The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
Jerry Alan West is an American basketball executive and former player who played professionally for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. His nicknames included Mr. Clutch, for his ability to make a big play in a clutch situation, such as his famous buzzer-beating 60-foot shot that tied Game 3 of the 1970 NBA Finals against the New York Knicks. West played the small forward position early in his career, he was a standout at East Bank High School and at West Virginia University, where he led the Mountaineers to the 1959 NCAA championship game, he earned the NCAA Final Four Most Outstanding Player honor despite the loss. He embarked on a 14-year career with the Los Angeles Lakers, was the co-captain of the 1960 U. S. Olympic gold medal team, a squad, inducted as a unit into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. West's NBA career was successful. Playing the guard position, he was voted 12 times into the All-NBA First and Second Teams, was elected into the NBA All-Star Team 14 times, was chosen as the All-Star MVP in 1972, the same year that he won the only title of his career.
West holds the NBA record for the highest points per game average in a playoff series with 46.3. He was a member of the first five NBA All-Defensive Teams, which were introduced when he was 32 years old. Having played in nine NBA Finals, he is the only player in NBA history to be named Finals MVP despite being on the losing team. West was inducted into the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame in 1980 and voted as one of the 50 Greatest Players in NBA history in 1996. After his playing career ended, West took over as head coach of the Lakers for three years, he earned a Western Conference Finals berth once. Working as a player-scout for three years, West was named general manager of the Lakers prior to the 1982–83 NBA season. Under his reign, Los Angeles won six championship rings. In 2002, West became general manager of the Memphis Grizzlies and helped the franchise win their first-ever playoff berths. For his contributions, West won the NBA Executive of the Year Award twice, once as a Lakers manager and as a Grizzlies manager.
West's son, played college basketball for West Virginia. Jerome Alan West was born into a poor household in West Virginia, he was the fifth of six children of Cecil Sue West, a housewife, Howard Stewart West, a coal mine electrician. West was an aggressive child in his youth, until his brother's death in the Korean War aged 21 turned him into a shy and introverted boy when Jerry was 12/13, he was so small and weak that he needed lots of vitamin injections from his doctor and was kept apart from children's sports, to prevent him from getting injured. Growing up, West spent his days hunting and fishing, but his main activity was shooting at a basketball hoop that a neighbor had nailed to his storage shed. West spent days shooting baskets from every possible angle, ignoring mud and snow in the backyard, as well as his mother's whippings when he came home hours late for dinner. West attended East Bank High School in East Bank, West Virginia from 1952 to 1956. During his first year, he was benched by his coach Duke Shaver due to his lack of height.
Shaver emphasized the importance of conditioning and defense, which were lessons that the teenager appreciated. West soon became the captain of the freshman team, during the summer of 1953 he grew to 6 ft 0 in. West became the team's starting small forward, he established himself as one of the finest West Virginia high school players of his generation, he was named All-State from 1953–56 All-American in 1956 when he was West Virginia Player of the Year, becoming the state's first high-school player to score more than 900 points in a season, with an average of 32.2 points per game. West's mid-range jump shot became his trademark and he used it to score while under pressure from opposing defenses. West led East Bank to a state championship on March 24 that year, prompting East Bank High School to change its name to "West Bank High School" every year on March 24 in honor of their basketball prodigy; this practice remained in effect until the school closed in 1999. West graduated from East Bank High School in 1956, more than 60 universities showed interest in him.
He chose to stay in his home state and attend West Virginia University, located in Morgantown. In his freshman year, West was a member of the WVU freshman squad that achieved a perfect record of 17 wins without a loss over the course of the season. In his first varsity year under head coach Fred Schaus, West scored 17.8 points per game and averaged 11.1 rebounds. These performances earned him a multitude of honors, among them an All-American Third Team call-up; the Mountaineers went 26–2 that year, ending the season with a loss to Manhattan College in post-season tournament play. During his junior year, West scored 26.6 points per game
Rising Stars Challenge
The Rising Stars Challenge is a basketball exhibition game held by the National Basketball Association on the Friday before the annual All-Star Game as part of the All-Star Weekend. The players are first- and second-year players selected by the NBA's assistant coaches. Two people designated as "general managers" draft players for the two opposing teams; the Rookie Challenge, established in 1994, was competed by two randomly selected teams composed of first-year players. This format was continued until 1996, when it was changed to pit rookie teams of both the Eastern and the Western Conference against each other. In 1999, the game was cancelled as a result of the NBA lockout. Since the 1998 rookie class did not compete that year, the game was revamped and featured a team of standout first-year players against a team of standout second-year players. For 2012 and 2013, the format was changed to having two teams drafted by Basketball Hall of Famers Charles Barkley and Shaquille O'Neal. In 2014, the two teams were drafted by Grant Hill.
The format of the game and name was changed to the Rising Stars Challenge in 2012. The game format changed in 2015 to Team USA vs Team World, where each team should choose at least three Rookies and three Sophomores, the squad of each team should have four back courts, four front courts and two swingmen. Unlike regular NBA games, the game was divided into two twenty-minute halves plus multiple five-minute overtime periods, similar to college basketball; the participating players were chosen by voting among the league's assistant coaches. In the game, players wear their respective regular team uniforms, except for 2009, in which players wore fan-designed jerseys; the head coaches of the two teams are the lead assistant coaches of the NBA All-Star Game coach. Starting in 2009, two active NBA players were added to the game coaching staffs; the game is sponsored by Mtn Dew Kickstart. Before 2012, the event was known as the Rookie Challenge named the T-Mobile Rookie Challenge and Youth Jam. To celebrate the first time the NBA holds the All-Star game outside of the USA, the game makes the World Team the home team instead of Team USA.
Team USA won 157–154 in the highest scoring game in Rising Stars Challenge history. Zach LaVine was named MVP, leading all of the USA team with 30 points while recording 7 rebounds and 4 assists. Jordan Clarkson, D'Angelo Russell, Devin Booker all scored over 20 points, with Russell recording 7 assists. Kristaps Porziņģis and Emmanuel Mudiay led the way for Team World with 30 points each, with Andrew Wiggins scoring 29 points; the World team won against the U. S. 121-112 at the Rising Stars Challenge at All-Star weekend. Canada's Andrew Wiggins scored 22 points, Rudy Gobert added 18 points, 12 rebounds and three blocks. Brooklyn's Bojan Bogdanovic of Croatia, Chicago's Nikola Mirotić of Montenegro added 16 points each for the World team. Victor Oladipo of the Orlando Magic and Zach LaVine of the Minnesota Timberwolves led the U. S. team with 22 points each. Andrew Wiggins, the 2014 NBA draft 1st overall pick, won the game's MVP award. Shortly before the draft for the rosters, Norris Cole and Jeremy Lin were added to the original player pool.
A few days before the game, Tiago Splitter was replaced by Derrick Favors. Lin played only nine minutes in the game, at his request, due to exhaustion from his rise to stardom that month; the 2007 Rookie Challenge took place on Friday, February 16 at the Thomas & Mack Center in Las Vegas. Final Score: East:150 West: 167 The 2006 Rookie Challenge took place February 17 at the Toyota Center in Houston. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Sidney Lowe Assistant Coach: Elvin Hayes Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Del Harris Assistant Coach: Moses Malone Did not play due to injury The 2005 Rookie Challenge took place February 18 at the Pepsi Center in Denver. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: P. J. Carlesimo Assistant Coach: Alex English Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Bob McAdoo Assistant Coach: Doug Moe Did not play due to injury The 2004 Rookie Challenge took place February 13 at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Doug Collins Assistant Coach: A. C. Green Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Michael Cooper Assistant Coach: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar Said to be the most exciting Rookie Challenge in history due to all the highlight-reel dunks.
Much of the hype centered on rookie phenoms LeBron James and Carmelo Anthony, who had 33 and 17 points respectively. Amar'e Stoudemire set a Rookie Challenge record with 36 points; the 2003 Rookie Challenge took place February 8 at the Philips Arena in Atlanta. This was the last time. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Cotton Fitzsimmons Assistant Coach: Lou Hudson Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Mike Fratello Assistant Coach: Bob Pettit The 2002 Rookie Challenge took place February 9 at the First Union Center in Philadelphia. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Chuck Daly Assistant Coach: Darryl Dawkins Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Billy Cunningham Assistant Coach: Bobby Jones The 2001 Rookie Challenge took place February 10 at the Verizon Center in Washington, D. C.. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Kevin Loughery Assistant Coach: Jack Marin Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Elvin Hayes Assistant Coach: Phil Chenier The 2000 Rookie Challenge took place February 11 at the Oakland Arena in Oakland. Rookie Roster: Head Coach: Al Attles Assistant Coach: Nate Thurmond Sophomore Roster: Head Coach: Bill Russell Assistant Coach: K. C. Jones **Did not play due to injury The 1998 Rookie Challenge took place February 8 at the Madison Square Garden in New York.
East Roster: Head Coach: Willis Reed West Roster: Head Coach: Dave DeBusschere The 1997 Rookie Challenge
Robert Allen McAdoo is an American former professional basketball player and coach. He played 14 seasons in the National Basketball Association, where he was a five-time NBA All-Star and named the NBA Most Valuable Player in 1975, he won two NBA championships with the Los Angeles Lakers during their Showtime era in the 1980s. In 2000, McAdoo was inducted into the Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame. McAdoo played at power forward positions. In his 21-year playing career, he spent 14 years in the NBA and his final seven in the Lega Basket Serie A in Italy. McAdoo is one of the few players who have won both NBA and the FIBA European Champions Cup titles as a player, he won three more NBA titles in 2006, 2012 and 2013 as an assistant coach with the Miami Heat. McAdoo was raised in North Carolina, his mother Vandalia, taught at his grade school and his father Robert was a custodian at North Carolina A&T University. McAdoo attended Ben L. Smith High School, where he not only participated in basketball and track, he was in the marching band as a saxophone player.
As a senior, he led Smith to the state basketball semifinals as well as to the state track tournament, where he set a new state high jump record of 6' 7", beating out future North Carolina teammate Bobby Jones. Out of high school, McAdoo lacked the academic test scores required by the Division I schools, so he chose to enroll at Vincennes University in Vincennes, Indiana from 1969 through 1971. Vincennes University won the NJCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship in 1970, with McAdoo scoring 27 points in the championship game, his roommate was teammate Foots Walker. McAdoo was named a Junior College All-American as a sophomore in 1971. At Vincennes, McAdoo averaged 19.3 points and 10 rebounds in 1969-1970 and 25.0 points and 11.0 rebounds in 1970-1971. McAdoo played for Team USA in the 1971 Pan American Games in the summer of 1971, averaging 11.0 points."We didn't recruit him," Coach Dean Smith of North Carolina said. "His mother called us to start it. She said. Why weren't we?"McAdoo enrolled at the University of North Carolina in 1971, the only junior college player Dean Smith recruited in his career.
McAdoo, playing alongside Bobby Jones, led the 1971–72 Tar Heels, coached by Dean Smith, to a 26-5 record and the Final Four of the 1972 NCAA University Division Basketball Tournament. McAdoo averaged 10.1 rebounds. He was named first-team All-American, he earned MVP honors at the ACC Tournament. Citing family hardship, McAdoo sought and won early eligibility for the 1972 NBA draft under the "hardship" clause that existed until 1977. McAdoo consulted with Coach Dean Smith who encouraged him to go to the NBA. McAdoo said, "When I left, a lot of people were angry and upset, but Dean gave me his blessing. He told me, ‘If they’re going to offer you this kind of money, I think you should leave to help you and your family.’ I had his blessing. My mother was against it,” McAdoo added, “but my father and Dean Smith were the guys who got me to move.” McAdoo won early eligibility in the 1972 NBA draft. However, it was rumored that McAdoo had signed with the Virginia Squires of the rival American Basketball Association after a "secret" ABA draft in which names of those drafted were not made public.
Though no contract was produced and McAdoo denied NBA Commissioner Walter Kennedy advised NBA teams not to draft McAdoo. Other reports were that a contract was signed and voided, because McAdoo was too young to have signed it and that Buffalo somehow knew this. McAdoo was indeed noted as the No. 1 pick of the 1972 American Basketball Association Draft. Buffalo acted, McAdoo was selected anyhow with the No. 2 overall pick by the Buffalo Braves, after rumors that contract talks between the Portland Trail Blazers and McAdoo didn't come to fruition with the first pick. LaRue Martin was selected by the Portland. McAdoo signed with the Braves and became one of the NBA's premier players, he was named to the NBA All-Rookie First Team. He earned the first of three consecutive NBA scoring titles in only his second season. McAdoo was frustrated with Buffalo's losing in his rookie season, saying, "Here I was sitting at Buffalo, we were on the way to losing 61 games and we didn't have any players. My wife could have outrun those people."His second season remains the last time an NBA player has averaged both 30.0 points and 15.0 rebounds per game.
McAdoo led the NBA in field goal percentage in 1973–74, shooting 54.7 percent. That year he enjoyed his first of five All-Star selections. In 1974–75, he was awarded the NBA Most Valuable Player Award, averaging 34.5 points, 14.1 rebounds and 2.12 blocks per game, while shooting 51.2 percent from the field and 80.5 percent from the free throw line. He led the league in fan voting for the 1975 All-Star Game with 98,325 votes; when Anthony Davis had a 59-point/20-rebound game 19 days before his 23rd birthday, McAdoo was the only person to have had a 50-point/20-rebound game at a younger age. McAdoo's style was modern for his time. Although a'big man' at 6 ft 9 in, he had no problems taking shots from the perimeter, which, in his prime, made him a nearly unstoppable force on offense. On December 9, 1976, McAdoo was by the Buffalo Braves with Tom McMillen to the New York Knicks for John Gianelli and cash. In 334 games with Buffalo, McAdoo averaged 28.2 points, 12.7 rebounds, 2.6 assists, 2.4 blocks and 1.1 steals.
In 52 games with the Knicks in 1976-1977, McAdoo averaged 26.7 points, 12.7 rebounds, 2.7 assists, 1.3 blocks and 1.2 steals under Hall of Fame Coach Red Holtzman, as the Knicks fi
2011 NBA All-Star Game
The 2011 NBA All-Star Game was an exhibition basketball game, played on February 20, 2011 at Staples Center in Los Angeles, home of the Los Angeles Clippers and the Los Angeles Lakers. This game was the 60th edition of the National Basketball Association All-Star Game and was played during the 2010–11 NBA season; the Los Angeles Clippers and Los Angeles Lakers served as the hosts. The Clippers and Lakers were both awarded the All-Star Game in an announcement by commissioner David Stern on June 9, 2009; this was the second time. This will be the fifth time. Rihanna, Kanye West and Drake were the halftime performers, while Keri Hilson, Lenny Kravitz and Bruno Mars were the entertainment for pre-show festivities; the coaches for the All-Star Game are the head coaches of the teams with the best winning percentage in each conference through the games of February 6, two weeks before the All-Star Game. However, an NBA rule prohibits a coach from being selected for consecutive All-Star Games if his team again holds the conference's best record.
Because George Karl and Stan Van Gundy coached in the 2010 All-Star Game, they were not eligible for selection. The coach for the Western Conference team was San Antonio Spurs head coach Gregg Popovich; this was the second time Popovich was selected to be an All-Star coach, after previous selection in 2005. The coach for the Eastern Conference team was Boston Celtics head coach Doc Rivers; this was the second time Rivers was selected to be an All-Star coach, after being selected in 2008. The rosters for the All-Star Game are chosen in two ways; the starters were chosen via a fan ballot. Two guards, two forwards and one center who receive the highest vote were named the All-Star starters; the reserves were chosen by votes among the NBA head coaches in their respective conferences. The coaches were not permitted to vote for their own players; the reserves consists of two guards, two forwards, one center and two players regardless of position. If a player is unable to participate due to injury, the commissioner will select a replacement.
Kobe Bryant of the Los Angeles Lakers topped the All-Star Ballots with 2,380,016 votes, which earned him a starting position in the Western Conference team. Carmelo Anthony, Kevin Durant, Chris Paul and Yao Ming completed the Western Conference starting position. Anthony and Bryant are all starters for the previous year's Western Conference team; the Western Conference reserves feature 3 first-time selections, rookie Blake Griffin, Kevin Love, Russell Westbrook. Griffin is the first rookie since Yao Ming to play in the All-Star game; the Eastern Conference leading vote-getter is Dwight Howard with 2,099,204 votes. LeBron James, Derrick Rose, Amar'e Stoudemire and Dwyane Wade completed the Eastern Conference starting position. Howard, Miami Heat teammates James and Wade all started for the East in last year's game; the Eastern Conference reserves includes 4 Celtics: Ray Allen, Kevin Garnett, Paul Pierce and Rajon Rondo. Al Horford and Rose were selected to the All-Star game for the second times.
Yao missed the game due to injury. Western Conference coach Gregg Popovich selected Tim Duncan to replace Yao in the starting lineup. Kobe Bryant, selected to his 13th straight All-Star game after becoming the leading vote-getter, had 37 points, 14 rebounds, three steals and won his fourth All-Star Game Most Valuable Player Award, tying Hall of Famer Bob Pettit for the most All-Star MVP awards. LeBron James had the second triple-double in All-Star Game history with 29 points, 12 rebounds, 10 assists. Blake Griffin is the first rookie to play in the All-Star since Yao Ming in 2003; the T-Mobile Rookie Challenge featured a team of standout first-year players against a team of standout second-year players. The game was divided into two twenty-minute halves, similar to college basketball; the participating players were chosen by voting among the league's assistant coaches. The Rookie team included five of the top ten picks from the 2010 NBA Draft: DeMarcus Cousins, Derrick Favors, Wesley Johnson, Greg Monroe and John Wall.
2009 first overall pick Blake Griffin, who missed the 2009–10 season due to injury, was selected to the rookie team. The Sophomores team featured six players from the previous Rookie Challenge game: DeJuan Blair, Stephen Curry, Tyreke Evans, Taj Gibson, James Harden and Brandon Jennings. However, Evans was replaced by Harden due to injury; the head coaches for the Rookies and Sophomores teams were the lead assistants from the All-Star Game coaching staffs, Mike Budenholzer from the San Antonio Spurs and Lawrence Frank from the Boston Celtics. They were assisted by two All-Stars and two veterans who served as assistant coaches: Carmelo Anthony, Amar'e Stoudemire, Steve Kerr and Kevin McHale. Budenholzer, McHale and Stoudemire coached the Rookie team while Frank and Kerr coached the Sophomore team; the Rookies defeated the Sophomores 148 -- 140. Rookie's John Wall, who scored 12 points and notched a record 22 assists, was named MVP, he is joined by his former Kentucky teammate DeMarcus Cousins, who scored a game-high 33 points and had 14 rebounds.
James Harden, born in LA, led the Sophomores with 30 points and DeJuan Blair had 28 points and a game-high 15 rebounds. Rookie's Blake Griffin, who participated in the Slam Dunk contest and the All-Star game, only played 13 minutes and had 14 points. Both teams started the first half strong.
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
The Government Employees Insurance Company is an American auto insurance company with headquarters in Chevy Chase, Maryland. It is the second largest auto insurer in the United States, after State Farm. GEICO is a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway that provides coverage for more than 24 million motor vehicles owned by more than 15 million policy holders as of 2017. GEICO writes private passenger automobile insurance in all 50 U. S. states and the District of Columbia. The insurance agency sells policies through local agents, called GEICO Field Representatives, over the phone directly to the consumer, through their website, its mascot is a gold dust day gecko with a Cockney accent, voiced by English actor Jake Wood. GEICO is well known in popular culture for its advertising, having made a large number of commercials intended to entertain viewers. GEICO was founded in 1936 by Leo Goodwin Sr. and his wife Lillian Goodwin to provide auto insurance directly to federal government employees and their families.
Since 1925, Goodwin had worked for USAA as an insurer who specialized in insuring only military personnel. He decided to start his own company after rising as far as a civilian could go in USAA's military-dominated hierarchy. Based on Goodwin's experience at USAA, GEICO's original business model was predicated on the assumption that federal employees, as a group, would constitute a less risky and more financially stable pool of insureds compared to the general public. Despite the presence of the word "government" in its name, GEICO has always been a private corporation not affiliated with any U. S. government organization. In 1937, the Goodwins relocated GEICO from San Antonio, Texas to Washington, D. C. and reincorporated the company as a D. C. corporation after realizing that their business model would work best in the place with the highest concentration of federal employees. An important figure in GEICO's history is David Lloyd Kreeger, who became president of the company in 1964 and helped steer it into a major insurance enterprise.
In 1948, he formed a group of investors. He became senior general counsel of the company. Six years after becoming president of GEICO, Kreeger was named chairman and chief executive officer, he retained those titles until he retired in 1975. Kreeger continued his role as chairman of the executive committee until 1979, when he was named honorary chairman. In 1974 under Kreeger's leadership, GEICO began to insure the general public after real-time access to computerized driving records became available throughout the United States. At this time, GEICO was the fifth-largest U. S. auto insurer. By 1975, it was clear that GEICO had expanded far too when it reported a $126.5 million USD loss. To prevent GEICO from collapsing, a consortium of 45 insurance companies agreed to take over a quarter of its policies, it was forced to issue a stock offering to raise money to pay claims, it took a massive reorganization to set GEICO on the path to recovery. GEICO has offered other types of insurance besides auto, including homeowner's insurance from 1962 to 1996.
A sister company, the Government Employees Life Insurance Company, offered life insurance from 1975 to 1985. Although GEICO has since focused on its core auto insurance competency, it uses its established direct sales infrastructure to market homeowner's and other types of insurance underwritten by other companies. In 1996, after many years as a publicly traded firm, GEICO became a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway. GEICO deals directly with consumers via telephone and internet. GEICO is now the second-largest writer of private auto insurance in the country. In 2015, GEICO began offering coverage for drivers of transportation network companies in select states, including in high-population states such as Texas, Pennsylvania and Georgia; the policy, issued through GEICO's commercial department, has received praise from insurance experts and launched GEICO as the largest insurance provider for TNC drivers. In 2016, J. D. Power rated the company # 20 out of 24 with a 2/5 score. GEICO has many well-known ad campaigns.
In 2012 GEICO spent over $1.1 billion 6.8 % of its revenue. All campaigns are produced by The Martin Agency in Richmond, Virginia. GEICO ads have featured several well-known mascots, including: The GEICO Gecko is the most prevalent spokesperson mascot and speaks with a Cockney accent; the GEICO Cavemen. Maxwell, the GEICO "Piggy" who shouts a long "Whee" and appears in more radio and TV commercials. Actor Mike McGlone, who uses film noir-style narration to compare the ease of GEICO to things, famous people, or idioms; the scene is acted out, with humorous results. In addition to Johnson, other ads have included Charlie Daniels, Andrés Cantor, Foghorn Leghorn, Elmer Fudd, R. Lee Ermey, Ed "Too Tall" Jones among others; this campaign is notable for the creation of the "Maxwell the Pig" commercials. The "money savers" campaign enlisted actors to portray average consumers who have resorted to various humorous extremes in order to save money, such as teaching a dog to sing or teaching a group of Guinea pigs to row a boat and perform some mundane task for the consumer