NATO reporting names are code names for military equipment from Russia and the Eastern Bloc. They provide unambiguous and understood English words in a uniform manner in place of the original designations, which either may have been unknown to the Western world at the time or confused codes. For example, the Russian bomber jet Tupolev Tu-160 is called "Blackjack". NATO maintains lists of the names; the assignment of the names for the Russian and Chinese aircraft was once managed by the five-nation Air Standardization Coordinating Committee, but, no longer the case. The United States Department of Defense expands on the NATO reporting names in some cases. NATO refers to surface-to-air missile systems mounted on ships or submarines with the same names as the corresponding land-based systems, but the US DoD assigns a different series of numbers with a different suffix for these systems; the names are kept the same as a convenience. Where there is no corresponding system, a new name is devised; the Soviet Union did not always assign official "popular names" to its aircraft, but unofficial nicknames were common as in any air force.
Soviet pilots did not use the NATO names, preferring a different, nickname. An exception was that Soviet airmen appreciated the MiG-29's codename "Fulcrum", as an indication of its pivotal role in Soviet air defence. To reduce the risk of confusion, unusual or made-up names were allocated, the idea being that the names chosen would be unlikely to occur in normal conversation, be easier to memorise. For fixed-wing aircraft, single-syllable words denoted piston-prop and turboprop, while multiple-syllable words denoted jets. Bombers had names starting with the letter B and names like "Badger", "Bear", "Blackjack" were used. "Frogfoot," the reporting name for the Sukhoi Su-25, references the aircraft's close air support role. Transports had names starting with C, which resulted in names like "Condor" or "Candid"; the initial letter of the name indicated the use of that equipment. A—air-to-air missiles, example AA-2 Atoll: List of NATO reporting names for air-to-air missiles K—air-to-surface missiles, example AS-17 Krypton: List of NATO reporting names for air-to-surface missiles G—surface-to-air missiles, SAM, including ship- and submarine-launched, example SA-2 Guideline: List of NATO reporting names for surface-to-air missiles S—surface-to-surface missiles, including ship- and submarine-launched.
Land-based missiles have the prefix SS-, for example the SS-1 Scud. Naval missiles receive the designation SS-N-, e.g. SS-N-2 Styx. Coastal defence missiles are assigned the prefix SS-C-, e.g. SS-C-5 Stooge: List of NATO reporting names for surface-to-surface missiles from this anti-tank missiles, example AT-5 Spandrel: List of NATO reporting names for anti-tank missiles The first letter indicates the type of aircraft, like Bear for a bomber aircraft, or Fulcrum for a fighter aircraft. For fixed-wing aircraft, a one-syllable name refers to a propeller aircraft and a two-syllable name refers to an aircraft with jet engines; this distinction is not made for helicopters. F—fighter aircraft later ground attack aircraft: List of NATO reporting names for fighter aircraft B—bomber aircraft: List of NATO reporting names for bomber aircraft C—commercial aircraft and airliners, cargo aircraft: List of NATO reporting names for transport aircraft H—helicopters: List of NATO reporting names for helicopters M—miscellaneous: trainers, seaplanes, tankers, AEW etc.: List of NATO reporting names for miscellaneous aircraft Before the 1980s, reporting names for submarines were taken from the NATO spelling alphabet.
Modifications of existing designs were given descriptive terms, such as “Whiskey Long Bin”. From the 1980s, new designs were given names derived from Russian words, such as “Akula”, or “shark”; these names did not correspond to the Soviet names. Coincidentally, “Akula”, assigned to an attack submarine by NATO, was the actual Soviet name for the ballistic missile submarine NATO dubbed “Typhoon”. List of NATO reporting names for submarines List of NATO reporting names for equipment Designations of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles Aerospace Web
The Boy Kumasenu is a 1952 feature film made in Ghana by a British film crew. It was directed by Sean Graham from a script by Graham and John Wyllie; the score was by Elisabeth Lutyens. The Boy Kumasenu was the first feature film made by the Gold Coast Film Unit, which sought to produce both educational and informative films for distribution in Ghana and abroad; the director was Sean Graham, a student of documentarist John Grierson, though Graham preferred to work more in the idioms of popular cinema. Musician Guy Warren was one of the actors, playing the role of Yeboah, it was filmed in 1950 and 1951 in Accra and Keta, with a non-professional cast, edited in London. It was premiered in Ghana in 1952 but the makers had trouble getting it distributed in Ghana, due to a belief that Africans preferred escapist films. However, it subsequently proved popular, it was awarded a diploma by the Venice Film Festival and had its British premiere at the 1952 Edinburgh Film Festival. It was nominated for a British Academy Film Award for best film in 1953.
It was distributed in the UK and Ghana. The film tells the story of a boy called Kumasenu who moves to the city of Accra from a small fishing village, encouraged by his cousin Agboh's exaggerated tales of the wonders of city life. Hungry, he steals bread and is caught by police, but is rescued by a doctor and his wife, who find him work. Agboh attempts to get Kumasenu to rob the doctor. Variety suggested it could be an arthouse success. West African Review considered it dramatised an important issue facing African, showed the ability of African leadership to solve Africa's problems. Monthly Film Bulletin was less impressed, finding it "vague and sentimental" though praising it as a starting point for African cinema. Bloom, Peter. "Modernity and Danger: The Boy Kumasenu and the Work of the Gold Coast Film Unit,". Ghana Studies. 12-13: 121–153. "The Boy Kumasenu" at IMDb
A Certain Magical Index is a Japanese light novel series written by Kazuma Kamachi and illustrated by Kiyotaka Haimura. The series follows Tōma Kamijō, a high school student in the scientifically-advanced Academy City, who meets a young nun named Index from the Church of England whose mind has been implanted with the Index Librorum Prohibitorum: the magical texts which the church removed from circulation, his encounter with her leads him to meet others from the secret world of science and magic and into an adventure with his friends where science and magic collide. ASCII Media Works published 24 volumes under their Dengeki Bunko imprint between April 10, 2004, October 10, 2010. Two of the 24 novels are short story compilations released in July 2007 and November 2008; the first volume of a sequel series titled New Testament: Toaru Majutsu no Index was published on March 10, 2011. Yen Press have licensed the series in North America and began releasing it under their Yen On imprint in November 2014.
Toaru Majutsu no Index became Dengeki Bunko's No. 1 bestseller in May 2010. In August 2010, it was reported that the novels had sold 9 million copies, the series was the fifth-highest-selling light novel in Japan at the time. A Certain Magical Index was adapted as a 24-episode anime television series by J. C. Staff, which aired in Japan between October 2008 and March 2009, covering the events of the first six novels. A second season of A Certain Magical Index aired between October 2010 and March 2011, titled A Certain Magical Index II. Toaru Majutsu no Index official website
The Kisra legend is a migration story shared by a number of political and ethnic groups in modern Nigeria and Cameroon the Borgu kingdom and the people of the Benue River valley. The migration legend depicts the arrival of a large military force in what is Northern Nigeria around the 7th Century AD; the Borgu kingdom claimed direct descent from the leader of this migration and a number of other polities recognize the migration through ceremony and formal regalia. There are a number of different versions of the legend with Kisra sometimes being depicted as a religious and military rival to Muhammad near Mecca around the time that Islam was founded and sometimes as the remnant forces of a Persian king defeated in Egypt; the legend was a key piece of evidence in a number of Hamitic historical theories which argued that the political development of societies in sub-Saharan Africa was the result of contacts with societies from the Middle East. The legend is shared by many different political and ethnic entities throughout what is northern Nigeria and has provided important linkages between these communities.
Although the different versions share a similar depiction of a large migration into the area along the Niger river in around the 7th Century, two of the most prominent versions of the story depict Kisra as a challenger to Muhammad on the Arabian peninsula or as a Persian ruler who suffered a military defeat in Egypt. However, in some versions Kisra is not an individual person but a generalized title for the leader of the migration as it moved across Africa. Versions differ on other aspects of the story, namely whether or not Kisra himself founded any of the royal lines and the specifics of his death or magical disappearance. In the most prominent version of the story in the Borgu kingdom, Kisra is depicted as an early political and religious challenger to Muhammad in the area around Mecca. In this version, Kisra possessed a number of magical powers. However, during his rule, a seer foresaw that his power would be undermined by a child born within the city who would have divine powers. To prevent this challenge, Kisra exiled all the men of his city on the date that the seer had predicted the baby to be conceived.
As Muhammad grew, he began trying to convert Kisra to Islam. This resulted in open warfare between Muhammad and Kisra over religious issues and Kisra won the initial conflict. However, as Muhammad fled to a baobab tree he was provided divine assistance for his escape and to reorganize his forces. Seeing that the tables had turned and his followers left the Arabian peninsula reaching the Niger river. Kisra's party visited many of the villages in the area before founding the Borgu kingdom. In some versions of the legend, Kisra's oldest son Woru founded the city of Bussa, which would become the capital of Borgu. Kisra's younger sons founded Nikki, founded by Shabi, Illo, founded by Bio. In versions, this order of foundation of the main cities of the Borgu kingdom is changed; the legend became crucial in the Borgu kingdom in uniting the different cities, legitimizing the ruling dynasty, providing an ideological distinction between Borgu and the Islamic states in the area. In 1909, the German anthropologist Leo Frobenius compiled an aggregate version of the Kisra legend from informants in the Benue river valley.
This version depicts Kisra not as a challenger to Mohammad, but instead as a Persian king who suffered a military defeat in Egypt to a Byzantine army. Following this defeat and his army were unable to return to Persia and had to work further into Africa, his army settled in Nubia and Ethiopia where Kisra joined forces with a powerful king in the region, Napata, to conquer lands to the West. His army migrated into the Niger river region and followed a similar route as that described above with Kisra's party visiting a number of communities in the area and settling in the Borgu area. Many communities in the area have some connection to the Kisra migration and the story is used in much of the folklore of the region. However, some cities claim direct connection to Kisra; these include: Borgu kingdom, the cities of Bussa and Illo claim to have been founded by Kisra and his sons. Gunji, believed to be the location where Kisra's three sons divided from one another to found the three cities of the Borgu kingdom.
Ile-Ife, the holy city of the Yoruba people, said to have been conquered by Oduduwa, Kisra's grandson. Karissen, an Acipu city east of Yauri, Nigeria in the Benue river area. Legends say that the people in the area named Damasa, as their king. Kebbi Emirate, which has a long tradition of the Kisra legend; the royal title in Kebbi of "Kanta" may be derived from the title Kisra. Wukari, whose king holds an ancient sword and spear said to be gifts from Kisra when he visited the area. Zaria, which in some versions was founded by Kisra's forces before it was destroyed by the Bornu kingdom. Wukari, founded by a leader of Zaria after the destruction of Zaria. Idah, founded by a leader of Zaria after the destruction of Zaria. Anthropologists and historians have conducted significant oral history studies and material research to identify any correspondence of key parts of the legend; these studies agree that a migration into the area did occur around the seventh century. Frobenius argued that the figure of Kisra was the Persian king Khosrau II or Chosroes.
Some parts of the historical account do correspond with the timelin
Česká Lípa is a town in the Czech Republic. It is the district seat and the largest town of the Česká Lípa District in the Liberec Region, with a population of about 37,500, it is the most populated town of the Czech Republic without city status. The Ploučnice River flows through the town 25 mi from its source. Česká Lípa is divided into 14 municipal districts. 9 mi south of Česká Lípa lies the summer resort of Lake Mácha. Česká Lípa lies 23 mi west of Liberec and 42 mi north of Prague, counting distances between town borders. The old town of Česká Lípa was built near a ford on the Ploučnice where a Slavonic colony existed from the 10th century; the line of the Ronovci and Henry of Lipá in particular contributed to the founding of the town between 1305 and 1319, the line of the Berkové z Dubé promoted its development. A hundred years the town was occupied by the Hussite army of Jan Roháč z Dubé and devastated by fires. Albert of Valdštejn, Kaunitzs, contributed to another boom of the town by founding a monastery and school.
The modern urban development of the town was influenced by industrial production and uranium mining in the region. Residential neighbourhoods consisting of large amounts of prefab housing were built on the outskirts while the town center was preserved and declared as an urban heritage zone; the current territory of the town was permanently settled around the 13th century. The first written reference of settlement comes from 1263 and is included in the Doksany Prior's purchase roll; the history of the town is associated with Chvala ze Žitavy of the Ronovci family, who founded Lipý Castle, his grandson Henry of Lipá, a significant royal aristocrat. As rolls have not been preserved, it is not clear who founded the castle and surrounding settlement, thus Lipý Castle became another fortified seat in North Bohemia on the contemporary trade routes. There was a Slavonic colony near the castle renamed as Stará Lípa. There is a reference to Arnold, said to come from Stará Lípa, a citizen of Kravaře in 1263.
Historians have deduced from the reference to Stará Lípa that Lipý Castle and accompanying settlement were established around that time. Henry of Lipá moved to Moravia in 1319, after he had sold the castle with its surroundings to his cousin Hynek Berka. According to other sources, in 1327 Hynek Berka z Dobé a member of the Ronovci ancestry, was the lord of Lipá and its wider surroundings; when he died in 1348, his son of the same name took the title, after his death his second son Jindřich succeeded him. His nephew Hynek Berka z Dubé reigned the area; the eldest town charter, which he issued on 23 March 1381, states that discretions were granted to the town of Lipá and that it was he who contributed the most to the boom of the town and the castle bearing the same name. Town walls were constructed at the beginning of the 14th century as well as the parish church of St. Paul and Peter, destroyed by a fire in 1787, it was canonized by Peter of Aspelt, the Mayence archbishop, in 1312 in the presence of Jan Lucemburský, the Czech king.
The Dean's Office of Děčín was delegated to him in 1341. In the second half of the 14th century the Weitmile family was involved in the development of the town. Members of this family used to hold positions of reeve and parsons. Petr z Weitmile was assigned as a witness on the granting of the urban discretions document by Hynek Berka z Dubé in 1381. Development of the town and Bohemia was paused by a plague epidemic in 1389. At the end of the 14th century the castle was controlled by other members of lords of Lipá family, among whom a powerful and significant individual named Hynek Hlaváč was mentioned, until the beginning of the Hussite wars, when in May 1426 it was conquered by Hussites led by Jan Roháč z Dubé, became a stronghold until 1436. Between 1502 and 1553 a large part of the town and its surroundings belonged to the Vartenberks; the lords of Dubá / Lipá regained the castle and kept it for over 100 years. The first evidence of Jewish settlement in the town dates back to 1562. Albrecht of Valdštejn reunited the town in 1622 to 1623.
Large parts of the town were destroyed in 1787 and 1820. Following the compromise of 1867, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy until 1918, head of the Böhmisch Leipa district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia; the emblem of the town originates in the urban seal from 1389. Above the town wall there is a coat of arms of the lords of Lipá with crossed fighting rods; the flag was designed by the Heraldic Committee, the State District Archives of Česká Lípa, in 1992 and adjusted according to a historical artwork from 1937. The emblem proposal was discussed in the town government in June 1992, reviewed by Subcommittee for Heraldics of the Chamber of Deputies in December and 15 July 1993 the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies granted the emblem to the town; the town is divided into 14 cadastral territories and 14 parts: Častolovice Česká Lípa Dobranov Dolní Libchava, joined on July 14, 1964 Dubice. Heřmaničky Lada, joined on June 30, 1960 Manušice Okřešice, joined on November 27, 1971 Písečná Stará Lípa, joined on June 30, 1960 Vítkov Vlčí Důl Žizníkov There are several large automotive companies in the southwest part of the town in Dubice industrial zone, where about 5,000 workers are employed in offices including those of Johnson Controls, VARTA and Bombardier.
Augustinian Monastery on Náměstí svobody, founded by Albrecht of Valdštejn in 1627, it took 150 years to com
Dr Harold Neil Johnston is a former senior Australian public servant and policymaker. Neil Johnston was born in Werribee, Victoria in 1945, his Australian Public Service career included work in the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Finance, the Department of Employment and Training and the Department of Social Security. Johnston was Secretary of the Department of Veterans' Affairs between 1996 and 2004. Johnston retired from the public service in September 2004. Johnston was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in January 2005 for service to the community through the initiation and implementation of a range of policies designed to meet the diverse welfare and social needs of ex-Service personnel and their families, more broadly to public sector administration in the areas of economic and business development and service delivery