GCR Class 9D
The GCR Classes 9D, 9H and 9M were a class of 124 0-6-0 Steam locomotives designed by Harry Pollitt for freight work on the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway renamed Great Central Railway. The locomotives passed to the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923; the LNER classified them as J10 with sub-classes J10/1 to J10/6 because of detail differences. Some locomotives survived into British Railways ownership in 1948 as follows: J10/2, 4 J10/4, 38 J10/6, 36BR numbers were 65126–65209. All locomotives had been withdrawn by 1961 and none were preserved
Mallaig is a port in Lochaber, on the west coast of the Highlands of Scotland. The local railway station, Mallaig, is the terminus of the West Highland railway line and the town is linked to Fort William by the A830 road – the "Road to the Isles"; the village of Mallaig was founded in the 1840s, when Lord Lovat, owner of North Morar Estate, divided up the farm of Mallaigvaig into seventeen parcels of land and encouraged his tenants to move to the western part of the peninsula and turn to fishing as a way of life. The population and local economy expanded in the 20th century with the arrival of the railway. Ferries operated by Caledonian MacBrayne and Western Isles Cruises sail from the port to Armadale on the Isle of Skye, Inverie in Knoydart, the isles of Rùm, Eigg and Canna. Mallaig is the main commercial fishing port on the West Coast of Scotland, during the 1960s was the busiest herring port in Europe. Mallaig prided itself at that time on its famous traditionally smoked kippers, the fishmonger Andy Race still providing genuine oak smoked kippers from the factory shop on the harbour.
Mallaig and the surrounding area is a popular area for holidays. The majority of the community speaks English, with a minority of residents speaking both English and Gaelic. In addition, traditional Gaelic is still taught in the school to pupils who choose to learn the language. Mallaig has extensive distance learning facilities, allowing the local population access to all forms of education from leisure classes to university degrees through Lochaber College and the UHI Millennium Institute; the College is one of the most successful of its kind in Britain, with over 8% of the local population accessing its facilities. The college has published a PDF version of the 19th century Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Condition of Crofters and Cottars in the Highlands and Islands report; the Learning Centre has opened a marine-specific vocational centre and is at the forefront of developing Marine Certification courses for fishermen, as well as being a RYA certified centre. Mallaig has its own primary school, which accepted the Gaelic medium schoolchildren from Lady Lovat Primary School in the nearby village of Morar, to allow that school to focus more on their English medium students.
Mallaig has its own High School, opened in 1989 which caters for Mallaig, the villages of Morar and Arisaig, along with the nearby Small Isles of Eigg, Rùm, Muck and Canna and the nearby Knoydart peninsula. The school has increasing numbers of pupils from the Small Isles, as daily travel from home to school is impossible, these pupils are boarded in the school's hostel. Mallaig has several restaurants and takeaways along with a community-run swimming pool and leisure centre; the main focus is on the tourist trade during the summer, however some facilities are open all year round, including the swimming pool. Mallaig has lots of self-catering accommodation and several guest houses. There are three pubs; the compact village centre is close to the harbour and railway station, with residential areas beyond to the south and east of the harbour. Most of the retail premises are in the main street, or on Davies Brae, which runs south from the village centre; the swimming pool is at the high point of the village on Fank Brae.
There are two minimarkets, gift shops. An art gallery sells work by local artists. There is a small bookshop A heritage centre next to the railway station is based around old photographs of the locality, but as Mallaig has only existed during the age of photography this offers a good introduction to the history and heritage of the locality. There are Roman Catholic and Church of Scotland churches, a Fishermen's Mission facility run by the Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen. There is a small petrol station with restricted opening times near the harbour. Completed in 1901, the West Highland Line links Mallaig railway station by rail to Fort William and Glasgow; the line was voted the top rail journey in the world by readers of independent travel magazine Wanderlust in 2009, ahead of the iconic Trans-Siberian and the Cuzco to Machu Picchu line in Peru. The five-hour trip to Glasgow Queen Street railway station passes through spectacular scenery including seascapes, lochsides and moorland terrain, offers views of Loch Lomond, the Gare Loch, Rannoch Moor, Ben Nevis and Glen Shiel, Loch Eil.
The line runs along the Clyde between Helensburgh and Glasgow and offers views across the estuary. In the years prior to the First World War, following the opening of the line in 1901 there was a steady increase in the value of fish sold,exceeding £60,000 in 1914. In the summer the Jacobite steam train service from Fort William visits Mallaig. Sheil Buses operate a bus service from Mallaig to Fort William. Buses run south along the A861 to the villages of Acharacle and Strontian. Mallaig is an important ferry port with regular Caledonian MacBrayne ferry services to Armadale on the Isle of Skye, a thirty-minute sailing, they run a daily service to the Small Isles of Canna, Rùm, Eigg and Muck, although the timetable and itinerary differ from day to day. Calmac offers a non-landing ticket which allows visitors to cruise the Small Isles. In addition, a local ferry service owned by former lifeboatman Bruce Watt sails daily to Inverie in Knoydart, a remote village, calls by prior arrangement at Tarbet in Morar, a location, only accessible by sea.
This service offers a non-landing cruise through scenic Loch Nevis
GCR Class 8K
The Great Central Railway Class 8K 2-8-0 is a class of steam locomotive designed for heavy freight. Introduced in 1911, designed by John G. Robinson, 126 were built for the GCR prior to the First World War. Including wartime construction for the British Army ROD and the post-war GCR Class 8M, the class and its derivatives totalled 666 locomotives; the first of the 8K class was outshopped from the GCR's Gorton workshops in 1911. It was a superheated version of an earlier 0-8-0, the 8A class, with the addition of a pony truck; this both gave a steadier ride. The 8K was introduced to anticipate the increased traffic from the GCR's vast new docks complex at Immingham in North East Lincolnshire and by June 1914 126 were in traffic. During the First World War there were experiments with oil burning 8Ks with larger bogie tenders. Post-war, a further 19 locomotives were built in 1918–21 to a modified design with a larger boiler. In 1922 the GCR rebuilt two Class 8M to Class 8K. Robust and straightforward, the Class 8K 2-8-0 steamed well and proved outstandingly reliable, qualities that commended the design to the Ministry of Munitions.
Sir Sam Fay ensured that it became the standard locomotive during the First World War as the ROD 2-8-0, used by the Railway Operating Division of the Royal Engineers. 521 ROD locomotives were built in 1917-19 to the same design as the GCR's 8K locomotives, differing only in minor details, such as the fitting of Westinghouse Air Brakes and the use of steel for the boiler tubes and inner firebox. After the war, the surviving ROD locomotives were sold to various railway companies, with the GCR itself purchasing 3 in 1919, which were added to its indigenous 8K fleet. Other surplus ROD locomotives were sold to the London and North Western Railway, its successor the London and Scottish Railway, the Great Western Railway, to various purchasers in Australia and China. Many of these had short lives with their new owners – the LMS locomotives were all scrapped or sold by the 1930s, half of the GWR fleet was gone by 1930. However, other GWR engines survived well into the 1950s; the last of 13 locomotives sold to J & A Brown for use on the Richmond Vale railway line, in Australia, was retired in 1973, 3 locomotives in China were only retired in 1990.
Upon its formation in 1923 the London and North Eastern Railway inherited a total of 131 class 8K and 17 class 8M locomotives from the Great Central Railway. Under the LNER's ownership the 8Ks became known as Class O4, the 8Ms as Class O5, although all of the O5s were converted to Class O4s by 1946, they were joined by a further 273 former ROD locomotives purchased in 1923-27, bringing the total LNER O4 fleet to 421 locomotives. Some 92 of these were requisitioned by the War Department in 1941 for use in support of Commonwealth forces in the Middle East, none of which would return to Britain; the O4 locos served throughout the LNER system, many being modified to help extend their useful working life on heavy freight trains. Fifty-eight of the class were rebuilt into LNER Thompson Class O1s in 1944-49. 329 LNER O4 locomotives passed to British Railways ownership in 1948. Five locomotives were sold to the Government in 1952 for use in Egypt, routine withdrawals of BR's class O4s commenced in December 1958.
The last examples of the class were withdrawn from operations in the Doncaster area in April 1966, not long before the abandonment of steam altogether. One of the GCR-built 8Ks, BR number 63601, is preserved in Great Britain where it runs on the preserved Great Central Railway at Loughborough. There are three ROD 2-8-0s in New South Wales, Australia. Two are stored at the Dorrigo Steam Railway and Museum and one is being restored on the Richmond Vale Railway. In 2009 Bachmann Branchline announced a ready-to-run'00' scale model of the Class 8K, marketing it under the LNER class name of O4; the models being of preserved 63601, 2 long-gone examples BR 63635 and LNER 6190, -these have since been released. In October 2012 RailSimulator.com released a pay-ware add-on of the GCR 8K, again marketed under its LNER O4 classification, for Train Simulator 2013. It was released as a companion to the Woodhead Line add-on, released earlier in the year, features sounds from the preserved O4 63601 before its boiler ticket ran out, includes 4 scenarios for the Woodhead Line and Quickdrive compatibility.
Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 6B: Tender Engines—Classes O1 to P2. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-54-1. Railuk database LNER Encyclopedia
GCR Class 9F
The Great Central Railway Class 9F was a class of 0-6-2T steam locomotive built between 1891 and 1901. From 1923 the locomotives were redesignated Class N5. Designed by Thomas Parker for the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway, the prototype 9F was built in 1891. A total of 12 batches were constructed up with 131 locos being completed; the MS&LR changed its name to the GCR in 1897. The GCR 9F locos were reclassified as N5 under the LNER locomotive numbering and classification system when the GCR was absorbed into the London & North Eastern Railway after the 1923 grouping, it was the first design for a British railway to use the Belpaire firebox. The 9F N5, locos were utilised for a variety of purposes including goods shunting, short goods train trips and local passenger train duties; some locos acted as station pilots at larger termini. The N5 class was spread over the ex-GCR rail system and elsewhere. During July 1952, there were N5s based at Neasden, Lincoln, Darnall and Northwich, Chester and Wrexham, plus several other loco depots.
The GCR locos had 5000 added to their original numbers when the line was absorbed by the LNER in 1923, resulting in numbers ranging between 5021 and 5946. As part of the LNER's numbering rationalisation scheme introduced in 1946, the surviving 121 N5s were renumbered between 9250 and 9370 with the earliest built receiving the lowest number, so on. British Railways, formed on 1 January 1948, added 60000 to all LNER loco numbers. All 131 9F locos survived to be absorbed by the LNER in 1923. 121 N5 locos remained in service at the creation of British Railways in 1948. 117 survived at 24 April 1954, reducing to 46 at 8 March 1958 as diesel-electric shunters were delivered. The last N5 was withdrawn for scrapping in 1961. Notes Bibliography LNER encyclopedia
The Glenfinnan Viaduct is a railway viaduct on the West Highland Line in Glenfinnan, Inverness-shire, Scotland. Located at the top of Loch Shiel in the West Highlands of Scotland, the viaduct overlooks the Glenfinnan Monument and the waters of Loch Shiel; the West Highland Railway was built to Fort William by Lucas and Aird, but there were delays with the West Highland Railway Mallaig Extension bill for the Mallaig Extension Railway in the House of Commons as the Tory and Liberal parties fought over the issue of subsidies for public transport. This Act did pass in 1896, by which time Aird had moved south. New contractors were needed and Robert McAlpine & Sons were taken on with Simpson & Wilson as engineers. Robert McAlpine & Sons was headed by Robert McAlpine, nicknamed "Concrete Bob" for his innovative use of mass concrete. Concrete was used due to the difficulty of working the hard schist in the area. McAlpine's son Robert aged 28, took charge of construction, with his younger son Malcolm appointed as assistant.
Construction of the extension from Fort William to Mallaig began in January 1897, the line opened on 1 April 1901. The Glenfinnan Viaduct, was complete enough by October 1898 to be used to transport materials across the valley, it was built at a cost of GB£18,904. A long-established legend attached to the Glenfinnan Viaduct was that a horse had fallen into one of the piers during construction in 1898 or 1899. In 1987, Professor Roland Paxton failed to find evidence of a horse at Glenfinnan using a fisheye camera inserted into boreholes in the only two piers large enough to accommodate a horse. In 1997, on the basis of local hearsay, he investigated the Loch nan Uamh Viaduct by the same method but found the piers to be full of rubble. Using scanning technology in 2001, the remains of the horse and cart were found at Loch nan Uamh, within the large central pylon; the viaduct is built from mass concrete, has 21 semicircular spans of 50 feet. It is the longest concrete railway bridge in Scotland at 416 yards, crosses the River Finnan at a height of 100 feet.
The West Highland Line it carries is single track, the viaduct is 18 feet wide between the parapets. The viaduct is built on a curve of 792 feet; the concrete used in the Glenfinnan Viaduct is mass concrete, which unlike reinforced concrete does not contain any metal reinforcement. It is formed by pouring concrete using fine aggregate, into formwork, resulting in a material strong in compression but weak in tension; the West Highland Line connects Fort William and Mallaig, was a crucial artery for the local fishing industry and the highlands economy in general, which suffered enormously after the Highland Clearances of the 1800s. The line is used by passenger trains operated by ScotRail between Glasgow Queen Street and Mallaig diesel multiple units. Additionally in the summer the heritage Jacobite steam train operates along the line, it is a popular tourist event in the area, the viaduct is one of the major attractions of the line. Glenfinnan Viaduct has been used as a location in several films and television series, including Ring of Bright Water, Charlotte Gray, Monarch of the Glen, Stone of Destiny.
After it appeared in four of the Harry Potter films, British Transport Police warned fans not to walk on the viaduct after a handful of near misses with trains had occurred. It is featured in the 2018 videogame Forza Horizon 4; the Glenfinnan Viaduct features on some Scottish banknotes. The 2007 series of notes issued by the Bank of Scotland depicts different bridges in Scotland as examples of Scottish engineering, the £10 note features the Glenfinnan Viaduct. Sources Thomas, John; the West Highland Railway. Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-02479-5. Haigh, Phil. "'Concrete Bob's' Scottish masterpiece". RAIL. No. 312. EMAP Apex Publications. Pp. 40–41. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699
GCR Class 8F
The GCR Class 8F was a class of ten 4-6-0 locomotives built for the Great Central Railway in 1906 by Beyer and Company to the design of John G. Robinson for working fast goods and fish trains, they passed to the London and North Eastern Railway at the 1923 grouping and received the classification'B4'. The new design was similar to 4-6-0 the two locomotives of the except that they had smaller driving wheels, they were built with a saturated boiler, inside slide valves and Stephenson valve gear, two outside cylinders connected to 6-foot-7-inch diameter driving wheels. The ten locomotives were renumbered by the LNER by adding 5000 to their GCR numbers. Between 1925 and 1928 the whole class received superheated boilers, but six received 10-inch piston valves and 21-inch cylinders giving rise to two LNER sub-classes B4/1 and B4/2; the LNER had designed a new type of superheated boiler based on the old design. These were used on the B4 class locomotives; the class were used on fish trains between the port of Grimsby and London and Manchester although they were found to be successful passenger locomotives.
The first locomotive No. 1095 was chosen to haul the special train at the inauguration ceremony for the new port of Immingham in 1906, was named ‘Immingham’ thereafter. After grouping the class was transferred to Ardsley, South Yorkshire and did much useful work in the West Riding of Yorkshire Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8