. In summer, there are some flowers, many different shrubs, the varied trees provide dappled cover from the sun, it is linked to Addison's Walk by a bridge. Magdalen Ground is located North of the fellows' garden.
The Chapel of Magdalen College is a place of worship for members of the college and others in the University of Oxford community an
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Gothic fiction, known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, at times romance. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto, subtitled "A Gothic Story"; the effect of Gothic fiction feeds on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of Romantic literary pleasures that were new at the time of Walpole's novel. It originated in England in the second half of the 18th century where, following Walpole, it was further developed by Clara Reeve, Ann Radcliffe, William Thomas Beckford and Matthew Lewis; the genre had much success in the 19th century, as witnessed in prose by Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and the works of Edgar Allan Poe as well as Charles Dickens with his novella, A Christmas Carol, in poetry in the work of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron. Another well known novel in this genre, dating from the late Victorian era, is Bram Stoker's Dracula; the name Gothic, which referred to the Goths, came to mean "German", refers to the medieval Gothic architecture, in which many of these stories take place.
This extreme form of Romanticism was popular throughout Europe among English- and German-language writers and artists. The English Gothic novel led to new novel types such as the German Schauerroman and the French Roman Noir; the novel regarded as the first Gothic novel is The Castle of Otranto by English author Horace Walpole, first published in 1764. Walpole's declared aim was to combine elements of the medieval romance, which he deemed too fanciful, the modern novel, which he considered to be too confined to strict realism; the basic plot created many other staple Gothic generic traits, including threatening mysteries and ancestral curses, as well as countless trappings such as hidden passages and oft-fainting heroines. Walpole published the first edition disguised as a medieval romance from Italy discovered and republished by a fictitious translator; when Walpole admitted to his authorship in the second edition, its favourable reception by literary reviewers changed into rejection. The reviewers' rejection reflected a larger cultural bias: the romance was held in contempt by the educated as a tawdry and debased kind of writing.
A romance with superstitious elements, moreover void of didactical intention, was considered a setback and not acceptable. Walpole's forgery, together with the blend of history and fiction, contravened the principles of the Enlightenment and associated the Gothic novel with fake documentation. Clara Reeve, best known for her work The Old English Baron, set out to take Walpole's plot and adapt it to the demands of the time by balancing fantastic elements with 18th-century realism. In her preface, Reeve wrote: "This Story is the literary offspring of The Castle of Otranto, written upon the same plan, with a design to unite the most attractive and interesting circumstances of the ancient Romance and modern Novel." The question now arose whether supernatural events that were not as evidently absurd as Walpole's would not lead the simpler minds to believe them possible. Reeve's contribution in the development of the Gothic fiction, can be demonstrated on at least two fronts. In the first, there is the reinforcement of the Gothic narrative framework, one that focuses on expanding the imaginative domain so as to include the supernatural without losing the realism that marks the novel that Walpole pioneered.
Secondly, Reeve sought to contribute to finding the appropriate formula to ensure that the fiction is believable and coherent. The result is that she spurned specific aspects to Walpole's style such as his tendency to incorporate too much humor or comic elements in such a way that it diminishes the Gothic tale's ability to induce fear. In 1777, Reeve enumerated Walpole's excesses in this respect: a sword so large as to require an hundred men to lift it. Although the succession of Gothic writers did not heed Reeve's focus on emotional realism, she was able to posit a framework that keeps Gothic fiction within the realm of the probable; this aspect remains a challenge for authors in this genre after the publication of The Old English Baron. Outside of its providential context, the supernatural would suffer the risk of veering towards the absurd. Ann Radcliffe developed the technique of the explained supernatural in which every supernatural intrusion is traced back to natural causes. Radcliffe has been called both “the Great Enchantress” and “Mother Radcliffe” due to her influence on both Gothic literature and the female Gothic.
Radcliffe’s use of visual elements and their effects constitutes an innovative strategy for reading the world through “linguistic visual patterns” and developing an “ethical gaze”, allowing for readers to visualize the events through words, understand the situations, feel the terror which the characters themselves are experiencing. Her success attracted many imitators. Among other elements, Ann Radcliffe introduced the brooding figure of the Gothic villain, a literary device that would come to be defined as the Byronic hero. Radcliffe's novels, above all The Mysteries of Udolpho, were best-sellers. However, along with most novels at the time, they were looked down upon by many well-educated people as sensationalist nonsense. Radcliffe inspired the emerging idea of
Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion; the concept of Tolkien fandom as a specific type of fan subculture sprang up in the United States in the 1960s, in the context of the hippie movement, to the dismay of the author, who talked of "my deplorable cultus". A Tolkienist is someone who studies the work of J. R. R. Tolkien: this involves the study of the Elvish languages and "Tolkienology". A Ringer is a fan of The Lord of the Rings in general, of Peter Jackson's live-action film trilogy in particular. Other terms for Tolkien fans include Tolkiendil. Tolkien's The Hobbit, a children's book, was first published in 1937, it proved popular. However, The Lord of the Rings, first published in 1954 through 1955, would give rise to the fandom as a cultural phenomenon from the early to mid-1960s. Serious admirers and fans of Tolkien came into existence within science fiction fandom soon after the publication of The Fellowship of the Ring.
Tolkien was soon being discussed in various science fiction fanzines and apazines, both as continuing threads of comment and as single pieces such as "No Monroe In Lothlorien!" in Eric Bentcliffe’s Triode. Tolkien-inspired costumes were worn at Worldcons as early as 1958; some enthusiastic Los Angeles fans had been discussing creating a Tolkien-specific society as early as 1959. An organized Tolkien fandom organization called "The Fellowship of the Ring" came together at a 49-minute meeting during Pittcon, the 18th World Science Fiction Convention in Pittsburgh on September 4, 1960; those people who provided accepted research papers to the group’s fanzine, I Palantir, would become "members." Non-members could purchase the magazine, of which Ted Johnstone was elected editor and Bruce Pelz publisher. Ken Cheslin, British agent of The Fellowship, wrote, "I would say that the Tolkien society wasn’t an offshoot… it consisted of fans who regarded JRR as, I think, a little something extra, a little area of interest in addition to the fandom, not an alternative or a replacement, etc."
England’s first Tolkien fanzine was Nazgul’s Bane, produced by Cheslin. It was a "newszine" for those British members of The Fellowship; as Worldcon art shows started, The Fellowship Ring provided prizes for Tolkien-inspired artwork. Since most of the contributors to fanzines at the time came out of science fiction fandom, speculative articles and articles of fiction took off in the direction of science fact; the drowning of Beleriand, the creation of the orcs, the evolution of the elves, the chemical composition of hithlain rope, or the make-up of the morgul-blade was all open to some scientific explanation. Attempts to add a flavor of lofty writing style in many pieces resulted in stilted phrasing. Major articles on Tolkien’s literary sources appeared through multiple issues of Xero. Lin Carter used this as a basis for his 1969 book, Tolkien: A Look Behind The Lord of the Rings; the Lord of the Rings had its detractors in fandom, including both those who found the books unreadable or the character development inferior to the worldbuilding, those who argued that Tolkien fans were taking things too far, with attempts to complete glossaries of Middle-earth underway.
A major defender and advocate of Tolkien in this era was Marion Zimmer Bradley, with such articles as her 1962 “Men and Hero Worship” in Astra’s Tower. She wrote two Tolkien pastiches and one crossover story with Aragorn entering her own created world of Darkover, she published what would be a single issue of Andúril. During this time, science fiction fandom produced many fanzines with little or no Tolkien content but Tolkien-inspired names: Ancalagon, Lefnui, Perian, Shadowfax, Silmé, undoubtedly others. Others had more meaningful Tolkien content. Ed Meskys’ apazine Niekas turned into a full-fledged fanzine during this era, with heavy Tolkien content as well as discussion of Gilbert & Sullivan, science fiction conventions and other topics. Pete Mansfield’s Sword & Sorcery fanzine, Eldritch Dream Quest, included many Tolkien items. Science fiction fandom produced many high quality examples of Tolkien writing in their fanzines during these years. Foster attributes the surge of Tolkien fandom in the United States of the mid-1960s to a combination of the hippie subculture and anti-war movement pursuing "mellow freedom like that of the Shire" and "America's cultural Anglophilia" of the time, fuelled by a bootleg paperback version of The Lord of the Rings published by Ace Books followed up by an authorised edition by Ballantine Books.
The "hippie" following latched onto the book, giving its own spin to the work's interpretation, such as the Dark Lord Sauron representing the United States military draft during the Vietnam War, to the chagrin of the author who talked of a "deplorable cultus" and stated that ""Many young Americans are involved in the stories in a way that I'm not" but who admitted that... the nose of a modest idol cannot remain untickled by the sweet smell of incense! Fan attention became so intense that Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory and moved to Bournemouth on the south coast of England; this embracing of the work by American 1960s counter-culture made it an easy target for mockery, resulted in The Lord of the Rings acquiring a reputation of a dubious work of popular culture rather than "real literature", postponing the emer
Contemporary fantasy known as modern fantasy or indigenous fantasy, is a subgenre of fantasy, set in the present day or, more the time period of the maker. It is most popular for its subgenre, urban fantasy. Supernatural fiction can be said to be part of contemporary fantasy - since it has fantasy elements and is set in a contemporary setting. In practice, supernatural fiction is a well-established genre in its own right, with its own distinctive conventions; these terms are used to describe stories set in the putative real world in contemporary times, in which magic and magical creatures exist but are not seen or understood as such, either living in the interstices of our world or leaking over from alternate worlds. It thus has much in common with, sometimes overlaps with secret history. Novels in which modern characters travel into alternative worlds, all the magical action takes place there, are not considered contemporary fantasy. Thus, C. S. Lewis's The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, where all fantasy events take place in the land of Narnia, reached via a magic wardrobe, would not count as contemporary fantasy.
Contemporary fantasy is distinguished from horror fiction – which often has contemporary settings and fantastic elements – by the overall tone, emphasizing joy or wonder rather than fear or dread. In his preface to That Hideous Strength, one of the earlier works falling within this subgenre, C. S. Lewis explained why, when writing a tale about "magicians, pantomime animals and planetary angels", he chose to start it with a detailed depiction of narrow-minded academic politics at a provincial English university and the schemes of crooked real estate developers: "I am following the traditional fairy-tale. We do not always notice its method, because the cottages, castles and petty kings with which a fairy tale opens have become for us as remote as the witches and ogres to which it proceeds, but they were not remote at all to the men who first made and enjoyed the tales". The same is true for many of the works in the genre, which begin with a normal scene of modern daily life to disclose supernatural and magical beings and events hidden behind the scenes.
Contemporary fantasies concern places dear to their authors, are full of local color and atmosphere, attempt to lend a sense of magic to those places when the subgenre overlaps with mythic fiction. When the story takes place in a city, the work is called urban fantasy; the contemporary fantasy and low fantasy genres can overlap as both are defined as being set in the real world. There are differences, however. Low fantasies are set in the real world but not in the modern age, in which case they would not be contemporary fantasy. Contemporary fantasies are set in the real world but may include distinct fantasy settings within it, such as the Harry Potter series, in which case they would be high rather than low fantasy. Erich Kästner The 35th of May, or Conrad's Ride to the South Seas Robert Louis Stevenson: The Bottle Imp Jack Williamson: Darker Than You Think William T. Cox, Fearsome Creatures of the Lumberwoods Denis Wheatley's Gregory Sallust series, pitting the protagonist against supernatural forces on the background of WWII and Nazi Germany.
Stella Benson: Living Alone Edith Nesbit: The Magic City, Psammead series, House of Arden series, The Enchanted Castle, The Magic World and other works Edward Eager: The Magic Series P. L. Travers: Mary Poppins Mikhail Bulgakov: The Master and Margarita Rudyard Kipling, Puck of Pook's Hill C. S. Lewis: That Hideous Strength Hendrik Willem van Loon: Van Loon's Lives Selma Lagerlöf: The Wonderful Adventures of Nils H. G. Wells: The Wonderful Visit, The Sea Lady and The Man Who Could Work Miracles Charles Williams: An early innovator of theology-oriented contemporary fantasy. Freda Warrington's Aetherial Tales series Benedict Jacka's Alex Verus series Eoin Colfer's Artemis Fowl series Ryohgo Narita's Baccano! and Durarara!! Tite Kubo's Bleach Mary Norton's The Borrowers Joss Whedon's Buffyverse Kazuma Kamachi's A Certain Magical Index Virtually the entire oeuvre of Charles de Lint Dangerous Angels and other works by Francesca Lia Block Constance M. Burge's Charmed Dark Cities Underground by Lisa Goldstein Susan Cooper's The Dark Is Rising Sequence Tom Deitz's The David Sullivan series Hazel Butler's Deathly Insanity series.
Jenna Black's The Devil Inside, set in the United States with demons. The Dresden Files series by Jim Butcher Raymond E. Feist's Faerie Tale Type-Moon's The Garden of Sinners and Fate series which takes place in a world where magic has all but vanished as technology has overtaken it and all the gods and magical creatures have either disappeared or left. Peter S. Beagle's A Private Place and other works by him. Richelle Mead's Georgina Kincaid series Midori Snyder's Hannah's Garden J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series - set in the United Kingdom during the 1990s, with flashbacks to the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, 1970s, 1980s, flash-forwards to the 2010s. Harry Potter and the Cursed Child is set during the 2020s, with flashbacks to the 1980s, 1990s, 2010s. Alternately, J. K. Rowling's Fantastic Beasts series of screenplays, takes place in a number of global locati
Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a style of fiction that paints a realistic view of the modern world while adding magical elements. It is sometimes called fabulism, in reference to the conventions of fables and allegory. "Magical realism" the most common term refers to fiction and literature in particular, with magic or the supernatural presented in an otherwise real-world or mundane setting. The terms are broadly descriptive rather than critically rigorous. Matthew Strecher defines magic realism as "what happens when a detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe". Many writers are categorized as "magical realists", which confuses its wide definition. Irene Guenther tackles the German roots of the term, how art is related to literature. Magical realism is associated with Latin American literature authors including genre founders Gabriel García Márquez, Miguel Angel Asturias, Jorge Luis Borges, Elena Garro, Juan Rulfo, Rómulo Gallegos, Isabel Allende.
In English literature, its chief exponents include Salman Rushdie, Alice Hoffman, Nick Joaquin. Whereas, in Bengali Literature, prominent writers of magic realism include Nabarun Bhattacharya, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Shahidul Zahir, Jibanananda Das, Syed Waliullah, Nasreen Jahan and Humayun Ahmed. In Japanese literature, one of the most important authors of this genre is Haruki Murakami. While the term magical realism first appeared in English in 1955, the term Magischer Realismus, translated as magic realism, was first used by German art critic Franz Roh in 1925 to refer to a painterly style known as Neue Sachlichkeit, an alternative to expressionism championed by fellow German museum director Gustav Hartlaub. Roh identified magic realism's accurate detail, smooth photographic clarity, portrayal of the'magical' nature of the rational world, it reflects the uncanniness of our modern technological environment. Roh believed that magic realism was related to, but distinct from, due to magic realism's focus on the material object and the actual existence of things in the world, as opposed to surrealism's more cerebral and subconscious reality.
Magic realism was used to describe the uncanny realism by American painters such as Ivan Albright, Peter Blume, Paul Cadmus, Gray Foy, George Tooker and Viennese-born Henry Koerner, along other artists during the 1940s and 1950s. However, in contrast with its use in literature, magic realist art does not include overtly fantastic or magical content, but rather looks at the mundane through a hyper-realistic and mysterious lens. German magic realist paintings influenced the Italian writer Massimo Bontempelli, called the first to apply magic realism to writing, aiming to capture the fantastic, mysterious nature of reality. In 1926 he founded the magic realist magazine 900. Novecento, his writings influenced Belgian magic realist writers Johan Daisne and Hubert Lampo. Roh's magic realism influenced writers in Hispanic America, where it was translated as realismo mágico in 1927. Venezuelan writer Arturo Uslar-Pietri, who had known Bontempelli, wrote influential magic realist short stories in the 1930s and 40s that focused on the mystery and reality of how we live.
Luis Leal attests that Pietri seemed to have been the first to adopt the term realismo mágico in Hispanic America in 1948. There is evidence that Mexican writer Elena Garro used the same term to describe the works of E. T. A. Hoffmann but dismissed her own work as a part of the genre. French-Russian Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier, who rejected Roh's magic realism as tiresome pretension, developed his related concept lo real maravilloso, or marvelous realism, in 1949. Maggie Ann Bowers writes that marvelous realist literature and art expresses "the opposed perspectives of a pragmatic and tangible approach to reality and an acceptance of magic and superstition" within an environment of differing cultures; the term magical realism, as opposed to magic realism, first emerged in the 1955 essay "Magical Realism in Spanish American Fiction" by critic Angel Flores in reference to writing that combines aspects of magic realism and marvelous realism. While Flores named Jorge Luis Borges as the first magical realist, he failed to acknowledge either Carpentier or Pietri for bringing Roh's magic realism to Latin America.
Borges is seen as a predecessor of magical realists, with only Flores considering him a true magical realist. After Flores's essay, there was a resurgence of interest in marvelous realism, after the Cuban revolution of 1959, led to the term magical realism being applied to a new type of literature known for matter-of-fact portrayal of magical events; the extent to which the characteristics below apply to a given magic realist text varies. Every text employs a smattering of the qualities listed here. However, they portray what one might expect from a magic realist text. Magical realism portrays fantastical events in an otherwise realistic tone, it brings fables, folk tales, myths into contemporary social relevance. Fantasy traits given to characters, such as levitation and telekinesis, help to encompass modern political realities that can be phantasmagorical; the existence of fantasy elements in the real world provides the basis for magical realism. Writers do not invent new worlds but reveal the magical in this world, as was done by Gabriel García Márquez who wrote the seminal work of the style, One Hundred Years of Solitude.
In the world of magical realism, the supernatural realm blends with the familiar world. Authorial reticence is the "deliberate withholding of information and explanations about the disconcerting fictiti