A valley is a low area between hills or mountains with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression, longer than it is wide; the terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides. A valley in its broadest geographic sense is known as a dale. Other terms used for valleys are: Vale: A valley. Dell: A small and wooded valley. Glen: A long valley bounded by sloped concave sides. Strath: A wide, flat valley through which a river runs. Mountain cove: A small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. Hollow: A term used sometimes for a small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges. Cwm: A deep, narrow valley. A steephead valley is a deep, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending. Erosional valley: A valley formed by erosion.
Structural valley: A valley formed by geologic events such as drop faults or the rise of highlands. Dry valley: A valley not created by sustained surface water flow. Longitudinal valley: An elongated valley found between two parallel mountain chains. Similar geological structures, such as canyons, gorges, gullies and kloofs, are not referred to as valleys. A valley formed by flowing water, called fluvial valley or river valley, is V-shaped; the exact shape will depend on the characteristics of the stream flowing through it. Rivers with steep gradients, as in mountain ranges, produce a bottom. Shallower slopes may produce gentler valleys. However, in the lowest stretch of a river, where it approaches its base level, it begins to deposit sediment and the valley bottom becomes a floodplain; some broad V examples are: North America: Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, others in Grand Canyon NP Europe: Austria: narrow passages of upper Inn valley, affluents of Enns Switzerland: Napf region, Zurich Oberland, Engadin Germany: affluents to the middle reaches of Rhine and MoselSome of the first human complex societies originated in river valleys, such as that of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Ganges, Yellow River and arguably Amazon.
In prehistory, the rivers were used as a source of fresh water and food, as well as a place to wash and a sewer. The proximity of water moderated temperature extremes and provided a source for irrigation, stimulating the development of agriculture. Most of the first civilizations developed from these river valley communities. In geography, a vale is a wide river valley with a wide flood plain or flat valley bottom. In Southern England, vales occur between the escarpment slopes of pairs of chalk formations, where the chalk dome has been eroded, exposing less resistant underlying rock claystone. Rift valleys, such as the Albertine Rift and Gregory Rift are formed by the expansion of the Earth's crust due to tectonic activity beneath the Earth's surface. There are various forms of valley associated with glaciation that may be referred to as glacial valleys. A valley carved by glaciers is U-shaped and resembles a trough; this trough valley becomes visible upon the recession of the glacier. When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice.
Floor gradient does not affect the valley's shape, it is the glacier's size. Continuously flowing glaciers – in the ice age – and large-sized glaciers carve wide, deep incised valleys, sometimes with valley steps that reflect differing erosion rates. Examples of U-shaped valleys are found in every mountainous region that has experienced glaciation during the Pleistocene ice ages. Most present U-shaped valleys started as V-shaped before glaciation; the glaciers carved it out wider and deeper changing the shape. This proceeds through the glacial erosion processes of glaciation and abrasion, which results in large rocky material being carried in the glacier. A material called; as the ice melts and retreats, the valley is left with steep sides and a wide, flat floor. A river or stream may remain in the valley; this replaces the original stream or river and is known as a misfit stream because it is smaller than one would expect given the size of its valley. Other interesting glacially carved valleys include: Yosemite Valley Side valleys of the Austrian river Salzach for their parallel directions and hanging mouths.
Some Scottish glens full with flowers. That of the St. Mary River in Glacier National Park in Montana, USA. A tunnel valley is a large, long, U-shaped valley cut under the glacial ice near the margin of continental ice sheets such as that now covering Antarctica and covering portions of all continents during past glacial ages. A tunnel valley can be up to 100 km, 4 km wide, 400 m deep. Tunnel valleys were formed by subglacial erosion by water, they served as subglacial drainage pathways carrying large volumes of melt water. Their cross-sections exhibit steep-sided flanks similar to fjord walls, their flat bottoms are typical of subglacial glacial erosion. In northern Central Europe, the Scandinavian ice sheet during the various ice ages advanced uphill against the lie of the land; as a result, its meltwaters flowed parallel to the ice margin to reach the North Sea basin, formin
Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site
Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located on the northwestern coast of the island of Hawaiʻi. The site preserves the National Historic Landmark ruins of the last major Ancient Hawaiian temple, other historic sites. Kamehameha I took control of western and northern Hawaiʻi island in 1782, but for the eight years following, fought in a number of inconclusive battles. After returning from Maui in 1790, he was attacked by his cousin Keōua Kuahuʻula who still controlled the East side of the island, he returned to the village of Kawaihae. A respected kahuna named Kapoukahi suggested building a luakini heiau to gain the favor of the war god Kūkaʻilimoku. Puʻukoholā Heiau meaning "Temple on the Hill of the Whale" was the result on the site of an older temple from about 1580, it was built by hand with no mortar, in less than a year. The red stones were transported by a human chain about 14 miles long, from Pololū Valley to the East. Construction was supervised by Kamehameha's brother Keliʻimaikaʻi.
The ship Fair American had been captured in 1790, along with one surviving crew member Isaac Davis, after the incident at Olowalu. Davis and a stranded British sailor named John Young became important military advisors to King Kamehameha. John Young built a house and ranch nearby, that site is within the park. News of Kamehameha's large following had spread to the other islands, who joined forces and attempted to invade from the Northeast; the two Europeans had instructed Kamehameha's army in the use of muskets and had mounted cannon onto double-hulled canoes. The invaders were no match for the artillery and were repelled in what was known as the Battle of Kepuwahaʻulaʻula, just North of Waipiʻo Valley. In the summer of 1791, the massive temple was finished. Kamehameha summoned his cousin Keōua Kuahuʻula with the ruse of a peace treaty, it is not clear. He was surrendering to fate, discouraged by losing many of his warriors in the Battle of Hilo and subsequent volcanic eruption of 1790. One story told.
As he stepped ashore, he and his party were killed. With the offering of the bodies the new temple was dedicated; the campaign to unite all the islands continued with Maui in 1794, Oʻahu in 1795 at the battle of Nuʻuanu. The unification was completed when the king of the island of Kaua'i became a vassal to Kamehameha I in 1810 making him the first king of a unified Hawai'i; the one-sided nature of this battle has given it the name "Slaughter at Kawaihae". On the 200th anniversary in 1991, a healing ceremony was held here by descendants of some of those who took part in the assassination. John Young was to act as negotiator for several more important visitors; the British explorer George Vancouver arrived here in 1793 during his Vancouver Expedition, left cattle to start the ranching industry. A visitor center operated by the National Park Service is located at the site. An interpretive trail begins at the visitor center and leads to Puʻukoholā. Entry to the public is not allowed. About 170 feet west of Puʻukoholā is the ruin of the earlier Mailekini Heiau.
John Young converted it into a fort to protect the harbor. Just offshore is Hale o Kapuni, an underwater structure dedicated to sharks. A pōhaku marks a spot. Across the bay is the modern Kawaihae harbor. On December 29, 1962, the site was made a National Historic Landmark, on October 15, 1966, listed in the National Register of Historic Places as site 66000105. In 2000 the name was changed by the Hawaiian National Park Language Correction Act of 2000 observing the Hawaiian spelling. Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site - National Park Service U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Rigid-hulled inflatable boat
A rigid-hulled inflatable boat or rigid-inflatable boat is a lightweight but high-performance and high-capacity unsinkable boat constructed with a rigid hull bottom joined to side-forming air tubes that are inflated with air to a high pressure so as to give the sides resilient rigidity along the boat’s topsides. The design is stable, light and seaworthy; the inflated collar acts like a life jacket in that the vessel keeps its buoyancy if much water comes aboard in heavy sea conditions, so is unsinkable. The RIB is an evolutionary development of the inflatable boat with a rubberized fabric bottom, stiffened with flat boards within the collar to form the deck or floor of the boat. Uses include work boats in trades that operate on the water, military craft, where they are used in patrol roles and to transport troops between vessels or ashore, lifeboats; the combination of rigid hull and large inflatable buoyancy tubes was conceived by a Royal National Lifeboat Institution team working under Inspector of Lifeboats Dag Pike in 1964 as a means of reducing the wear and tear of the fabric bottoms of the existing inflatable inshore lifeboats.
Although working versions were built, the plywood rigid hulls were not strong enough and broke up in waves. Development was being undertaken by students and staff at Atlantic College in South Wales under the direction of retired RN Admiral Desmond Hoare who headed the school which started in 1962. A series of experimental and prototype solutions for combining a hard hull form with an inflated fabric sponson lasted for over a decade; the RIB craft developed at Atlantic College served as an effective seafront activities safety and rescue boat for the college's fleet of sailing dinghies on the challenging. Bristol Channel, the college went on to become an Inshore Lifeboat Station for the RNLI in 1963, carrying out countless rescues over the next 50 years; the Atlantic College Lifeboat Station was decommissioned by the RNLI in 2013. The video RIB History at UWC Atlantic College provides a visual historical summary; the first commercial RIB was introduced in 1967 by Tony and Edward Lee-Elliott of Flatacraft, patented by Admiral Desmond Hoare in 1969 after research and development at Atlantic College.
In 1964, Rear-Admiral Hoare and his students at Atlantic College replaced the torn bottom of their 12-foot-long sailing activity rescue inflatable boat with a plywood sheet glued to the inflatable tubes. This proved a successful modification but was rather uncomfortable at speed offshore, so the hull was rebuilt with a shallow-vee bow entry transitioning to a nearly flat section stern; this boat was named Atlanta and that year an Atlantic College RIB was displayed at the London Boat Show. By 1966 the students had built a further five rigid inflatable boats – Aphrodite, Triton and X1–X3. Aphrodite and Triton were for the College’s own use. X1 and X2 were launched in 1965 by Queen Elizabeth II and made under a development agreement with the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, they were taken by the RNLI for trials at Gorleston and Great Yarmouth from which they returned to Atlantic College in Spring 1967. X3 was an experimental vortex-lift hull funded by a private developer and was not successful.
By that time Hoare had concluded that for the conditions under which they operated a boat of around 18 feet long was optimum which led to X4, X5 and X6, X7 to X8. These boats were used to support the college's sailing activities and to fulfil the college's responsibility as an inshore lifeboat station for the RNLI – a responsibility it discharged up until 2013. At the same time, work started on a smaller series of beach-launchable boats to support lifeguards on local beaches. All the above boats’ hulls were built from plywood. In summer 1968, student Paul Jefferies designed and constructed a hull from fiberglass, not a success due to lack of strength; however that development led to the building of Psychedelic Surfer, a twin-engined 21 ft RIB, for John Caulcott, Graeme Dillon and Simon de’Ath to race in the 1969 Round Britain Powerboat Race, in which it was one of the few boats to finish. From that time, the RNLI transferred development to its research centre in Cowes, who took the Atlantic College designs and developed from them the 21 ft Atlantic 21 class of inshore lifeboats which entered service from 1970 through 2007.
Atlantic 21-class lifeboat provides a class history of this vessel. The first commercial RIB is believed to be the Avon Rubber Searider, launched at the January 1969 London Boat Show; the 108th Engineering Heritage Award by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers was presented to UWC Atlantic College on 30th July 2017 by Carolyn Griffiths, President of the IMeche for its development of the X Alpha Rigid Inflatable Boat || In the mid-1970s Avon tubes for two 21-foot RHIBs were ordered by the new sister school of Atlantic College, being established on the west coast of Canada, the Lester B. Pearson College of the Pacific, at Pedder Bay near Race Rocks, British Columbia on the Straight of Juan de Fuca. Three former Atlantic College students built the first hull during the summer of 1974. Three more graduates who were trained as RNLI inshore lifeboat coxswains worked at the school during its inaugural year and coached some Pacific College students to build and operate the two boats, which were referred to as X-27, propelled by twin outboard engines and X-28, propelled by inboard-outboard stern drive.
During summer, the college loaned their fast rescue craft to the Canadian Coast Guard on the west coast
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest, or recreational potential. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, in Brazil. The term is used in the Australian state of Victoria; the equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa and Belgium, is provincial park. Similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar under state rather than federal administration. Local government entities below state level may maintain parks, e.g. regional parks or county parks. In general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California; as of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, according to the National Association of State Park Directors.
There are some 739 million annual visits to the country's state parks. The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail, 217,367 campsites, 8,277 cabins and lodges across U. S. state parks. The largest state park system in the United States is Alaska State Parks, with over 100 sites encompassing 3.3 million acres. Many states include designations beyond "state park" in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, state nature reserves; some state park systems include historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, established in 1885; however several public parks or maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a public park since 1825, although it did not gain the title "State Park" until 1931. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the federal government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890.
In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its northern forests as "The State Park" but, needing money, sold most of it to lumber companies within 20 years. The first state park with the designation of "state park" was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, first a national park before being transferred to the state of Michigan. Many state park systems date to the 1930s, when around 800 state parks across the country were developed with assistance from federal job creation programs like the Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration. List of U. S. state parks Wilderness preservation systems in Carol. "The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development." Wisconsin Magazine of History: 184-204. In JSTOR Landrum, Ney C; the State Park Movement in America: A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. "Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement." Oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp: 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. "The State Park Movement: 1864-1933.
"When Forests Trumped Parks: The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950." Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp: 203-224
The Kalalau Trail is a trail along Nā Pali Coast of the island of Kauai in the state of Hawaii. The trail runs 11 miles along the island's north shore from Keʻe Beach to the Kalalau Valley; the trail has been named one of the most beautiful, dangerous, hikes in the world. Expert hikers or trail runners can complete the roundtrip 22 miles trek in a day, but the average hiker requires a two-day minimum and will camp along the trail. Camping is only permitted at a forested streamside campsite Hanakoa Kalalau Beach; the first section of the trail is a two-mile stretch from Keʻe Beach to Hanakapiai beach. This section doesn't require a camping permit; the next section connects Hanakapiai stream six miles from the trailhead. To continue past Hankapiai Beach to Hanakoa Valley you need to obtain a camping permit from the Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources. No day-use permits are issued, only hikers with valid camping permits may proceed beyond the sign. Violation of this rule is a petty misdemeanor under Hawaii law, a conviction will result in a criminal record in addition to penalties.
Hanakoa Valley contains Hanakoa Falls and stream but the valley is a hanging valley with no access to the beach. The trail to Hanakoa Falls is not sometimes difficult to follow; the trail begins after the Hanakoa stream crossing, just before the covered shelter. The trail continues on to Kalalau Valley, a large, flat-bottomed valley a mile across. After hiking down Red Hill, it is about a half mile to Kalalau Beach requiring crossing Kalalau stream. Camping permits are limited to 5 consecutive nights. Hikers are allowed to camp at Hanakoa Valley one night with a valid Kalalau permit; the most strenuous part of the hike occurs after Hanakapiai Beach where the trail climbs from sea level to 800 feet over 1 1/4 miles. The Huffington Post named the hike "the most incredible" and "epic" trail in the United States, citing its impressive views of the Pacific Ocean and valleys; the narrow trail, three major stream crossings that can rise when raining, falling rock have been cited as reasons for why the trail is one of the most dangerous in the world.
In 2008, Backpacker Magazine listed it as one the "10 Most Dangerous Hikes" in the US. Outside magazine rated it as one of "The 20 Most Dangerous Hikes" in the world, noting that in addition to the dangers of the trail itself, more than 100 people have died swimming on the trail's remote beaches. A fatality occurred in June 2012 at Kalalau Beach campsite when a 30-year-old woman fell to her death near the beach waterfall. Another incident occurred in December 2012 when a 31-year-old Japanese national was pushed from a cliff along the trail and was critically injured. Police and officers with the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources closed the trail and conducted a four-day search for the alleged perpetrator, Justin Wynn Klein. Klein was apprehended months in Wailua on April 6, 2013 and subsequently indicted for attempted second-degree murder. Klein was sentenced to five years in prison. In February 2013 a woman drowned. Fifty-four hikers were stranded overnight. On April 6, 2014, the Kauai County Fire Department had to rescue 121 hikers over a two-day period when several streams became impassable because of heavy rain.
In August 2014 According to the Kauai Police Department, a hiker died when he fell over the edge and landed on the rocks 50 feet below. The accident occurred at 7 p.m. near mile marker 7 of the Kalalau Trail, in an area known as Red Hill. Hawaii State Parks: Nā Pali Coast State Wilderness Park