Wolf Heinrich von Baudissin
Wolf Heinrich von Baudissin or Bauditz was a distinguished Protestant German cavalry commander who rose to the rank of field marshal during the Thirty Years' War. He was a member of an old noble family of Lusatian-Silesian origin. Born in Luppa, Upper Lusatia, Baudissin entered Danish service when he was 28, being promoted to Oberst in 1625, he fought under Ernst von Mansfeld and led his troops after the death of Mansfeld in 1626. After the Treaty of Lübeck Baudissin entered the service of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden as a colonel of horse, fighting in the Polish campaign of 1627-29, where he was captured by the Poles and exchanged. With his cavalry regiment he accompanied Gustavus Adolphus to Germany in 1630, led a contingent of Swedish forces at Werben in 1631, in Westphalia, near Cologne, he captured Bingen, besieged Spanish troops at Drachenfels Castle, sacked in the town of Andernach in 1633, rising to general-leutnant of cavalry in Swedish service. After disagreements with various Swedish commanders he left Swedish employ and entered the service of the Electorate of Saxony as a Generalfeldmarschall and was defeated by the Swedes at Dömitz.
Baudissin was wounded during a siege of Magdeburg in 1636 and forced to retire. He subsequently became a Saxon diplomat to Poland. Baudissin became part of the German nobility of Holstein, he died in Luppa
An outer bailey or outer ward is the defended outer enclosure of a castle. It protects the inner bailey and contains those ancillary buildings used for the management of the castle or the supply of its occupants; these domestic buildings could include livestock stalls and stables. In many cases there was a brewery, a bakehouse and a kitchen, if the latter was not located in the hall or palas. An outer bailey was called a base court in England. Depending on topography it could be referred to as a lower bailey or lower ward, the keep being in the upper bailey or ward. Chepstow Castle has lower and upper baileys; the domestic buildings of the continental schloss a stately home or palace, may be referred to as an outer ward. These contained a carriage house or a cavalier house, buildings that were not common in medieval castles. Large castles have more than one bailey. At some larger castles, markets were held in the outer bailey. Outer baileys were enclosed and protected by a ring wall and separated from the actual living area of the castle – the inner ward and keep – by a moat, a wall and a gate.
In lowland castles, the outer bailey is arranged in a half-moon shape around the main castle. In the case of hill castles, the topographic features of the terrain had to be taken account of, with the result that the outer bailey was slightly lower than the inner ward, hence the alternative names of "lower bailey" or "lower ward". Rudelsburg Castle in Saxony-Anhalt is one of the rare cases of a hill castle where both baileys are at the same level. In many cases the main entrance to the inner living quarters led through the outer bailey, which thus formed a kind of defensive buffer and also served as refuge for the villagers who lived outside the castle walls; this explains why the castle chapel was found in the bailey: it served as the parish church for the commoners. Bailey Inner bailey Motte and bailey Horst Wolfgang Böhme, Reinhard Friedrich, Barbara Schock-Werner: Dictionary of castles and fortresses. Reclam, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-15-010547-1, page 255-256. Friedrich-Wilhelm Krahe: Castles and tower houses of the German Middle Ages.
Volume 1 Thorbecke, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-7995-0104-5, page 53-55. Otto Piper: Burgenkunde. Reprint of the edition of 1912. Weltbild, Augsburg 1994, ISBN 3-89350-554-7, pp. 10–11
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A bergfried is a tall tower, found in castles of the Middle Ages in German-speaking countries and in countries under German influence. Friar describes it as a "free-standing, fighting-tower", its defensive function is to some extent similar to that of a keep in French castles. However, the characteristic difference between a bergfried and a keep is that a bergfried was not designed for permanent habitation; the living quarters of a castle with a bergfried are separate in a lower tower or an adjacent building called a palas Consequently, a bergfried could be built as a tall slender tower with little internal room, few vaults and few if any windows. The bergfried served as a refuge during sieges; the distinction between a bergfried and a keep is not always clear-cut, as there were thousands of such towers built with many variations. There are some French keeps with only austere living quarters, while some late bergfrieds in Germany were intended to be habitable. For maximum protection, the bergfried could be sited on its own in the centre of the castle's inner bailey and separate from the enceinte.
Alternatively, it could be close to or up against the outer curtain wall on the most vulnerable side as an additional defence, or project from the wall. For instance, the Marksburg has its bergfried in the centre, Katz Castle on the most direction of attack. Some, like Plesse Castles, have two bergfrieds. Outside Germany, the crusader castles of Montfort Castle and Khirbat Jiddin built by the Teutonic Order had prominent towers that some authors have compared to bergfrieds, arguing that these castles depended more on Rhineland than local crusader traditions of military architecture. Eynsford Castle in Kent is a rare English example, where the bergfried is the central element of the design; the word'"bergfried", sometimes rendered perfrit, berchfrit or berfride and many similar variants in medieval documents, did not just refer to a castle tower, but was used to describe most other types of tower, such as siege towers, bell towers or storage buildings. The main tower of a castle was simply referred to as a "tower" or "big tower".
In late medieval Low German documents, the terms berchfrit and similar variants appeared in connexion with smaller castles. German castle research during the 19th century introduced Bergfried or Berchfrit as the general term for a non-residential main tower, these terms became established in the literature; the etymological origin of the word is unclear. There are theories about it being derived from Middle High German or Latin, or from a Greek word brought back from the Crusades. A theory, stated in older texts, that the bergfried took its name from the phrase "weil er den Frieden berge", i.e. it guaranteed the security of the castle, cannot be confirmed. The bergfried established itself as a new type of building during the 12th century and from about 1180 to the 14th century became a feature of the Central European castles. Numerous examples have survived from this period to their full height. However, the origin of the design is not understood, since towers dating from before the 12th century have had to be entirely excavated archaeologically, only the lowest sections remain.
Individual examples may be found dating to as early as the second half of the 11th century. The precursor of the bergfried is the fortified tower house, whose Western European expression is called a donjon or keep. Residential towers were common before the advent of the bergfried in German-speaking countries, too. Donjons combine the two contrasting functions of a stately, comfortable residence and a fortification; the bergfried, dispenses with the keep's residential function in favour of its defensive purposes. At the same time, new forms of unfortified residential building became popular, the palas, for example, was incorporated into castle construction; the emergence of the bergfried is thus related to the differentiation of living and fortification within a castle. In Western Europe however, the donjon or keep, with their combination of domestic and defensive functions, continued to be predominant during the course of the Middle Ages; the bergfried forms the main tower in the centre of the castle or is positioned as a wall tower on the main avenue of attack against the castle.
It may be an isolated structure standing alone amongst the other buildings of the castle or be joined to them to form a combined building complex. However the bergfried is a self-contained element, not internally connected to other buildings and has its own access; as a rule, this is a so-called elevated entrance, i.e. the entrance is located at the level of an upper floor of the tower and is accessed via its own bridge, staircase or ladder. Bergfrieds often have a square or round floor plan, but pentagonal towers are frequently encountered. There are a few examples of bergfrieds with irregular polygonal floor plans. A rare form is the triangular bergfried of Grenzau Castle near Höhr-Grenzhausen or that of Rauheneck Castle near Baden bei Wien. Towers with triangular and pentagonal floor plans invariably had a corner facing the main line of att
A triangulation station known as a triangulation pillar, trigonometrical station, trigonometrical point, trig station, trig beacon, or trig point, sometimes informally as a trig, is a fixed surveying station, used in geodetic surveying and other surveying projects in its vicinity. The nomenclature varies regionally: they are known as trigonometrical or triangulation stations in North America, trig points in the United Kingdom, trig pillars in Ireland, trig stations or points in Australia and New Zealand, trig beacons in South Africa; the station is set up by a government with known coordinate and elevation published. Many stations are located on hilltops for the purposes of visibility. A graven metal plate on the top of a pillar may provide a mounting point for a theodolite or reflector. Trigonometrical stations are grouped together to form a network of triangulation. Positions of all land boundaries, railways and other infrastructure can be located by the network, a task, essential to the construction of modern infrastructure.
Apart from the known stations set up by government, some temporary trigonometrical stations are set up near construction sites for monitoring the precision and progress of construction. Some trigonometrical stations use the Global Positioning System for convenience. Although stations are no longer required for many surveying purposes, they remain useful to hikers as navigational aids. A national geodetic survey and adjustment carried out in the early 1970s in Australia has left a legacy of trig stations, many consisting of a ground mark with a white quadripod supporting a black disc above the ground mark. Sometimes these trig stations are visible for many kilometres and useful for hikers. In Japan, there are five classes of triangulation stations: Class 1 They are installed every 40 kilometres, with smaller ones about every 25 kilometres. There are about 1000 throughout Japan; the pillars are 18 centimetres on a side, each pillar is anchored with two large perpendicular rocks buried underground.
Class 2 They are installed every 8 kilometres. There are about 5000 throughout Japan, the pillars are 15 centimetres on a side; each pillar is anchored with a large perpendicular rock buried underground. Class 3 There are about 32,000 installed throughout Japan, with one every 4 kilometres; the pillars are 15 centimetres on a side, each pillar is anchored with a large perpendicular rock buried underground. Class 4 They are installed every 2 kilometres, there are about 69,000 throughout Japan; the pillars are 12 centimetres on a side, each pillar is anchored with a large perpendicular rock buried underground. Class 5 These markers were installed in 1899 and are the predecessors to the modern triangulation stations used in Japan today, they are not used anymore since the installation of the Class 1-4 stations. Some of them still exist at various locations throughout Japan. South Africa has a network of 28,000 trig beacons, established by the Chief Directorate: National Geo-spatial Information; these beacons are white-painted concrete pillars supporting black metal plates in a cross shape, installed on mountains, hills or tall buildings.
In Spain there are 11,000 triangulation stations, concrete buildings which consist of a cylinder 120 cm high and 30 cm diameter over a concrete cubic base. They were erected by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional painted in white, can be marked with a metallic label with the warning: "The destruction of this sign is punishable by law." In the United Kingdom, trig points are concrete pillars and were erected by the Ordnance Survey. The process of placing trig points on top of prominent hills and mountains began in 1935 to assist in the accurate retriangulation of Great Britain; the Ordnance Survey's first trig point was erected on 18 April 1936 near Cold Ashby, Northamptonshire. In low-lying or flat areas some trig points are only a few metres above sea level and one is at −1 m; when all the trig points were in place, it was possible in clear weather to see at least two other trig points from any one trig point, but subsequent vegetation growth means that this is not still the case. Careful measurements of the angles between the lines-of-sight of the other trig points allowed the construction of a system of triangles which could be referenced back to a single baseline to construct a accurate measurement system that covered the entire country.
In most of the UK, trig points are truncated square concrete pyramids or obelisks tapering towards the top. On the top a brass plate with three arms and a central depression is fixed: it is used to mount and centre a theodolite used to take angular measurements to neighbouring trig points. A benchmark is set on the side, marked with the letters "O S B M" and the reference number of the trig point. Within and below the visible trig point, there are concealed reference marks whose National Grid References are known; the standard trig point design is credited to Brigadier Martin Hotine, head of the Trigonometrical and Levelling
Normalnull or Normal-Null is an outdated official vertical datum used in Germany. Elevations using this reference system were to be marked "Meter über Normal-Null". Normalnull has been replaced by Normalhöhennull. In 1878 reference heights were taken from the Amsterdam Ordnance Datum and transferred to the New Berlin Observatory in order to define the Normalhöhenpunkt 1879. Normalnull has been defined as a level going through an imaginary point 37.000 m below Normalhöhenpunkt 1879. When the New Berlin Observatory was demolished in 1912 the reference point was moved east to the village of Hoppegarten