Kīkīaola is a historic irrigation ditch located near Waimea on the island of Kauai in the U. S. state of Hawaii. Known as "Menehune Ditch" or "Peekauai Ditch," it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 16, 1984, it is purported to have been built by the Menehune. Hawaiians built many stone-lined ʻauwai to irrigate ponds for growing taro, but rarely employed dressed stone to line ditches; the 120 finely cut basalt blocks that line about 200 feet of the outer wall of the Menehune Ditch make it not just exceptional, but "the acme of stone-faced ditches" in the words of archaeologist Wendell C. Bennett; the site shares its name with a harbor near Waimea
In the Hawaiian religion, Pele, is the goddess of volcanoes and fire and the creator of the Hawaiian Islands. Referred to as "Madame Pele" or "Tūtū Pele" as a sign of respect, she is a well-known deity within Hawaiian mythology, is notable for her contemporary presence and cultural influence as an enduring figure from ancient Hawaii. Epithets of the goddess include Ka wahine ʻai honua. In different stories talking about the goddess Pele, she was born from the female spirit named Haumea; this spirit is important when talking about Hawaii's gods due to how she is a descendant from Papa, or Sky Father, a supreme being. Due to Pele being born, she has become a notable deity known to the Hawaiian culture, she is known as "She who shapes the sacred land", known to be said in ancient Hawaiian chants. Kīlauea is a active volcano, located on the island of Hawaiʻi and is still being extensively studied. Many Hawaiians believe Kilauea to be inhabited by a "family of fire gods", one of the sisters being Pele, believed to govern Kilauea and is responsible for controlling its lava flows.
There are several traditional legends associated with Pele in Hawaiian mythology. In addition to being recognized as the goddess of volcanoes, Pele is known for her power, passion and capriciousness, she has numerous siblings, including Kāne Milohai, Kamohoaliʻi, Nāmaka and numerous sisters named Hiʻiaka, the most famous being Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. They are considered to be the offspring of Haumea. Pele's siblings include deities of various types of wind, fire, ocean wave forms, cloud forms, her home is believed to be the fire pit called Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit caldera of Kīlauea, one of the Earth's most active volcanoes. Pele shares features similar to other malignant deities inhabiting volcanoes, as in the case of the devil Guayota of Guanche Mythology in Canary Islands, living on the volcano Teide and was considered by the aboriginal Guanches as responsible for the eruptions of the volcano. Legend told that journeyed on her canoe from the island of Tahiti to Hawaii; when going through with her journeys, it was said that she tried to create her fires on different islands, but her sister, Nāmaka, was chasing her wanting to put an end to her.
In the end, the two sisters fought Pele in the end was killed. With this happening, her body was destroyed but her spirit lives in the Halemaumau crater on Kilauea, they say, "Her body is the steam that comes from the volcano. She can change form, appearing as a white dog, old woman, or beautiful young woman". In addition to her role as goddess of fire and her strong association with volcanoes, Pele is regarded as the "goddess of the hula", she is a significant figure in the history of hula because of her sister Hiʻiaka, believed to be the first person to dance hula. As a result of Pele's significance in hula, there have been many hula dances and chants that are dedicated to her and her family; the hula being dedicated to Pele is performed in a way that represents her intense personality and the movement of volcanoes. In one version of the story, Pele is the daughter of Kanehoalani and Haumea in the mystical land of Kuaihelani, a floating free land like Fata Morgana. Kuaihelani was in the region of Kahiki.
She stays close to her mother's fireplace with the fire-keeper Lono-makua. Her older sister Nā-maka-o-Kahaʻi, a sea goddess, fears that Pele's ambition would smother the home-land and drives Pele away. Kamohoali'i drives Pele south in a canoe called Honua-i-a-kea with her younger sister Hiʻiaka and with her brothers Kamohoaliʻi, Kanemilohai and arrives at the islets above Hawaii. There Kane-milo-hai is left on Mokupapapa, just a reef, to build it up in fitness for human residence. On Nihoa, 800 feet above the ocean she leaves Kane-apua after her visit to Lehua and crowning a wreath of kau-no'a. Pele picks him up again. Pele used the divining rod. A group of chants tells of a pursuit by Namakaokaha'i and Pele is torn apart, her bones, KaiwioPele form a hill on Kahikinui. In another version, Pele comes from a land said to be "close to the clouds," with parents Kane-hoa-lani and Ka-hina-liʻi, brothers Ka-moho-aliʻi and Kahuila-o-ka-lani. From her husband Wahieloa she has a son Menehune. Pele-kumu-honua entices her Pele travels in search of him.
The sea pours from her head over the land of Kanaloa and her brothers say: The sea floods the land recedes. Pele is considered to be a rival of the Hawaiian goddess of snow, Poliʻahu, her sisters Lilinoe and Kahoupokane. All except Kahoupokane reside on Mauna Kea; the kapa maker lives on Hualalai. One myth tells that Poliʻahu had come from Mauna Kea with her friends to attend sled races down the grassy hills south of Hamakua. Pele was greeted by Poliʻahu. However, Pele became jealously enraged at the goddess of Mauna Kea, she opened the subterranean caverns of Mauna Kea and threw fire from them towards Poliʻahu, with the snow goddess fleeing towards
Thrum's Hawaiian Annual
Thrum's Hawaiian Annual is a statistical compendium of Hawaiiana ranging from Hawaiian mythology to Hawaiian language to sites of interest in Hawaii, published by Star-Bulletin Printing Co.. The original research was compiled by antiquarian bookman Thomas George Thrum and first published in 1875 as The Hawaiian Annual and Almanac. Contributors to Thrum's Hawaiian Annual include the artist Bessie Wheeler. In 1908 the Hamilton Library acquired the Thrum Hawaiiana collection. Thomas G. Thrum, More Hawaiian Folk Tales, Chicago, 1923 Thomas G. Thrum, Hawaiian Folk Tales: A Collection of Native Legends, International Law & Taxation Publishers, 2001 Thomas G. Thrum, More Hawaiian Folk Tales: A Collection of Native Legends and Traditions, International Law & Taxation Publishers, 2001 Thrum's Hawaiian Annual at University of Hawaii at Manoa Thrum's Online Library Guide at University of Hawaii at Manoa
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess. Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures – including the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks and Norsemen– personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities were envisioned as a form of existence after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are subject to death when their merit is lost; the English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus. Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European origin to *deiwos; this root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greek dios "divine" and Zeus.
Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, terrestrial things of high excellence, shining ones"; the linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that, invoked". Guth in the Irish language means "voice"; the term *ghut- is the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu-,An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, derived from the root *gheu-. The term *gheu- is the source of the Greek khein "to pour"; the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages". A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief. A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u
Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna." Hawaiian religion is polytheistic, with four deities most prominent: Kū, Lono and Kanaloa. Other notable deities include Laka, Haumea, Papahānaumoku, most famously, Pele. In addition, each family is considered to have one or more guardian spirits known as ʻaumakua that protected family. One breakdown of the Hawaiian pantheon consists of the following groups: the four gods – Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa the forty male gods or aspects of Kāne the four hundred gods and goddesses the great multitude of gods and goddesses the spirits the guardians Another breakdown consists of three major groups: the four gods, or akua: Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa many lesser gods, or kupua, each associated with certain professions guardian spirits, ʻaumakua, associated with particular families One Hawaiian creation myth is embodied in the Kumulipo, an epic chant linking the aliʻi, or Hawaiian royalty, to the gods.
The Kumulipo is divided into two sections: night, or pō, day, or ao, with the former corresponding to divinity and the latter corresponding to mankind. After the birth of Laʻilaʻi, the woman, Kiʻi, the man, the man succeeds at seducing and reproducing with the woman before the god Kāne has a chance, thereby making the divine lineage of the gods younger than and thus subservient to the lineage of man. This, in turn, illustrates the transition of mankind from being symbols for the gods into the keeper of these symbols in the form of idols and the like; the Kumulipo was recited during the time of Makahiki, to honor the god of Lono. The kahuna were well respected, educated individuals that made up a social hierarchy class that served the King and the Courtiers and assisted the Maka'ainana. Selected to serve many practical and governmental purposes, Kahuna were healers, builders, prophets/temple workers, philosophers, they talked with the spirits. Kahuna Kūpaʻiulu of Maui in 1867 described a counter-sorcery ritual to heal someone ill due to hoʻopiʻopiʻo, another’s evil thoughts.
He said. Prayers were said. "If the evil spirit appears and possesses the patient he or she can be saved by the conversation between the practitioner and that spirit."Pukui and others believed kahuna did not have mystical transcendent experiences as described in other religions. Although a person, possessed would go into a trance-like state, it was not an ecstatic experience but a communion with the known spirits. Kapu refers to a system of taboos designed to separate the spiritually pure from the unclean. Thought to have arrived with Pāʻao, a priest or chief from Tahiti who arrived in Hawaiʻi sometime around 1200 AD, the kapu imposed a series of restrictions on daily life. Prohibitions included: The separation of men and women during mealtimes Restrictions on the gathering and preparation of food Women separated from the community during their menses Restrictions on looking at, touching, or being in close proximity with chiefs and individuals of known spiritual power Restrictions on overfishingHawaiian tradition shows that ʻAikapu was an idea led by the kahuna in order for Wākea, the sky father, to get alone with his daughter, Hoʻohokukalani without his wahine, or wife, the earth mother, noticing.
The spiritually pure or laʻa, meaning "sacred" and unclean or haumia were to be separated. ʻAikapu included: The use of a different ovens to cook the food of male and female Different eating places Women were forbidden to eat pig, coconut and certain red foods because of their male symbolism. During times of war, the first two men to be killed were offered to the gods as sacrifices. Other Kapus included Mālama ʻĀina, meaning Niʻaupiʻo. Tradition says that mālama ʻāina originated from the first child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani being deformed so they buried him in the ground and what sprouted became the first kalo known as taro; the Hawaiian islands are all children of Papa, Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani so meaning that they are older siblings of the Hawaiian chiefs. Second child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani became the first Aliʻi Nui, or "Grand Chief"; this came to be called Niʻaupiʻo, the chiefly incest to create the "godly child". Punishments for breaking the kapu could include death, although if one could escape to a puʻuhonua, a city of refuge, one could be saved.
Kāhuna nui mandated long periods. No baby could cry, dog howl, or rooster crow, on pain of death. Human sacrifice was not unknown; the kapu system remained in place until 1819. Prayer was an essential part of Hawaiian life, employed when building a house, making a canoe, giving lomilomi massage. Hawaiians addressed prayers to various gods depending on the situation; when healers picked herbs for medicine, they prayed to Kū and Hina and female, right and left and supine. The people worshiped Lono during Kū during times of war. Histories from the 19th century describe prayer throughout the day, with specific p
Moons of Haumea
The outer Solar System dwarf planet Haumea has two known moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka, named after Hawaiian goddesses. These small moons were discovered in 2005, from observations of Haumea made at the large telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii. Haumea's moons are unusual in a number of ways, they are thought to be part of its extended collisional family, which formed billions of years ago from icy debris after a large impact disrupted Haumea's ice mantle. Hiʻiaka, the larger, outermost moon, has large amounts of pure water ice on its surface, rare among Kuiper belt objects. Namaka, about one tenth the mass, has an orbit with surprising dynamics: it is unusually eccentric and appears to be influenced by the larger satellite. Two small satellites were discovered around Haumea through observations using the W. M. Keck Observatory by a Caltech team in 2005; the outer and larger of the two satellites was discovered January 26, 2005, formally designated S/2005 1, though nicknamed "Rudolph" by the Caltech team.
The smaller, inner satellite of Haumea was discovered on June 30, 2005, formally termed S/2005 2, nicknamed "Blitzen". On September 7, 2006, both satellites were numbered and admitted into the official minor planet catalogue as 2003 EL61 I and II, respectively; the permanent names of these moons were announced, together with that of 2003 EL61, by the International Astronomical Union on September 17, 2008: Haumea I Hiʻiaka and Haumea II Namaka. Each moon was named after a daughter of the Hawaiian goddess of fertility and childbirth. Hiʻiaka is the goddess of dance and patroness of the Big Island of Hawaii, where the Mauna Kea Observatory is located. Nāmaka is the goddess of the sea. In her legend, Haumea's many children came from different parts of her body; the dwarf planet Haumea appears to be entirely made of rock, with only a superficial layer of ice. There could therefore be additional outer moons, smaller than Namaka, that have not yet been detected. However, HST observations have confirmed that no other moons brighter than 0.25% of the brightness of Haumea exist within the closest tenth of the distance where they could be held by Haumea's gravitational influence.
This makes it unlikely. Hiʻiaka is the outer and, at 350 km in diameter, the larger and brighter of the two moons. Strong absorption features observed at 1.5, 1.65 and 2 µm in its infrared spectrum are consistent with nearly pure crystalline water ice covering much of its surface. The unusual spectrum, its similarity to absorption lines in the spectrum of Haumea, led Brown and colleagues to conclude that it was unlikely that the system of moons was formed by the gravitational capture of passing Kuiper belt objects into orbit around the dwarf planet: instead, the Haumean moons must be fragments of Haumea itself; the sizes of both moons are calculated with the assumption that they have the same infrared albedo as Haumea, reasonable as their spectra show them to have the same surface composition. Haumea's albedo has been measured by the Spitzer Space Telescope: from ground-based telescopes, the moons are too small and close to Haumea to be seen independently. Based on this common albedo, the inner moon, a tenth the mass of Hiʻiaka, would be about 170 km in diameter.
The Hubble Space Telescope has adequate angular resolution to separate the light from the moons from that of Haumea. Photometry of the Haumea triple system with HST's NICMOS camera has confirmed that the spectral line at 1.6 µm that indicates the presence of water ice is at least as strong in the moons' spectra as in Haumea's spectrum. The moons of Haumea are too faint to detect with telescopes smaller than about 2 metres in aperture, though Haumea itself has a visual magnitude of 17.5, making it the third-brightest object in the Kuiper belt after Pluto and Makemake, observable with a large amateur telescope. Hiʻiaka orbits Haumea nearly circularly every 49 days. Namaka orbits Haumea in 18 days in a moderately elliptical, non-Keplerian orbit, as of 2008 was inclined 13° with respect to Hiʻiaka, which perturbs its orbit; because the impact that created the moons of Haumea is thought to have occurred in the early history of the Solar System, over the following billions of years it should have been tidally damped into a more circular orbit.
Namaka's orbit has been disturbed by orbital resonances with the more-massive Hiʻiaka due to converging orbits as they moved outward from Haumea due to tidal dissipation. They may have been caught in and escaped from orbital resonance several times; this resonance perturbs Namaka's orbit, which has a current precession of its argument of periapsis by about −6.5° per year, a precession period of 55 years. At present, the orbits of the Haumean moons appear exactly edge-on from Earth, with Namaka having periodically occulted Haumea from 2009 to 2011. Observation of such transits would provide precise information on the size and shape of Haumea and its moons, as happened in the late 1980s with Pluto and Charon; the tiny change in brightness of the system during these occultations required at least a medium-aperture professional telescope for detection. Hiʻiaka last occulted Haumea in 1999, a few years before its discovery, will not do so again for some 130 y
Haumea is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit. It was discovered in 2004 by a team headed by Mike Brown of Caltech at the Palomar Observatory in the United States and independently in 2005, by a team headed by José Luis Ortiz Moreno at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain, though the latter claim has been contested. On September 17, 2008, it was recognized as a dwarf planet by the International Astronomical Union and named after Haumea, the Hawaiian goddess of childbirth. Haumea's mass is about one-third that of Pluto, 1/1400 that of Earth. Although its shape has not been directly observed, calculations from its light curve indicate that it is a Jacobi ellipsoid, with its major axis twice as long as its minor, its gravity is thought to be sufficient for it to have relaxed into hydrostatic equilibrium, making it a dwarf planet. Haumea's elongated shape together with its rapid rotation, high density, high albedo, are thought to be the consequences of a giant collision, which left Haumea the largest member of a collisional family that includes several large trans-Neptunian objects and Haumea's two known moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka.
Haumea is the third-largest confirmed trans-Neptunian object, after Eris and Pluto. Two teams claim credit for the discovery of Haumea. Mike Brown and his team at Caltech discovered Haumea in December 28, 2004 on images they had taken on May 6, 2004. On July 20, 2005, they published an online abstract of a report intended to announce the discovery at a conference in September 2005. At around this time, José Luis Ortiz Moreno and his team at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía at Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain found Haumea on images taken on March 7–10, 2003. Ortiz emailed the Minor Planet Center with their discovery on the night of July 27, 2005. Brown conceded discovery credit to Ortiz, but came to suspect the Spanish team of fraud upon learning that his observation logs were accessed from the Spanish observatory the day before the discovery announcement; these logs included enough information to allow the Ortiz team to precover Haumea in their 2003 images, they were accessed again just before Ortiz scheduled telescope time to obtain confirmation images for a second announcement to the MPC on July 29.
Ortiz admitted he had accessed the Caltech observation logs but denied any wrongdoing, stating he was verifying whether they had discovered a new object. Precovery images of Haumea have been identified back to September 22, 1955. IAU protocol is that discovery credit for a minor planet goes to whoever first submits a report to the MPC with enough positional data for a decent determination of its orbit, that the credited discoverer has priority in choosing a name. However, the IAU announcement on September 17, 2008, that Haumea had been accepted as a dwarf planet, did not mention a discoverer; the location of discovery was listed as the Sierra Nevada Observatory of the Spanish team, but the chosen name, was the Caltech proposal. Until it was given a permanent name, the Caltech discovery team used the nickname "Santa" among themselves, because they had discovered Haumea on December 28, 2004, just after Christmas; the Spanish team were the first to file a claim for discovery to the Minor Planet Center, in July 2005.
On July 29, 2005, Haumea was given the provisional designation 2003 EL61, based on the date of the Spanish discovery image. On September 7, 2006, it was numbered and admitted into the official minor planet catalogue as 2003 EL61. Following guidelines established by the IAU that classical Kuiper belt objects be given names of mythological beings associated with creation, in September 2006 the Caltech team submitted formal names from Hawaiian mythology to the IAU for both 2003 EL61 and its moons, in order "to pay homage to the place where the satellites were discovered"; the names were proposed by David Rabinowitz of the Caltech team. Haumea is the matron goddess of the island of Hawaiʻi. In addition, she is identified with Papa, the goddess of the earth and wife of Wākea, which, at the time, seemed appropriate because Haumea was thought to be composed entirely of solid rock, without the thick ice mantle over a small rocky core typical of other known Kuiper belt objects. Lastly, Haumea is the goddess of fertility and childbirth, with many children who sprang from different parts of her body.
The two known moons believed to have formed in this manner, are thus named after two of Haumea's daughters, Hiʻiaka and Nāmaka. The proposal by the Ortiz team, did not meet IAU naming requirements, because the names of chthonic deities are reserved for plutinos that resonate 3:2 with Neptune, not the case for this body, in 7:12 resonance. Haumea is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit, it is classified as a dwarf planet because it is presumed to be massive enough to have been rounded by its own gravity into a shape in hydrostatic equilibrium, but not massive enough to have cleared its neighbourhood of sized objects. Haumea was listed as a classical Kuiper belt object in 2006 by the Minor Planet Center, but no longer; the nominal trajectory suggests that Haumea is in a weak 7:12 orbital resonance with Neptune, which would make it a resonant object instead. Although there are precovery images of Haumea dating back to March 22, 1955 from the Palomar Mountain Digitized Sky Survey, further ob