Hapkido is a eclectic Korean martial art. It is a form of self-defense that employs joint locks and throwing techniques similar to those of other martial arts, as well as kicks and other striking attacks, it teaches the use of traditional weapons, including knife, rope, ssang juhl bong, short stick, middle-length staff, which vary in emphasis depending on the particular tradition examined. Hapkido employs both long-range and close-range fighting techniques, utilizing jumping kicks and percussive hand strikes at longer ranges, pressure point strikes, joint locks, throws at closer fighting distances. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, redirection of force, control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage over their opponents through footwork and body positioning to incorporate the use of leverage, avoiding the use of brute strength against brute strength; the art was adapted from Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu as it was taught by Choi Yong-Sool when he returned to Korea after World War II after having lived in Japan for 30 years.
This system was combined by Choi´s disciples with kicking and striking techniques of indigenous and contemporary arts such as taekkyeon, Tang Soo Do. Hapkido is rendered "합기도" in the native Korean writing system known as hangul, the script used most in modern Korea; the art's name can however be written "合氣道" utilizing the same traditional Chinese characters which would have been used to refer to the Japanese martial art of aikido in the pre-1946 period. The current preference in Japan is for the use of a modern simplified second character; the character 合 hap means "coordinated", "joining", or "harmony". It is most translated as "the way of coordinating energy", "the way of coordinated power", or "the way of harmony". Although Japanese aikido and Korean hapkido share common technical origins, in time they have become separate and distinct from one another, they differ in philosophy, range of responses, manner of executing techniques. The fact that they share the same Japanese technical ancestry represented by their respective founders practice of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, that they share the same Chinese characters, despite 合 being pronounced "ai" in Japanese and "hap" in Korean, has proved problematic in promoting Hapkido internationally as a discipline with its own set of unique characteristics differing from those common to Japanese martial arts.
The birth of modern hapkido can be traced to the efforts of a group of Korean nationals in the post Japanese colonial period of Korea, Choi Yong-Sool and his most prominent students. Choi Yong-Sool's training in martial arts is a subject of contention, it is known that Choi was sent to Japan as a young boy and returned to Korea with techniques characteristic of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, a forerunner of aikido. The subsequent history is quite controversial in Daitō-ryū circles but is claimed by many contemporary hapkido-ists and is attributed to Choi in an interview that took place during a trip Choi made to the United States in 1980 to visit his direct lineage successor Chin il Chang in New York City. In the interview with Chin Il Chang, Choi is claimed to have been adopted by Takeda Sōkaku when he was 11 years old and was given the Japanese name, Yoshida Asao, he claims to have been taken to Takeda's home and dojo in Akita on Shin Shu mountain where he lived and trained with the master for 30 years.
The interview asserts that he travelled with him as a teaching assistant, that he was employed to catch war deserters and that he was the only student to have a complete understanding of the system taught by Takeda. This is contradicted by other claims asserting that Choi was a worker in the home of Takeda; the meticulous enrollment and fee records of Tokimune Takeda, Takeda's eldest son and Daitō-ryū's successor, do not seem to include Choi's name among them. Therefore, except for claims made by Choi himself, there is little evidence that Choi was the adopted son of Takeda, or that he formally studied Daitō-ryū under the founder of the art. Stanley Pranin of Aiki News and now editor of the Aikidojournal.com, asked Kisshomaru Ueshiba about Choi Yong-Sool and hapkido: Some argue that Choi Yong-Sool's potential omission from the records, the ensuing debate over hapkido's origins, may be due to tensions between Koreans and Japanese as a result of the Japanese occupation of Korea. At the height of dispute, it is claimed by hapkido practitioners that Koreans were excluded from listing, though this is contradicted by Takeda's records which contain other Korean names.
While some commentators claim hapkido has a Japanese lineage, others state that its origins lay with indigenous Korean martial arts. Choi Yong-Sool's first student, the man whom some claim helped him develop the art of hapkido was Seo Bok-Seob, a Korean judo black belt when they met; some of Choi's other respected senior students ar
South Jeolla Province
South Jeolla Province or Jeollanam-do is a province in the southwest of South Korea. The province was formed in 1896 from the southern half of the former Jeolla province, remained a province of Korea until the country's division in 1945 became part of South Korea. Gwangju was the capital of the province, until the provincial office moved to the southern village of Namak, Muan County in 2005; the province is part of the Honam region, is bounded on the west by the Yellow Sea, on the north by Jeollabuk-do Province, on the south by Jeju Strait, on the east by Gyeongsangnam-do. There are 2,000 islands along the coastline, about three quarters of which are uninhabited; the coastline is about 6,100 kilometres long. Some of the marine products, in particular oyster and seaweed cultivation, are leading in South Korea; the province is only mountainous. The plains along the rivers Seomjin and Tamjin create a large granary. There is abundant rainfall in the area; the province is home to the warmest weather on the peninsula.
This helps to produce large amounts of agricultural produce rice, barley and potatoes. Vegetables and fruits are grown in the province. A small amount of gold and coal is mined in the province, but industries have been developed in the area. Jeollanam-do is divided into 17 counties. Listed below is the name of each entity in English and hanja. State of Arizona, United States of America State of Maryland, United States of America Gyeongsan, South Korea Ipswich, Australia State of Oregon, United States of America Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China According to the census of 2005, of the people of South Jeolla 30.5% follow Christianity and 16.1% follow Buddhism. 53.4% of the population is not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions. 31st: Heo Kyung-man — 1st term. 32nd: Heo Kyung-man — 2nd term. 33rd: Park Tae-young — Died in office 34th: Park Jun-young — 1st term. 35th: Park Jun-young — 2nd term. 36th: Park Jun-young — 3rd term. 37th: Lee Nak-yeon 38th: Kim Yung-rok Yeosu — Jinnamgwan Hall, Hyangiram, Yi Sun Shin Square Suncheon — Songgwangsa Temple, Seonamsa Temple, Nagan Eupseong Folk Village Mokpo — Mokpo Modern History Museum, Gatbawi Rock, Yudal Mountain Haenam — Ttanggut Village, Mihwangsa Temple Gurye — Hwaeomsa Temple Damyang — Damyang Juknokwon, Metasequoia-lined Road, Soswaewon Garden Boseong — Boseong Green Tea Field Daehan Dawon List of Korea-related topics South Jeolla travel guide from Wikivoyage Jeollanam-do provincial government English-language home page
Hankumdo is a Korean sword-art where the basic techniques are based on the letters of the Korean alphabet, Hangul. The goal of hankumdo is to teach people how to defend themselves and at the same time offer them exercises to stay healthy, it is meant to give practitioners the means to come to a deeper understanding of martial arts principles. It aims to make this easy by using the Korean writing system to systematize the techniques. Hankumdo was developed by Myung Jae Nam, who first taught his sword techniques as a separate art in 1986 and was first publicized in 1997 during the 3rd International H. K. D Games. Hankumdo originated from the techniques used in Hankido to defend against sword attacks. Though first presented as a subset of the larger Hankido curriculum under the name hankumdobub, Myung Jae Nam decided that it was an art that could stand on its own merits and is taught as a separate discipline. Hankumdo doesn't have clear roots in other sword arts, since Myung Jae Nam never received any formal education in other sword arts.
The subset of techniques is quite limited, consists only of the basics strikes and blocks found in most sword arts. GM Myung organized HanKumdo, around the calligraphy of the Korean Hangul alphabet, it is claimed that using the five basic striking techniques one can write the entire Korean alphabet as a series of fencing combinations. In this way, Hankumdo would seem to mirror the tenet of Chinese sword practice which suggests that all sword work can be reduced to the strokes necessary to write the single Chinese character, “eui”; this tenet surfaces among a broad spectrum of Oriental fencing arts and over a wide time frame. The word hankumdo consists of three different words: Han: Korea, Korean culture and mentality. Kum: Sword Do: The wayHankumdo can be interpreted as: The way for the Korean people to learn how to handle the sword. A number of modern Korean martial arts have been influenced by Japanese styles in the 20th century, while the older arts were influenced by the Chinese, which becomes obvious in the Muyedobotongji.
Myung Jae Nam however wanted to create a true Korean sword art without any foreign influences. Japanese sword arts developed into the art of man-to-man duelling during the peaceful Edo period and are characterized by a lot of attention to detail under the influence of Zen Buddhism. Traditional Korean arts never underwent this change and were purely taught to soldiers as a way to fight on the battlefield, although this does not mean that in Japanese arts battlefield techniques are not taught. Battlefield fighting is characterized by more flowing and ongoing movements. In duel-style fighting a lot of attention is given to the one-strike-one-kill principle, whereas in battlefield-style fighting the emphasis is on keeping the sword in motion and always being ready for the next strike. To give hankumdo a true Korean flavor, Myung Jae Nam used the Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, to teach the basic strikes of the art; the basis for all Hankumdo techniques comes from the letters of Hangul. This alphabet consists of 14 consonants and 10 vowels.
Since 1997 there have been several revisions of the techniques. In the earliest version the sword techniques reflected the manner in which one would write the characters on paper, thus requiring mastery of only four techniques. In the latest revision more techniques were added and the techniques become more elaborate; as a result, the manner of using the sword and of writing the letters may vary. The strikes are being taught from several positions and with several steps, called Gi Bo Haeng; the techniques have the same name. So the name for the first technique is: Giyeokbegi, because the name for the first character in the Korean alphabet is Giyeok. Myung intended to develop a sword-art that would be Korean and easy to learn by everyone. For Koreans who know the Korean writing system, the techniques are easy to remember, as the sword methods follow the standard manner in which the Korean characters are written. Foreigners are advised to learn; because the Korean writing system is easy to learn, foreigners can become facile in the sword basics within a short period of time.
After Myung Jae Nam's death in 1999, the development of hankumdo is overseen by the Jaenam Musul Won Foundation Quite a few changes and additions to the hankumdo curriculum have been made by Ko Ju Sik, the new technical director of the federation, since then. Hankido Kumdo Korean_swordsmanship Korean martial arts International H. K. D. Federation Headquarters Ji Yong Kwan
Aikido is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies and religious beliefs. Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while protecting their attacker from injury. Aikido is translated as "the way of unifying life energy" or as "the way of harmonious spirit". Aikido's techniques include: irimi, tenkan movements, various types of throws and joint locks. Aikido derives from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion. Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu. Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending on when they studied with him. Today, aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis. However, they all share techniques formulated by Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker.
The word "aikido" is formed of three kanji: 合 – ai – joining, combining, fitting 気 – ki – spirit, mood, morale 道 – dō – way, pathThe term aiki does not appear in the Japanese language outside the scope of budō. This has led to many possible interpretations of the word. 合 is used in compounds to mean'combine, join together, meet', examples being 合同, 合成, 結合, 連合, 統合, 合意. There is an idea of reciprocity, 知り合う, 話し合い, 待ち合わせる. 気 is used to describe a feeling, as in X気がする, 気持ち. The term dō is found in martial arts such as judo and kendo, in various non-martial arts, such as Japanese calligraphy, flower arranging and tea ceremony. Therefore, from a purely literal interpretation, aikido is the "Way of combining forces" or "Way of unifying energy", in which the term aiki refers to the martial arts principle or tactic of blending with an attacker's movements for the purpose of controlling their actions with minimal effort. One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique.
Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba, referred to by some aikido practitioners as Ōsensei. The term aikido was coined in the twentieth century. Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, but as an expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation. During Ueshiba's lifetime and continuing today, aikido has evolved from the aiki that Ueshiba studied into a variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world. Ueshiba developed aikido during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied; the core martial art from which aikido derives is Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sōkaku, the reviver of that art. Additionally, Ueshiba is known to have studied Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū with Tozawa Tokusaburō in Tokyo in 1901, Gotōha Yagyū Shingan-ryū under Nakai Masakatsu in Sakai from 1903 to 1908, judo with Kiyoichi Takagi in Tanabe in 1911; the art of Daitō-ryū is the primary technical influence on aikido.
Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear, short staff, the bayonet. However, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship. Ueshiba moved to Hokkaidō in 1912, began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915, his official association with Daitō-ryū continued until 1937. However, during the latter part of that period, Ueshiba had begun to distance himself from Takeda and the Daitō-ryū. At that time Ueshiba was referring to his martial art as "Aiki Budō", it is unclear when Ueshiba began using the name "aikido", but it became the official name of the art in 1942 when the Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society was engaged in a government sponsored reorganization and centralization of Japanese martial arts. After Ueshiba left Hokkaidō in 1919, he met and was profoundly influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi, the spiritual leader of the Ōmoto-kyō religion in Ayabe. One of the primary features of Ōmoto-kyō is its emphasis on the attainment of utopia during one's life.
This was a great influence on Ueshiba's martial arts philosophy of extending love and compassion to those who seek to harm others. Aikido demonstrates this philosophy in its emphasis on mastering martial arts so that one may receive an attack and harmlessly redirect it. In an ideal resolution, not only is the receiver unharmed, but so is the attacker. In addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with Deguchi gave Ueshiba entry to elite political and military circles as a martial artist; as a result of this exposure, he was able to attract not only financial backing but gifted students. Several of these students would found their own styles of aikido. Aikido was first brought to the rest of the world in 1951 by Minoru Mochizuki with
Korean martial arts
Korean martial arts are military practices and methods which have their place in the history of Korea but have been adapted for use by both military and non-military personnel as a method of personal growth or recreation. The history of Korean martial arts can be traced as far back as the prehistoric era; the ancestors of modern Korean people migrated and settled in the Korean Peninsula as early as the 28th century BC, a geopolitical region besieged by thousands of known documented instances of foreign invasions. The Korean people developed unique martial arts and military strategies in order to defend themselves and their territory. Traditional Korean martial arts fell into three main groups or branches: Sado Musul Bulgyo Musul Gungjung Musul In 1958, these branches of traditional Korean martial arts were organized to form a single modern hybrid-system known as Kuk Sool Won. Today, Korean martial arts are being practiced worldwide. Among the best recognized Korean practices using weapons are traditional Korean archery and Kumdo, the Korean adaptation of the Japanese Kendo.
The best known unarmed Korean Martial Arts are Taekwondo and Hapkido, though such traditional practices such as ssireum - Korean Wrestling - and taekkyeon - Korean Foot Fighting - are gaining in popularity both inside and outside the country. In November 2011, Taekkyeon was recognized by UNESCO and placed on its Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity List. There has been a revival of traditional Korean swordsmanship arts as well as knife fighting and archery. Wrestling, called ssireum, is the oldest form of ground fighting in Korea, while subak/taekkyeon was the upright martial art of foot soldiers. Weapons were an extension of those unarmed skills. Besides being used to train soldiers, both of these traditional martial arts were popular among villagers during festivals for dance, mask and sport fighting; these martial arts were considered basic physical education. However, Koreans relied more on bows and arrows in warfare than they did on close-range weapons, it appears that during the Goguryeo dynasty, subak/taekkeyon or ssireum, spear-fighting and horse riding were practiced.
In 1935, paintings that showed martial arts were found on the walls of royal tombs believed to have been built for Goguryeo kings sometime between the years 3 and 427 AD. Which techniques were practiced during that period is, something that cannot be determined from these paintings. References to Subak can be found in government records from the Goguryeo dynasty through the Joseon dynasty, it is believed that the warriors from the Silla Dynasty known as the Hwarang learned subak from the neighboring Goguryeo armies when they appealed for their help against invading Japanese pirates. But this remains a conjecture. There remains no known documentation of specific military training by the Hwarangˌ groups of Sillaˌ 74 護身術ˌ hosinsool The Buddhist influence on the Hwarang is most notably seen around 600 AD, when the moral code Sae Sok O-Gye, written by Won Gwang, was documented; this code consisted of five rules: 사군이충 / 事君以忠 – Loyalty to one's king. 사친이효 / 事親以孝 – Respect to one's parents. 교우이신 / 交友以信 – Faithfulness to one's friends.
임전무퇴 / 臨戰無退 – Courage in battle. 살생유택 / 殺生有擇 – Justice in killing. The development of Subak continued during the Goryeo Dynasty. Goryeo records that mention the martial arts always include passages about Subak; the Joseon government, outlawed the practice of Subak as a public spectacle in response to problems arising from the betting practices of large numbers of Korean farmers and landowners. As a concession to public pressure, the government allowed a lesser practice - Taekkyeon games - to be used as a form of civilian recreation. Joseon Dynasty records and books mention taekkyeon, taekkyeon players are portrayed in several paintings from that era; the most famous painting is the Daegwaedo, painted in 1846 by Hyesan Yu Suk, which shows men competing in both ssireum and taekgyeon. With the Mongol conquest, the Korean military was reorganized around the mounted archer. Armor and weaponry became similar to Mongol armor and weaponry. Acrobatic horsemanship and polo were imported; the Korean Composite bow was adopted at this time.
The unique construction of the Korean Gakgung bow shows the original form of the Mongol bow, before the Manchus improved it with stronger and bigger ears. As the military class in late Goryeo was entirely populated by ethnic Mongols in practice, the Joseon Army carried on the mounted archer tradition; until the publication of Muyedobotongji in 1795, archery remained a singular Korean martial art, testable during the military portion of the Gwageo As the continuation of Goryo military, the Joseon military maintained the primacy of the bow as its main stay weapon. Gungdo remained the most prestigious of all m
Aiki (martial arts principle)
Aiki from a Japanese budo term, at its most basic is a principle that allows a conditioned practitioner to negate or redirect an opponent's power. When applied, the aiki practitioner controls the actions of the attacker with minimal effort and with a distinct absence of muscular tension associated with physical effort. In Japanese Aiki is formed from two kanji: 合 - ai - joining 氣 - ki - spiritThe kanji for "ai" is made of three radicals, "join", "one" and "mouth". Hence, "ai" symbolizes things coming together. Aiki should not be confused with "wa"; the kanji for "ki" represents a pot filled with steaming a lid on it. Hence, "ki" symbolizes energy, thus aiki's meaning is to join, or combine energy. However, care must be taken about the absolute meanings of words when discussing concepts derived from other cultures and expressed in different languages; this is true when the words we use today have been derived from symbols, in this case, Japanese kanji, which represent ideas rather than literal translations of the components.
Historical use of a term can influence meanings and be passed down by those wishing to illustrate ideas with the best word or phrase available to them. In this way, there may be a divergence of the meaning between schools within the same art; the characters "ai" and "ki" have translations to many different English words. The principle of aiki would be transmitted orally, as such teachings were a guarded secret. In modern times, the description of the concept varies from the physical to vague and open-ended, or more concerned with spiritual aspects. Aiki lends its name to various Japanese martial arts most notably aikido and its parent art, Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu; these arts tend to use the principle of aiki as a core element underpinning the bulk of their techniques. Aiki is an important principle in several other arts such as various forms of kenjutsu. Techniques accomplished with aiki are subtle and require little mechanical force with the Aiki arts classed as soft internal martial arts. Aiki is a complex concept, three aspects have been used to describe it in relation to a martial situation: 1) Blending not clashing Aiki describes an idea of oneness or blending in the midst of combat.
In aikido it describes the more elevated notion of blending rather than clashing. "Blending" is described within aikido as "awase". Many definitions for "aiki" seem to be based around "awase" though due to the complexity of the word under a particular japanese context, the exact english interpretation would be hard to describe. Emphasis is upon joining with the rhythm and intent of the opponent in order to find the optimal position and timing with which to apply force. To blend with an attack, many believe it is necessary to yield to incoming forces but basic practitioners of aiki understand that there is a difference between'blending' and'giving way', they instead train to'take the line' of attack subtly and control it. Aiki is related to the principle of ju though the latter places more emphasis on the active physical manipulation on a mechanical structural level.2) Leading the assailant The aiki practitioner is able to lead the attack, thus the attacker, into precarious positions. The influence over an assailant grows.
Body movements used for this may be large and obvious or small and subtle, internally generated movements. Subtle weight shifting and the application of physical pressure to the assailant enable one to lead an assailant, keep them static, or keep them unbalanced in order to employ one’s own technique. In the same manner, through deceptive movements, the aiki practitioner may negate a defence response from the assailant or create a defence response from the assailant that puts them further into peril. There is a strong degree of will or psychology to this aspect of domination. Mind and body are coordinated.3) Use of internal strength - Ki energy Kiai and aiki use the same kanji and can be thought of as the inner and the outer aspect of the same principle. Kiai relates to the manifestation, emission or projection of one's own energy externally, while Aiki relates to one's own energy internally, thus kiai is union of external energies. This use of ki will involve the use of kokyu power, i.e. breathing is coordinated with movement.
Kokyu Ryoku is the natural power that can be produced when consciousness are unified. The term "kokyu" can be used to describe a situation in which two opponent's are moving with appropriate timing. Aiki is considered to be an ancient practice, its practice is kept within a particular individual or two from a family/school lineage. Culturally, due to certain necessities of the time period, the aiki knowledge was a well guarded secret and disclosed; the oldest book to have discuss aiki was the 1899 Budo Hiketsu-Aiki no Jutsu. On the subject of aiki it was written: The Textbook of Jujutsu from 1913 wrote
Sin Moo Hapkido
Sin Moo Hapkido is a martial art that combines "hard" and "soft" techniques. From a purely technical perspective, it is closely related to its parent art, Traditional Hapkido, though it places more emphasis on meditative, Ki development training. Hapkido is translated as “the way of coordinating power,” which places emphasis on the physical techniques that Hapkido is known for. However, the founder of Sin Moo Hapkido, Ji Han-Jae, has landed on a different understanding of the term. Hap means gathering, or harmonizing. “Ki” is the energy or breath in the body that connects the mind and the body, "Do" is the process or way this happens. Thus, his definition of Hapkido is, “The way of harmonizing the mind and body through the utilization of ki.” Sin means "higher mind or higher spirit," and "Moo" means "martial art." When translated in its entirety, Sin Moo Hapkido therefore means, “The way of using martial arts to harmonize the mind and body to reach a higher more enlightened state of existence.”
Sin Moo Hapkido was founded in 1983 in Seoul, South Korea by Dojunim Ji Han-Jae with the assistance of Merrill Jung and other members of the Northern California Hapkido Association. The curriculum was based on Ji's earlier Hapkido programs that he developed from his three teachers and own personal study. Ji, Han Jae was an early student of Choi, Young Sool, a student of Yawara & Daito-Ryu Aikijujutsu, the founder of Hapkiyusool, a forerunner of Hapkido. DoJuNim Ji, Han Jae a student of the teacher known only as Master / Wise-Man Lee, who taught "Sam Rang Do", more, as well as "Grandma", who he considered to be his spiritual teacher. Though formed in Seoul, the first official school for Sin Moo Hapkido was not opened until 1984 in Daly City, where Ji began teaching his new art. Sin Moo Hapkido incorporates a philosophy of non-violence, self-improvement and physical, emotional and spiritual balance, with the basic Hapkido training. Additionally, Sin Moo Hapkido formalizes a series of techniques, although at advanced levels students are expected to synthesize their own work.
The use of energy flows are emphasized in Sin Moo Hapkido. Sin Moo Hapkido uses holds, joint locks, throws, re-direction, punches, pressure points and energy flow techniques. Holds and joint locks are used for control of an aggressor, they are defensive, but at more advanced levels can be interpreted as attacks. At the 4th dan black belt there is taught 30 special attack techniques using variations and combinations of basic locks. Throws and re-direction of an aggressor's energy use an attacker's momentum to continue their own motion using the circular motion principle of Hapkido; these techniques depend on the incoming energy of the attack to determine their outcome. A large or powerful attack will result in a re-direction or throw that involves much more energy, translating to a more devastating outcome upon the attacker; the blocks used in Sin Moo Hapkido are also re-direction blocks, but some blocks are intended to be used to stop an aggressor's attack and because of this some blocks are hard blocks.
Legs are used for blocking. Sin Moo Hapkido uses a wide variety of strikes. Sin Moo Hapkido incorporates 25 defensive kicks that are useful in "street style" defensive situations that counter incoming attacks – out of the 25 two are specially only used to block kicks, but some of the other kicks can be used the same way also. Many of the kicks are designed for use in restricted spaces like crowds. After learning the basic 25 the student learns 7 spin kicks, followed by many special kicks. Special kicks are harder to master but they need more room to be used, they include doublekicks, from the ground done kicks and combination kicks. Sin Moo Hapkido has numerous striking techniques. Pressure points are used in Hapkido to control the physical body, to manipulate the body's Ki to stop and disable an attacker or heal a patient. Sin Moo Hapkido uses many pressure points out of the body's over 750 pressure points; the pressure points are referred to as vital points. Sin Moo Hapkido has a special side called Revival Techniques, which specializes on pressure point fighting and eastern medicine.
Sin Moo Hapkido weapon training consist the use of short stick, long stick, the sword, handkerchief, long-belt/scarf, thrown weapons and adapting everyday objects to use as weapons. Weapon training is learned in the black belt stages, but knife defense techniques are learned at Brown Belt. Sin Moo Hapkido's ranking system is somewhat similar to other ranking systems. Gups are beginner student dans are advanced student stages. Though Sin Moo Hapkido has had a number of different revisions as far as rank structure, this is the current organization used by Ji, Han Jae.. Dojunim Ji, Han Jae himself has associated official titles to Dan ranks, adding a "best of the best" rank beyond 10th Dan, he has asked all his top students to help the "best of the bests" in their task of expanding and developing Sin Moo Hapkido. Belt Ranks: White Belt Yellow Belt Green Belt Blue Belt Red Belt Brown BeltBlack Belts: 1st Dan: Black Belt 2nd Dan: Assistant 3rd Dan: Assistant Instructor 4th Dan: Instructor 5th Dan: Master 6th Dan: Chief Master 7th Dan: Head Master 8th Dan: Senior Master 9th Dan: Senior Grandmaster 10th Dan: Supreme Grandmaster Beyond Dan ranks: "Best of the bes