Amon Amarth is a Swedish melodic death metal band from Tumba, formed in 1992. The band takes its name from the Sindarin name of Mount Doom, a volcano in J. R. R. Tolkien′s Middle-earth, their lyrics deal with Viking mythology and history, so they have been linked with viking metal, although the band themselves prefer to be referred to as melodic death metal. The band is composed of lead guitarist Olavi Mikkonen, vocalist Johan Hegg, bassist Ted Lundström, rhythm guitarist Johan Söderberg, drummer Jocke Wallgren. Amon Amarth has released ten studio albums, one compilation album, one EP, one video album, ten music videos, its first studio album, Once Sent from the Golden Hall, debuted in 1998. Five more studio releases followed, before the band saw its breakthrough with the 2008 album Twilight of the Thunder God, which debuted at No. 10 on the Swedish album charts and No. 50 on the US Billboard 200. Three more albums, Surtur Rising, Deceiver of the Gods, Jomsviking followed in 2011, 2013, 2016, respectively.
On May 3, 2019 Amon Amarth will release their new studio album titled "Berserker". The band emerged from the previous death metal band Scum, founded in 1988 by Paul "Themgoroth" Mäkitalo on vocals, Olavi Mikkonen on lead guitar, Petri Tarvainen on bass and Vesa Meriläinen rhythm guitar. After a 1991 demo, Scum broke up and Amon Amarth formed in 1992. Hegg replaced Mäkitalo on vocals, Anders Hansson joined on guitar, Ted Lundström replaced Tarvainen on bass. Recorded its first demo Thor Arise. Raw and uneven in sound and execution, it was never released due to low quality standards, but the band caught the attention of extreme metal fans with its own "infectious brand of epic-sounding brutality and unadorned conviction". In 1994 another demo entitled The Arrival of the Fimbul Winter was recorded. In 1996, they signed with Pulverised Records, on which they released their first MCD, Sorrow Throughout the Nine Worlds, which sold 6000 copies, they signed with Metal Blade Records which released the debut album Once Sent from the Golden Hall.
Described as "a compelling fusion of buzzsaw riff work, melodic harmonies and soul-crushing rhythms punctuated by Hegg’s callous black/death roar and accounts of Norse battles and treachery" it made sure Amon Amarth's popularity rose internationally. According to Allmusic, the song that bore the group's namesake was the most memorable, containing "the chaotic noises of battle, the screams of the dying, much sword-clashing to boot." Since they have performed at multiple Canada and US tours, festival appearances, eight music videos, appearances in over 100 metal magazines. In June 1998, as the band was about to commence a tour alongside Deicide, Six Feet Under and Brutal Truth, guitarist Anders Hansson left and was replaced by Johan Soderberg. After the tour Martin Lopez quit to join Opeth and Fredrik Andersson came in. With him in Spring 1999 the band released its second full-length, The Avenger; the release was supported by the X-Mas Massacre Festivals Tour with Morbid Angel headlining. The Crusher, released in 2001, was considered to be its most aggressive album.
In support of it the band went on tour with Vader, taking part in No Mercy Festival. Its first American tour in autumn 2001 though had to be cancelled and was held in January 2002, without Marduk, Amon Amarth headlining. In April 2002 the band toured Europe with Vomitory and in August performed at Wacken Open Air before 12.000 metal fans. In Berno Studio in Malmo Versus The World was recorded and came out, The Viking Edition comprising a bonus CD which included demos Thor Arise and Arrival Of The Fimbul Winter. Touring continued up until Spring 2004 when the band started working on Fate of Norns album, released on 6 September 2004; the follow-up, With Oden on Our Side, has shown that "Amon Amarth continue to be champions of the worldwide death metal tournament" and rose to number 26 in the US Top Independent album charts. The album's material though was not included in the DVD Wrath Of The Norsemen, released in May 2006, having turned gold in US since. In early January 2008, its first tour of Australia and New Zealand took place, supporting Dimmu Borgir, after finishing a US and Canadian tour with Sonic Syndicate and Himsa.
Amon Amarth extended its record deal with Metal Blade Records for three more albums. After extending its record deal, the band released Twilight of the Thunder God, which featured guest appearances by Lars Göran Petrov of Entombed, Roope Latvala of Children of Bodom, the cello metal band Apocalyptica. Accompanying the release of the album was an eight-page comic strip based on Norse mythology, released by magazines in Europe. Twilight of the Thunder God, considered its breakthrough album, reached number 50 in the US, number 6 in Germany, number 10 in Finland, number 11 in Sweden, number 14 in Austria, number 21 in Switzerland, it ended up at the number 7 position in Revolver Magazine’s Top 20 Albums that year. Amon Amarth embarked on a North American headlining tour in October 2008, with support from Ensiferum and The Absence. In 2009 the band returned to the States for another successful series of dates with Goatwhore and Lazarus AD and in 2010 with Holy Grail and Eluveitie. In between, Amon Amarth were named "Best Breakthrough Act" at Metal Hammer's prestigious Golden Gods Awards.
The band supported Slayer in its Unholy Alliance Chapter III European tour. Amon Amarth played its first show in India, headlining the Deccan Rock Festival in Bangalore on 5 December 2009. On
The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim
The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim is an action role-playing video game developed by Bethesda Game Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks. It is the fifth main installment in The Elder Scrolls series, following The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, was released worldwide for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 on November 11, 2011; the game's main story revolves around the player character's quest to defeat Alduin the World-Eater, a dragon, prophesied to destroy the world. The game is set 200 years after the events of Oblivion and takes place in Skyrim, the northernmost province of Tamriel. Over the course of the game, the player completes quests and develops the character by improving skills; the game continues the open-world tradition of its predecessors by allowing the player to travel anywhere in the game world at any time, to ignore or postpone the main storyline indefinitely. Skyrim was developed using the Creation Engine, rebuilt for the game; the team opted for a unique and more diverse open world than Oblivion's Imperial Province of Cyrodiil, which game director and executive producer Todd Howard considered less interesting by comparison.
The game was released to critical acclaim, with reviewers mentioning the character advancement and setting, is considered to be one of the greatest video games of all time. Nonetheless it received some criticism, predominantly for its melee combat and numerous technical issues present at launch; the game shipped over seven million copies to retailers within the first week of its release, over 30 million copies on all platforms as of November 2016, making it one of the highest selling video games in history. Three downloadable content add-ons were released—Dawnguard and Dragonborn—which were repackaged into The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim – Legendary Edition and released in June 2013; the Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim – Special Edition is a remastered version of the game released for Windows, Xbox One, PlayStation 4 in October 2016. It includes all three DLC expansions and a graphical upgrade, along with additional features such as modding capabilities on consoles. Versions were released in November 2017 for the Nintendo Switch and PlayStation VR, a stand-alone virtual reality version for Windows was released in April 2018.
The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim is an action role-playing game, playable from either a first or third-person perspective. The player may roam over the land of Skyrim, an open world environment consisting of wilderness expanses, cities, towns and villages. Players may navigate the game world more by riding horses or by utilizing a fast-travel system which allows them to warp to discovered locations; the game's main quest can be completed or ignored at the player's preference after the first stage of the quest is finished. However, some quests rely on the main storyline being at least completed. Non-player characters populate the world and can be interacted with in a number of ways: the player may engage them in conversation, marry an eligible NPC, kill them or engage in a nonlethal "brawl"; as in previous The Elder Scrolls games, killing certain NPCs can make some quests or items unobtainable. Some NPCs cannot be killed due to their importance in storylines. If witnessed, crimes like murder and theft accrue the player a bounty, tracked independently in each of Skyrim's nine holds.
Should the player be stopped by a guard, they may wipe their bounty with gold or jail time or may resist arrest which will trigger an aggressive pursuit. NPCs may offer the player additional side-quests and some side-quests have parameters adjusted based on nearby dungeons which the player has yet to explore; some NPCs who are befriended or hired by the player may act as companions who will accompany the player and aid them in combat. The player may choose to join factions which are organized groups of NPCs — for example, the Dark Brotherhood, a band of assassins; each of the factions has an associated quest path to progress through. Each city and town in the game world has jobs. Players have the option to develop their character. At the beginning of the game, players create their character by selecting their sex and choosing between one of several races including humans, orcs and anthropomorphic cat or lizard-like creatures and customizing their character's appearance. Over the course of the game, players improve their character's skills which are numerical representations of their ability in certain areas.
There are eighteen skills divided evenly among the three schools of combat and stealth. When players have trained skills enough to meet the required experience, their character levels up; each time their character levels, the players may choose to select a skill-specific ability called a perk or store perk points for use. Earlier entries in The Elder Scrolls series used a character class system to determine which skills would contribute to the character's leveling but Skyrim allows players to discover preferred skills as they play the game and it rewards them with more experience when a used skill is leveled. A head-up display appears. Attributes regenerate over time, although this process can be accelerated by using potions or regenerative spells. Health is depleted when the player takes damage and the loss of all health results in death. Magicka is depleted by the use of spells, certain poisons and by being struck by lightning-based attacks. Stamina determines the player's effectiveness in combat and is depleted by sprinting, performing heavy "power attacks" and being struck by frost-based attack
Final Fantasy XIV
Final Fantasy XIV is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed and published by Square Enix. Directed and produced by Naoki Yoshida, it was released worldwide for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation 3 in August 2013, with clients for PlayStation 4 and macOS following later; the game, known as Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn, is a replacement for the 2010 version of Final Fantasy XIV, shut down after negative reception at its launch. Final Fantasy XIV takes place in the fictional land of Eorzea, five years after the events of the original release. At the conclusion of the original game, the primal dragon Bahamut escapes from its lunar prison to initiate the Seventh Umbral Calamity, an apocalyptic event which destroys much of Eorzea. Through the gods' blessing, the player character escapes the devastation by time traveling five years into the future; as Eorzea recovers and rebuilds, the player must deal with the impending threat of invasion by the Garlean Empire from the north.
The original Final Fantasy XIV released in September 2010 to negative reception. As a result, then-Square Enix President Yoichi Wada announced that a new team, led by Yoshida, would take over and attempt to fix the issues with it; this team was responsible for generating content for the original version as well as developing a brand new game which would address all of the previous release's criticisms. Dubbed "Version 2.0", it features a new game engine, improved server structures, revamped gameplay and story replacing the original. The game released to positive reception; the first major content patch—"A Realm Awoken"—was deployed in December 2013, introduced player housing, player versus player arena battles, new quests, the first 24-player raid, Crystal Tower. Subsequent content patches have been released every three months. After a poor 2013 fiscal year, Square Enix executives attributed the company's 2014 return to profitability in part to the game's strong sales and subscriber base, reaching a total of over 14 million registered players by 2018.
Since release, the game has had three major expansion packs produced for it, Heavensward and Shadowbringers. Final Fantasy XIV is an MMORPG and features a persistent world in which players can interact with each other and the environment. Players create and customize their characters for use in the game, including name, gender, facial features, starting class. Unlike in the original release, players may only choose to be a Disciple of War or Magic as a starting class—Disciples of the Hand and Land are unavailable. Players must select a game world for characters to exist on. While servers are not explicitly delineated by language, data centers have been placed in the supported regions to improve the communication latency between the server and the client computer and players are recommended to choose a server in their region. Regardless of server or language, the game features a large library of automatically translated game terms and general phrases which allow players who speak different languages to communicate.
The user interface and game controls are unified across the home console versions. Players have the option of using any combination of a keyboard and game controller to play. By default, the system is navigated through drag and drop windows on PC. Navigation on the PlayStation version of Final Fantasy XIV is accomplished with a XrossMediaBar-like interface due to platform users' familiarity with the set-up; this bar is used to access all menus, maps and configuration options. The head-up display for both versions includes a message log, party status menu, mini-map, action bar; the player may customize the location of all of these elements. The action bar and battle command input method differs between the PC and PlayStation versions; the PC version supports both point and click and keyboard selection of commands or macros from the action bar. Macro commands are customizable sequences of actions that allow players to execute desired abilities at a specific time; the PlayStation version instead maps the action bar and macros to the "Cross Hotbar"—sets of four icons arranged in a cross shape.
These are the grouped and accessed through a combination of the L2 and the R2 buttons and the directional pad or the face buttons. Using each shoulder button to cycle through the cross sets, players have quick access to commands; this interface is available to PC players who use controllers. Players are able to improve their characters by gaining experience points —when a set number of experience points are accumulated, the player's character will "level up" and gain improved statistics which further enhance performance in battle; the four primary sources of experience points in Final Fantasy XIV are through completing quests, exploring instanced dungeons, participating in Full Active Time Events, slaying monsters which exist in the game world. Quests, including the "main scenario" questline, are short, specific tasks given to the player by non-player characters which reward items and EXP. Completing main scenario quests progresses the overarching plot of the game. Guildleves are a type of repeatable quest.
These allowances regenerate over time. Instanced dungeons are confined locations with specific objectives that must be achieved within a time limit; these dungeons require multiple players to form a party. Some dungeons are for low
Eve Online is a space-based, persistent world massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed and published by CCP Games. Players of Eve Online can participate in a number of in-game professions and activities, including mining, manufacturing, trading and combat; the game contains a total of 7,800 star systems. The game is renowned for its scale and complexity with regards to player interactions – in its single, shared game world, players engage in unscripted economic competition and political schemes with other players; the Bloodbath of B-R5RB, a battle involving thousands of players in a single star system, took 21 hours and was recognized as one of the largest and most expensive battles in gaming history. Eve Online was exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art with a video including the historical events and accomplishments of the playerbase. Eve Online was released in North America and Europe in May 2003, it was published from May to December 2003 by Simon & Schuster Interactive, after which CCP purchased the rights and began to self-publish via a digital distribution scheme.
On January 22, 2008, it was announced. On March 10, 2009, the game was again made available in boxed form in stores, released by Atari, Inc. In February 2013, Eve Online reached over 500,000 subscribers. On November 11, 2016, Eve Online added a limited free-to-play version. Set more than 21,000 years in the future, the background story of Eve Online explains that humanity, having used up most of Earth's resources through centuries of explosive population growth, began colonizing the rest of the Milky Way; as on Earth, this expansion led to competition and fighting over available resources, but everything changed with the discovery of a natural wormhole leading to an unexplored galaxy subsequently dubbed "New Eden." Dozens of colonies were founded, a structure, a gate of sorts, was built to stabilize the wormhole that linked the colonies of New Eden with the rest of human civilization. However, when the wormhole unexpectedly collapsed, it destroyed the gate as well as the connection between the colonies of New Eden and the Milky Way.
Cut off from the rest of humanity and supplies from Earth, the colonies of New Eden were left starving and disconnected from one another. Over the millennia the descendants of the surviving colonists managed to rebuild their own societies, but by this time the memories and knowledge of humanity's origins, of Earth and the Milky Way galaxy, as well as the history of the settling of New Eden, was lost. Five major distinct societies rose to prominence from the surviving colonies, each growing into interstellar spaceflight-capable civilizations; the states based around these societies make up the five major factions in Eve Online: the Amarr Empire, the Caldari State, the Gallente Federation, the Minmatar Republic and the Jove Directorate. The Amarr, a militantly theocratic empire, was the first of the playable races to rediscover faster-than-light travel. In terms of physical proximity, the space occupied by this society is physically nearest to the demolished EVE gate. Armed with this new technology and the strength of their faith in their god, the Amarr expanded their empire by conquering and enslaving several races, including the Minmatar race, who had only just begun colonizing other planets.
Generations after the intense culture shock of encountering the Gallente Federation, in the wake of a disastrous attempted invasion of Jovian space, many Minmatar took the opportunity to rebel and overthrew their enslavers, forming their own government. However, much of their population remain enslaved by the Amarr, some, having adopted the Amarrian religion and sided with their masters during the revolution, were released from bondage and incorporated into the Empire as commoners in the Ammatar Mandate; the free Minmatar Republic, taking as inspiration the ideals and practices of the Gallente Federation, is presently a strong military and economic power seeking the emancipation of their brethren and all other slaves. The Gallente and the Caldari homeworlds are situated in the same star system; the Gallente homeworld was settled by descendants of the French colonists of Tau Ceti. The terraforming of Caldari Prime was incomplete at the time of the EVE wormhole's collapse and the planet remained environmentally inhospitable for millennia.
The Gallente restored themselves to a high-functioning technological society some hundred years before the Caldari, building the first lastingly democratic republic of New Eden in the form of the Gallente Federation. The Caldari composed a member race within the Federation, but cultural animosity between the two peoples spiralled into a war during which the Caldari seceded from the Federation to found their own Caldari State; the war lasted 93 years, with neither nation able to overwhelm the other. The planet Caldari Prime was retained by the Gallente Federation during the war, did not become part of the new Caldari State. Much more however, a Caldari offensive managed to recapture their lost homeworld, a fact, viewed with abhorrence by the Gallente, who see the presence of a significant Caldari fleet about the planet as a mass hostage taking. Both the Gallente Federation and Caldari State are economically- and trade-oriented
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson. Several versions exist, all of text from the Icelandic medieval manuscript known as the Codex Regius; the Codex Regius is arguably the most important extant source on Norse mythology and Germanic heroic legends. From the early 19th century onwards, it has had a powerful influence on Scandinavian literatures. Not only by its stories, but by the visionary force and the dramatic quality of many of the poems, it has become an inspiring model for many innovations in poetic meter in Nordic languages, offering many varied examples of terse, stress-based metrical schemes that lack any final rhyme by instead using alliterative devices and strongly-concentrated imagery. Poets who have acknowledged their debt to the Codex Regius include Vilhelm Ekelund, August Strindberg, J. R. R. Tolkien, Ezra Pound, Jorge Luis Borges, Karin Boye. Codex Regius was written in the 13th century, but nothing is known of its whereabouts until 1643, when it came into the possession of Brynjólfur Sveinsson Bishop of Skálholt.
At the time, versions of the Edda were known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that there once was another Edda, an Elder Edda, which contained the pagan poems that Snorri quotes in his Edda. When Codex Regius was discovered, it seemed that the speculation had proved, but modern scholarly research has shown that Edda was written first and the two were, at most, connected by a common source. Brynjólfur attributed the manuscript to Sæmundr the Learned, a larger-than-life 12th century Icelandic priest; that attribution is rejected by modern scholars, but the name Sæmundar Edda is still sometimes associated with both the "Codex Regius" and versions of "Poetic Edda" using it as a source. Bishop Brynjólfur sent Codex Regius as a present to the Danish king. For centuries, it was stored in the Royal Library in Copenhagen but in 1971, it was returned to Iceland; the Eddic poems are composed in alliterative verse. Most are in fornyrðislag; the rest, about a quarter, are composed in ljóðaháttr. The language of the poems is clear and unadorned.
Kennings are employed, though they do not arise as nor are they as complex, as those found in skaldic poetry. Like most early poetry, the Eddic poems were minstrel poems, passing orally from singer to singer and from poet to poet for centuries. None of the poems are attributed to a particular author, though many of them show strong individual characteristics and are to have been the work of individual poets. Scholars sometimes speculate on hypothetical authors, but firm and accepted conclusions have never been reached; the dating of the poems has been a source of lively scholarly argument for a long time, firm conclusions are hard to reach. Lines from the Eddic poems sometimes appear in poems by known poets, but such evidence is difficult to evaluate. For example, Eyvindr skáldaspillir composed in the latter half of the 10th century, he uses a couple of lines in his Hákonarmál which are found in Hávamál, it is possible that he was quoting a known poem, but it is possible that Hávamál, or at least the strophe in question, is the younger derivative work.
The few demonstrably historical characters mentioned in the poems, such as Attila, provide a terminus post quem of sorts. The dating of the manuscripts themselves provides a more useful terminus ante quem. Individual poems have individual clues to their age. For example, Atlamál hin groenlenzku is claimed by its title to have been composed in Greenland, seems so by some internal evidence. If so, it can be no earlier than about 985, since there were no Scandinavians in Greenland until that time. In some cases, old poems may have been merged with other poems. For example, stanzas 9-16 of Völuspá, the "Dvergatal" or "Roster of Dwarfs", is considered by some scholars to be an interpolation; the problem of dating the poems is linked with the problem of finding out. Iceland was not settled until about 870, so anything composed before that time would have been elsewhere, most in Scandinavia. Any young poems, on the other hand, are Icelandic in origin. Scholars have attempted to localize individual poems by studying the geography and fauna to which they refer.
This approach does not yield firm results. For example, there are no wolves in Iceland, but we can be sure that Icelandic poets were familiar with the species; the apocalyptic descriptions of Völuspá have been taken as evidence that the poet who composed it had seen a volcanic eruption in Iceland - but this is hardly certain. Some poems similar to those found in Codex Regius are included in some editions of the Poetic Edda. Important manuscripts include AM 748 I Hauksbók and Flateyjarbók. Many of the poems are quoted in Snorri's Edda, but only in bits and pieces. What poems are included in an edition of the Poetic Edda depends on the editor; those not in Codex Regius are sometimes called Eddica minora, from their appearance in an edition with that title edited by Andreas Heusler and Wilhelm Ranisch in 1903. English translators are not consistent on the translations of the names of the Eddic poems or on how the Old Norse forms should be rendered in English. Up to three translated titles are given below, taken from the translations of Bellows and Larrington with proper names in the normalized English forms found in John Lindow's Norse Mythology and in Andy Orchard's Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend.
In Norse mythology, Ratatoskr is a squirrel who runs up and down the world tree Yggdrasil to carry messages between the eagle perched atop Yggdrasil, the serpent Níðhöggr, who dwells beneath one of the three roots of the tree. Ratatoskr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson; the name Ratatoskr contains two elements: rata- and -toskr. The element toskr is held to mean "tusk". Guðbrandur Vigfússon theorized that the rati- element means "the traveller", he says. According to Vigfússon, Ratatoskr means "tusk the traveller" or "the climber tusk."Sophus Bugge theorized that the name Ratatoskr is a loanword from Old English meaning "Rat-tooth." Bugge's basis hinges on the fact that the -toskr element of the compound does not appear anywhere else in Old Norse. Bugge proposed that the -toskr element is a reformation of the Old English word tūsc and, in turn, that the element Rata- represents Old English ræt.
According to Albert Sturtevant, " far as the element Rata- is concerned, Bugge's hypothesis has no valid foundation in view of the fact that the word Rata is used in Háv to signify the instrument which Odin employed for boring his way through the rocks in quest of the poet's mead " and that "Rati* must be considered a native word meaning "The Borer, Gnawer" ". Sturtevant says that Bugge's theory regarding the element -toskr may appear to be supported by the fact that the word does not appear elsewhere in Old Norse. Sturtevant, disagrees. Sturtevant says that the Old Norse proper name Tunne refers to "a person, characterized as having some peculiar sort of tooth" and theorizes a Proto-Germanic form of -toskr. Sturtevant concludes that "the fact that the word occurs only in the name Rata-toskr is no valid evidence against this assumption, for there are many hapax legomena of native origin, as is attested by the equivalents in the Mod Scandinavian dialects." Modern scholars have accepted this etymology, listing the name Ratatoskr as meaning "drill-tooth" or "bore-tooth".
In the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, the god Odin says that Ratatoskr runs up and down Yggdrasil bringing messages between the eagle perched atop it and Níðhöggr below it: Ratatoskr is described in the Prose Edda's Gylfaginning's chapter 16, in which High states that An eagle sits at the top of the ash, it has knowledge of many things. Between its eyes sits the hawk called Vedrfolnir; the squirrel called Ratatosk runs down the ash. He tells slanderous gossip, Nidhogg. According to Rudolf Simek, "the squirrel only represents an embellishing detail to the mythological picture of the world-ash in Grímnismál". Hilda Ellis Davidson, describing the world tree, states the squirrel is said to gnaw at it—furthering a continual destruction and re-growth cycle, posits the tree symbolizes ever-changing existence. John Lindow points out that Yggdrasil is described as rotting on one side and as being chewed on by four harts and Níðhöggr, that, according to the account in Gylfaginning, it bears verbal hostility in the fauna it supports.
Lindow adds that "in the sagas, a person who helps stir up or keep feuds alive by ferrying words of malice between the participants is one of high status, which may explain the assignment of this role in the mythology to a insignificant animal". Richard W. Thorington Jr. and Katie Ferrell theorize that "the role of Ratatosk derived from the habit of European tree squirrels to give a scolding alarm call in response to danger. It takes little imagination for you to think that the squirrel is saying nasty things about you."
Xerneas and Yveltal
Xerneas and Yveltal are two legendary Pokémon species in Nintendo and Game Freak's Pokémon franchise, debuting as the version mascots in the 2013 Nintendo 3DS games Pokémon X and Y. Both creatures were jointly designed by Atsuko Nishida over a period of 18 months, their designs draw inspiration from Norse mythology and are based on the shapes "X" and "Y". Known as the Life and Destruction Pokémon Xerneas and Yveltal are powerful creatures said to have shaped the history of the Pokémon world. Xerneas and Yveltal appeared in many media since their debut. Both Pokémon received. Development of Pokémon X and Y began in 2010, the games were released worldwide on October 12, 2013; the titles X and Y, representing the x-axis and y-axis—also reflecting different forms of thinking—were chosen early in development. At the request of game director Junichi Masuda, the shapes "X" and "Y" were used as the framework for the boxart legendary Pokémon: Xernas and Yveltal. Following tradition that began with Red and Green, Ken Sugimori was tasked with designing these two legendary Pokémon.
Sugimori designs the legendary Pokémon by himself. Finalization of their designs took about 18 months, 3 times longer than normal. Xerneas is a large stag-like Pokémon adorned with glowing antlers and Yveltal is a large y-shaped bird. Part of a Legendary trio alongside Zygarde, the designs of Xerneas and Yveltal are rooted in Norse Mythology. Xerneas traces to the Eikþyrnir, a stag that stands atop Valhalla, while Yveltal is inspired by the Hræsvelgr, a giant eagle able to make the wind blow by flapping its wings; some fans speculate that the two Pokémon draw inspiration from the three layers of an organism in biology: neurons, blood vessels and muscles, endodermal tissue. When asked about this theory by Kotaku, J. C. Smith of The Pokémon Company International stated he did not know if it was true but called the idea "fascinating and well thought out". Xerneas and Yveltal represent destruction, respectively. Xerneas can grant eternal life. Xerneas donned the newly introduced Fairy-type and a new ability called Fairy Aura, which raises the power of all Fairy-type attacks in-battle.
Yveltal is a dual Dark- and Flying-type with the unique ability Dark Aura which has the same effect as Xerneas' ability but for Dark-type attacks. Additionally, both Pokémon have unique attacks: Geomancy for Xerneas and Oblivion Wing for Yveltal. Within the main series games and Yveltal were at first only available in X and Y but were made once again available for capture without an in-game event when Pokémon Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon were released in 2017, they serve a pivotal role in X and Y's story, providing the energy necessary for Team Flare to power their super weapon as well as being the reason for the villainous team's downfall. They can only be encountered once. From May 11 to 17, 2016, a shiny Xerneas was distributed via Wi-Fi to players using X, Y, Omega Ruby, Alpha Sapphire. An identical distribution of a shiny Yveltal took place the following week from May 20 to 28. Yveltal appears as one of the primary antagonists in Pokémon Super Mystery Dungeon, turning numerous characters to stone while under control of the primary antagonist "Dark Matter".
During the story's climax, Yveltal is turned to stone by Dark Matter before being saved by the player character. After Dark Matter is defeated, Xerneas appears from the "Tree of Life" and enables to player to evolve any party member. Yveltal is able to join the player's team. Xerneas and Yveltal appear in multiple other spinoff titles, including Pokémon Art Academy, Pokémon Rumble World, Pokémon Battle Trozei, Pokémon Shuffle, Pokémon Picross. Yveltal is featured in the 2015 fighting game Pokkén Tournament as an assist character that can temporarily stop the player's opponent from using their Synergy Gauge; the 2016 mobile strategy game Pokémon Duel features both as EX-level figures. Additionally, Xerneas appears as an assist character and trophy in Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U. Yveltal has a cameo appearance in both the 3DS and Wii U versions of the game, sometimes showing up in the background of the Prism Tower stage on the Nintendo 3DS version. Both Xerneas and Yveltal appeared in the seventeenth Pokémon movie: Diancie and the Cocoon of Destruction and its manga adaptation.
They made minor appearances in the Pokémon: XY anime, Yveltal further appeared in Pokémon Generations. The two legendary Pokémon reprise their role from X and Y in the Pokémon Adventures manga during the X & Y chapter, they made minor appearances in the Let's Play the Pokémon Card Game XY! manga. Furthermore, both appear on multiple cards in the Pokémon Trading Card Game. Xerneas and Yveltal were revealed on January 8, 2013, as part of the announcement of Pokémon X and Y during a Pokémon Direct broadcast. Three limited-edition Nintendo 3DS XL bundles were designed for Xerneas and Yveltal, a blue and red one featuring both Pokémon and a gold one featuring Xerneas, Chespin and Froakie. Pre-orders of X and Y in Japan were bundled with miniature figurines of the two legendary Pokémon. In 2014, three limited edition Nintendo 3DS XL systems featuring Xerneas and Yveltal were distributed at football matches played by Yokohama F. Marinos, Urawa Red Diamonds, FC Tokyo. In an IGN poll with more than 8 million participants, Yveltal ranked as the second-most popular of the 69 known