The National Basketball Association Conference Finals are the Eastern and Western championship series of the National Basketball Association, a major professional basketball league in North America. The NBA was founded in 1946 as the Basketball Association of America; the NBA adopted its current name at the start of the 1949–50 season when the BAA merged with the National Basketball League. The league consists of 30 teams, of which 29 are located in the United States and 1 in Canada; each team plays 82 games in the regular season. After the regular season, eight teams from each of the league's two conferences qualify for the playoffs. At the end of the playoffs, the top two teams play each other in the Conference Finals, to determine the Conference Champions from each side, who proceed to play in the NBA Finals; the BAA teams were aligned into two divisions, the Eastern Division and the Western Division. The Divisional Finals were first played in the league's third season; the first two seasons used a playoffs format where Eastern and Western Division teams would face each other before the BAA Finals, hence there were no divisional finals.
In the 1949–50 season, the league realigned itself to three divisions, with the addition of the Central Division. However, the arrangement was only used for one season and the league went back into two divisions format in 1951; the two divisions format remained until 1970, when the NBA realigned itself into two conferences with two divisions each, which led to the renaming to Conference Finals. The finals was a best-of-3 series from 1949 to 1950 to; the Conference Finals are played in a best-of-7 series like the NBA Playoffs and Finals. The two series are played in late May each year after the first and second rounds of the Playoffs and before the Finals. At the conclusion of the Conference Finals, winners are presented with a silver trophy, T-shirts, advance to the NBA Finals; the Los Angeles Lakers have won the most conference titles with 31, which consists of 30 Western Conference titles and one title in the now-defunct Central Division. They have made 40 appearances in the Conference Finals, more than any other team.
The Boston Celtics have won the second most of any team. The Celtics hold the record for consecutive titles; the Golden State Warriors and the Detroit Pistons hold the distinction of being the only teams to have won both East and West titles. Twenty-four of the 30 active franchises have won at least one conference title; the Denver Nuggets, Minnesota Timberwolves and Memphis Grizzlies have each played in at least one Conference Finals, but they have each failed to win their respective conference title. Three other franchises, the Charlotte Hornets, Los Angeles Clippers, New Orleans Pelicans have never appeared in the Conference Finals. Of the 143 conference and divisional champions, 46 were won by the team who had or tied for the best regular season record for that season. NBA history begins with three Basketball Association of America seasons. In its first two postseason tournaments, BAA Eastern and Western Division champions were matched in a long first-round series while four runners-up played off to determine the other finalist.
1946–1947: Washington Capitols, lost to the Western champion 1947–1948: Philadelphia Warriors, defeated the Western champion, lost the BAA Finals Line "1949" refers to the last BAA Playoffs. In its inaugural 1949–50 season only, the NBA used a three-division arrangement. Syracuse won the Eastern Division championship in the first two rounds of the 1950 NBA Playoffs and advanced to the Finals as the one of three division champions with the best regular season record. NBA history begins with three Basketball Association of America seasons. In its first two postseason tournaments, BAA Eastern and Western Division champions were matched in a long first-round series while four runners-up played off to determine the other finalist. 1946–1947: Chicago Stags, defeated the Eastern champion, lost the BAA Finals 1947–1948: St. Louis Bombers, lost to the Eastern champion Line "1949" refers to the last BAA Playoffs. In its inaugural 1949–50 season only, the NBA used a three-division arrangement. Anderson won the Western Division championship in the first two rounds of the 1950 NBA Playoffs but did not thereby advance to the Finals as every other Western playoff champion has done, it was defeated by the Central champion in their semifinal series.
Before the 1949–50 season, the BAA merged with the NBL and became the NBA. The number of teams competed increased to 17 and the league realigned itself to three divisions, creating the Central Division. In that season, 4 teams with the best win–loss records from each division advanced to the divisional playoffs; the winner of the Western and Central Division Finals met in the NBA Semifinals in order to determine who would face the Eastern Division champion Syracuse Nationals in the NBA Finals. The Minneapolis Lakers defeated the Western Division champion Anderson Packers in the best-of-3 series 2–0 to advance to the Finals; the Lakers won the Finals against the Nationals. It disbanded before the 1950–51 season, after 6 teams folded and the league realigned itself back into two divisions, it returned in 1970 as one of the divisions in the newly formed Eastern Conference. Stats updated through May 26, 2019 Total number of appearancesConsecutive appearances13 Boston Celtics: 8 Los Angeles Lakers: 6 St. Louis Hawks: 6 Los Angeles Lakers: 6 New York Knicks: 6 Detroit Pistons: 5 New
Cognitive rhetoric refers to an approach to rhetoric and pedagogy as well as a method for language and literary studies drawing from, or contributing to, cognitive science. Following the cognitive revolution, cognitive linguists, computer scientists, cognitive psychologists have borrowed terms from rhetorical and literary criticism. Metaphor is a fundamental concept throughout cognitive science for cognitive linguistic models in which meaning-making is dependent on metaphor production and comprehension. Computer scientists and philosophers of mind draw on literary studies for terms like “scripts”, “stories”, “stream of consciousness”, “multiple drafts”, “Joycean machine”. Cognitive psychologists have researched literary and rhetorical topics such as “reader response” and “deixis” in narrative fiction, transmission of poetry in oral traditions. Rhetoric is a term used in reference to composition studies and pedagogy, a tradition that dates back to Ancient Greece; the emergence of Rhetoric as a teachable craft links rhetoric and composition pedagogy, notably in the tradition of Sophism.
Aristotle critiqued them in Synagoge Techne. In Ancient Rome, the Greek Rhetorical tradition was absorbed and became vital to education, as rhetoric was valued in a political society with an advanced system of law, where speaking well was crucial to winning favor and legal rulings. Cognitive Rhetoricians focusing on composition draw from the paradigm and terms of cognitive science to build a pedagogy of composition, where writing is an instance of everyday problem-solving processes. James A. Berlin has argued that by focusing on professional composition and communications and ignoring ideology, social-cognitive rhetoric—which maps structures of the mind onto structures of language and the interpersonal world—lends itself to use as a tool for training workers in corporate capitalism. Berlin contrasts Social-Cognitive Rhetoric with Social-Epistemic Rhetoric, which makes ideology the core issue of composition pedagogy. Cognitive Rhetoric offers a new way of looking at properties of literature from the perspective of cognitive science.
It is interdisciplinary in character and committed to data and methods that produce falsifiable theory. Rhetoric offers a store of stylistic devices observed for their effect on audiences, providing a rich index with distinguished examples available to researchers in cognitive neuropsychology and cognitive science. For Mark Turner, narrative imaging is the fundamental instrument of everyday thought. Individuals organize experience in a constant narrative flow, starting with small spatial stories. Meaning is fundamentally parabolic: two or more event shapes or conceptual spaces converge in the parabolic process, generating concepts with unique properties not found in either of the inputs; this process is everyday: anticipating that an object you are headed toward will make contact with you is a parable whereby you project a spatial viewpoint. Such narrative flow is a adaptive process, crucial for planning, explaining, as well as recalling the past and imagining a future. Thus, literary processes have adaptive value prior to the emergence of linguistic capability.
Rhetorical stylistics Rhetorical figures Perception Brain imaging Cognitive instability Conceptual blending Conceptual metaphor Binding Projection Cognitive poetics Cognitive philology Cognitive science Cognitive linguistics Cognitive neuropsychology Cognitive historicism Fahnestock, Jeanne. “Rhetoric in the Age of Cognitive Science”. The Viability of Rhetoric. Graff, Richard. Ed. New York: State University of New York Press, 2005. Gibbs, Raymond; the Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Lakoff, George. Women and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Lakoff and Mark Turner. More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Lakoff, George. “The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor.” In Metaphor and Thought, 2nd ed. Ed. Andrew Ortony. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Jackson, Tony. “Questioning Interdisciplinarity: Cognitive Science, Evolutionary Psychology, Literary Criticism”.
Poetics Today, 21: 319-47. Jackson, Tony. “Issues and Problems in the Blending of Cognitive Science, Evolutionary Psychology, Literary Study.” Poetics Today, 23.1 161-179. Johnson, Mark; the Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning and Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Oakley, Todd. "From Attention to Meaning: Explorations in Semiotics and Rhetoric." European Semiotics Series, Volume 8. Lang Verlag, 2009. Parrish, Alex C. Adaptive Rhetoric: Evolution and the Art of Persuasion. New York: Routledge, 2013. Pinker, Stephen. Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language. New York: Basic Books, 1999. Richardson, Alan. “Literature and the Cognitive Revolution: An Introduction.” Poetics Today, 23.1 1-8. Shen, Yeshayahu. “Cognitive Aspects of Metaphor”. Poetics Today, 13.4: 567-74. Tomascello, Michael. “Language Is Not an Instinct.” Cognitive Development, 10: 131-56. Turner, Mark. Death is the Mother of Beauty: Mind and Criticism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987 Turner, Mark. Reading Minds: The Study of English in the Age of Cognitive Science.
Aether is a video game designed by Edmund McMillen and Tyler Glaiel and published by Armor Games, released on September 3, 2008. Players control a lonely boy and an octopus-like monster that the boy encounters, solving puzzles on different planets to restore them from monochrome to color; the pair travel through space by swinging on clouds and asteroids with the monster's elongated tongue, searching other planets for life to which the boy can relate. It is a part of The Basement Collection. McMillen and Glaiel developed it in 14 days. Both developers expressed interest in seeing a version being released on the Wii game console through the WiiWare online service. Aether received a positive response from video game blogs for its unusual visual style and atmosphere; the single looped piece of background music received a mixed response and the controls were highlighted as an area of the game that could have been improved before release. Aether is a space adventure game with washed-out pastel colors and a varying soundtrack consisting of a piano, synthesizer and percussion piece.
There are four monochrome planets which have subdued hues. Players control a lonely boy from Earth and an octopus-like monster he befriends; the monster's tongue is the boy through space and onto other planets. Each planet has a unique soundtrack; each moon or planet exerts gravity over the player character, requiring momentum to escape from the planet's orbit. To escape a planet, the tongue must first be latched onto a cloud floating above the planet's surface, which can be used to swing the player around. By propelling themselves from the initial cloud using swinging momentum, players can latch onto the next and repeat the process to leave the planet's orbit. After reaching space the process is repeated with asteroids. In space the lack of gravity causes the player to drift until the direction is changed by swinging on another object; when travelling through space, players are drawn to a planet's orbit. Each planet's location is labeled with a colored marker which disappears once that planet's puzzle is solved.
The player encounters characters. Each planet besides Earth has its own puzzle; the monster's ability to swing around objects is used in some of the game's puzzles. One puzzle involves swinging on the crystals which surround the core of a hollow planet called Gravida, without swinging on the same crystal twice or breaking the chain. Solving each planet's puzzle produces a flash of light, after which monochrome planets change to color, subdued pastel colors brighten, the planet's unique soundtrack becomes permanent; the game's plot describes a journey through a child's anxieties. After befriending the monster, the boy leaves Earth on the creature's back to look for life elsewhere in the galaxy, he hopes to find someone to relate to. The hollow planet Gravida's surface is patrolled by a creature; this larger creature is followed by several tiny creatures. One of these smaller inhabitants has fallen into the core of Gravida. Though it is isolated and lonely, the creature consoles itself; the planet Malaisus is composed of water, with a monster identical to the player's swimming around with a shoal of fish.
The monster tells the player to leave. Planet Bibulon has two faces on opposite sides, one angry and one happy. A two-faced creature travels across the surface. Bibulon is orbited by four moons, each of which has differing opinions on an unnamed boy; when players find the planet Debasa, they discover. Gravity is intense within the fog. Four orbiting satellites produce the fog. Earth shrinks after each planet has been completed. After restoring color to all the surrounding planets, the game is completed by returning to Earth; the Earth has shrunk until it is only larger than the monster. Both fly upwards and land on the moon. Aether was created by Edmund McMillen and Tyler Glaiel, McMillen was a member of independent development studio Cryptic Sea and co-creator of the award-winning Gish. Glaiel runs his own independent studio, Glaiel Games, develops Flash games for game and animation website Newgrounds; the game's graphics and story were created by McMillen, while Glaiel wrote the game's music and code.
The game was developed in 14 days. "People being creative and taking risks with their work always is inspiring to me, honesty in art is very inspiring," he stated. McMillen's childhood experiences and fears were used for the game's themes of loneliness and fear of abandonment or rejection; the boy's journeys through space represent inward-thinking and imagination, planets represent fears and the inhabitants personify McMillen's childhood "inner demons". He was unsure as to whether or not he wished to release Aether, since it was based on personal experiences and made him feel vulnerable. Glaiel created the game's planets and gameplay, designing the layout of the planets to convey the emotions involved in the game, but he did not know which planets would be used to relate to each emotion, he felt that the game's sense of emotion and mood was improved because development was not planned from the outset. Both developers expressed a wish to port the game to the WiiWare service on the Wii video game console.
Aether was released as part of Mc