Pittsford (village), New York
Pittsford is a village in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 1,355 at the 2010 census and it is named after Pittsford, the native town of a founding father. The Village of Pittsford is the oldest village in Monroe County, the village, an Erie Canal community, is in the Town of Pittsford. Pittsford is an suburb of Rochester. Pittsford is located at 43°5′20″N 77°30′54″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.7 square miles, of which,0.7 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. Pittsford is located seven miles southeast of Rochester in western New York State, the village is bisected by the historic Erie Canal. Pittsford is the oldest of Monroe Countys ten incorporated villages, the village was the site of a spring fed pond which attracted the first European Americans. Israel Stone, the villages first settler, built the villages first structure, the town of Pittsford surrounding the village was established in 1789 and was originally named Northfield.
Pittsfords original hamlet settlement was located a mile south of the current village, early Pittsford served as the governmental seat for the town of Northfield, comprising most of what is now eastern Monroe County. The settlement contained the countys first school, the first library, the first permanent church, the first post office, Pittsfords first church began meeting in 1803. The congregation survives today as the First Presbyterian Church located on Church Street, in 1816, Samuel Hildreth established the areas first stage coach line, eventually putting Pittsford at the center of a large stage network covering much of western New York. Pittsford grew rapidly after the opening of the Erie Canal in 1822 and was incorporated as a village on July 4,1827, local entrepreneurs profited from both canal construction and other businesses which benefited from the canal trade. Pittsfords excellent agricultural soil led to the early and successful development of commercial agriculture, because of its superior waterpower, Rochester soon eclipsed Pittsford as Monroe Countys dominant economic and population center.
Pittsford grew slowly through the middle of the nineteenth-century, one result of Pittsfords mid-century decline was that unlike other local towns, many of Pittsfords earliest buildings have survived. Boosted by the arrival of the Rochester & Auburn railroad in 1834, Pittsford remained an important shipping center for local grains, Village industries included a flour mill, produce warehouses, a malt house and several fruit dry houses. Beginning in the 1870s, the village and town of Pittsford once again began to grow, in the second half of the nineteenth-century wealthy Rochesterians began to establish country estates in and around the village. These estates were the first step in Pittsfords evolution from a farming community into a suburb of Rochester, three of these grand homes remain within the village. Pittsford Farms, the oldest of the three estates, was established in the 1860s by Jarvis Lord, a canal contractor
Hoboken, New Jersey
Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Hoboken is part of the New York metropolitan area and is the site of Hoboken Terminal, Hoboken was first settled as part of the Pavonia, New Netherland colony in the 17th century. During the early 19th century the city was developed by Colonel John Stevens, first as a resort and it became a township in 1849 and was incorporated as a city in 1855. Hoboken is the location of the first recorded game of baseball and of the Stevens Institute of Technology, located on the Hudson Waterfront, the city was an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey and home to major industries for most of the 20th century. The character of the city has changed from a blue collar town to one of upscale shops, the name Hoboken was chosen by Colonel John Stevens when he bought land, on a part of which the city still sits. Like Weehawken, its neighbor to the north and Harsimus to the south, old Dutch for high bluff and likely referring to Castle Point, was used during the colonial era and spelled as Hobuck, Hobock and Hoboocken.
The origin of Hobokens name was not related to the Hoboken district of Antwerp, however, in the nineteenth century, a folk etymology had emerged linking the town of to the similarly-named Flemish town. Hoboken was originally an island, surrounded by the Hudson River on the east and it was a seasonal campsite in the territory of the Hackensack, a phratry of the Lenni Lenape, who used the serpentine rock found there to carve pipes. Soon after it part of the province of New Netherland. Three Lenape sold the land that was to become Hoboken for 80 fathoms of wampum,20 fathoms of cloth,12 kettles, six guns and these transactions, variously dated as July 12,1630 and November 22,1630, represent the earliest known conveyance for the area. Pauw failed to settle the land, and he was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633 and it was acquired by Hendrick Van Vorst, who leased part of the land to Aert Van Putten, a farmer. In 1643, north of what would be known as Castle Point, Van Putten built a house.
In series of Indian and Dutch raids and reprisals, Van Putten was killed and his buildings destroyed, deteriorating relations with the Lenape, its isolation as an island, or relatively long distance from New Amsterdam may have discouraged more settlement. In 1664, the English took possession of New Amsterdam with little or no resistance, english-speaking settlers interspersed with the Dutch, but it remained scarcely populated and agrarian. At the end of the Revolutionary War, Bayards property was confiscated by the Revolutionary Government of New Jersey, in 1784, the land described as William Bayards farm at Hoebuck was bought at auction by Colonel John Stevens for £18,360. In the early 19th century, Colonel John Stevens developed the waterfront as a resort for Manhattanites, on October 11,1811, Stevens ship the Juliana, began to operate as a ferry between Manhattan and Hoboken, making it the worlds first commercial steam ferry. In 1825, he designed and built a locomotive capable of hauling several passenger cars at his estate.
Sybils Cave, a cave with a spring, was opened in 1832
Rochester, New York
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in the western portion of the U. S. state of New York, and the seat of Monroe County. The citys population was the third largest — after New York City. This area, which is part of the Western New York region, had a population of 1,079,671 at the time of the 2010 Census, a Census estimate of July 1,2012, raised that number to 1,082,284. Rochester was one of Americas first boomtowns, and rose to prominence as the site of many mills along the Genesee River. Several of the universities have renowned research programs. In addition, Rochester is the site of important inventions and innovations in consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, internal Revenue Service, after the New York City metropolitan area. Rochesters GMP has since ranked just below that of Buffalo, New York, the 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the most livable city in 2007, among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas.
In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family, in 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, and a low jobless rate. Of the 19 places in the United States named Rochester at least eight were named directly after Rochester, New York, having been founded or settled by former residents. These include Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester and Rochester, Ohio. The Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown, development of modern Rochester followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced from New York. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a land grant on the Grand River in Canada.
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land and they would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power, beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville, by 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County
NCAA Beach Volleyball Championship
The NCAA Beach Volleyball Championship is an NCAA-sanctioned tournament to determine the national champions of collegiate womens beach volleyball. It is a National Collegiate Championship featuring teams from Division I, Division II and Division III, and is the 90th, and newest, NCAA championship event. It was the first new NCAA championship to be created since the NCAA Division III Mens Volleyball Championship in 2012, the championship was approved by the NCAA Convention during the fall of 2015, and a committee was selected to determine the tournaments organizational structure. Before 2015, sand volleyball had been one of the NCAAs emerging sports, as such, a separate championship had been contested annually, since 2012, by the American Volleyball Coaches Association. Before 2012 several championships were televised by Collegiate Nationals, as of 2015, over 50 schools had sponsored sand volleyball, ten more than the total number of required programs. The sports name was changed from sand volleyball to the usual beach volleyball in June 2015.
The championship is held each May and consists of eight teams playing in a double-elimination style tournament under standard beach volleyball rules, all matches consist of five sets, with each team needing to win three sets to advance
Kenosha /kɛˈnoʊˌʃɑː/ is a city in and the county seat of Kenosha County, United States. Kenosha is on the shore of Lake Michigan. With an estimated population of 99,889 as of July 1,2013, it is the fourth-largest city in Wisconsin, the city is part of the United States Census Bureaus Chicago Combined Statistical Area. Early archaeological sites have been discovered in the Kenosha vicinity, the discoverer of two sites believes they antedate the Clovis culture, making them contemporaneous with the ice age, paleo Indians settled in the area at least 13,500 years ago. The Potawatomi originally named the area ginoozhe place of the pike, the early name by the Ojibwa Indians is reported as Masu-kinoja. This describes the place of spawning trout as trout come all at same time, thousands of fish were entering the rivers from Lake Michigan. Harvesting these fish provided food for the coming months, the first white settlers, part of the Western Emigration Company, arrived in the early 1830s from Hannibal and Troy, New York, led by John Bullen, Jr. who sought to purchase enough land for a town.
Thwarted in Milwaukee and Racine, the arrived at Pike Creek on 6 June 1835, building log homes at first and, homes of frame, native stone. The first school and churches followed by 1835, with platting completed in 1836, as more settlers arrived and the first post office was established, the community was first known as Pike Creek in 1836. In 1850, another change brought the city its current title. Between 1902 and 1988, Kenosha produced millions of automobiles and trucks under marques such as Jeffery, Nash, Hudson, LaFayette, a prototype steam car was built in Kenosha by the Sullivan-Becker engineering firm in 1900. Two years later, the Thomas B, Jeffery Company, builders of the Sterling bicycle, began production of the Rambler runabout. In 1902, Rambler and Oldsmobile were the first cars to employ mass-production techniques, the 1902 Rambler was the first automobile to use a steering wheel, rather than the then-common tiller-controlled steering. Auto executive Charles W. Nash purchased Jeffrey in 1916 and the new company became Nash Motors, in May 1954, Nash acquired Detroit-based Hudson and the new firm was named American Motors Corporation.
A 47-acre west side park and a school are named for Charles W. Nash. In partnership with French automaker Renault, AMC manufactured several models in Kenosha in the early 1980s, including the Alliance, two decades earlier, AMCs 1963 Rambler Classic had received the award. In 1987, Renault sold its controlling interest in AMC to Chrysler Corporation, the AMC Lakefront plant, a smaller facility, was demolished in 1990 and was redeveloped into upscale HarborPark. Kenosha has 21 locations and three districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places including the Library Park, Third Avenue, matthew Episcopal Church at 5900 Seventh Avenue, the Washington Park Clubhouse at 2205 Washington Road, and the Justin Weed House at 3509 Washington Road
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, and is a part of the Boston metropolitan area. According to the 2010 Census, the population was 105,162. As of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Springfield, Cambridge was one of the two seats of Middlesex County prior to the abolition of county government in 1997, Lowell was the other. The site for what would become Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was located safely upriver from Boston Harbor, Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, and her husband Simon, were among the first settlers of the town. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631, the settlement was initially referred to as the newe towne. Official Massachusetts records show the name capitalized as Newe Towne by 1632, the original village site is in the heart of todays Harvard Square. In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge itself to the city of Boston were pursued and rejected, in 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers.
Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court primarily—according to Cotton Mather—to be near the popular, in May 1638 the name of the settlement was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Hooker and Shepard, Newtownes ministers, and the colleges first president, major benefactor, in 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, which was known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. It was Governor Thomas Dudley who, in 1650, signed the charter creating the corporation which still governs Harvard College, Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Coming up from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3,1775, most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution.
On January 24,1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, a second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts, in the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution when it gave the country a new identity through poetry and literature. Cambridge was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would often be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires, the Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes—were highly popular and influential in their day. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846, the citys commercial center began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city around this time. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge led to three changes in the city, the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave.
For many decades, the citys largest employer was the New England Glass Company, by the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, often cited as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. Researchers worked on computers and inertial guidance during World War II, post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the bank of the Charles River basin. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the sciences and engineering, and more recently in biology, linguistics. Air Force and 6 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT, the school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a Conservatory of Art and Science, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars, two days after the charter was issued, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MITs first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865, in 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called Boston Tech, the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.
The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership, during these Boston Tech years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliots repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard Colleges Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard, in its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved an agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme, the neoclassical New Technology campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious Mr. Smith, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of production and processing
The history of basketball is traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismiths rules is generally given as December 21,1891, Basketball began to spread to college campuses by 1893. Governing bodies in Canada include U Sports and the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association, each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. The first basketball games in the United States were played at YMCAs in 1891 and 1892, by 1893, the game was being played on college campuses. The original rules for basketball were very different from todays modern rules of the sport, in the beginning James Naismith established 13 original rules, The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands. The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist, a player cannot run with the ball.
The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, the ball must be held by the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it, no shouldering, pushing, striking, or tripping in any way of an opponent is allowed. A foul will be called when a player is seen striking at the ball with the fist, or when violations of rules 3 and 4, if either side makes three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents. A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, if the ball rests on the edges, and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal. When the ball out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field, the thrower-in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent, if any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them. The umpire shall be the judge of the men and shall note the fouls and he shall have power to disqualify men according to rule 5.
The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in bounds, to side it belongs. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals, the time shall be two fifteen-minute halves, with five minutes rest between. The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner, the following is a list of some of the major NCAA Basketball rule changes with the year they went into effect. The first known college to field a team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University
The Republican (Springfield, Massachusetts)
The Republican is a newspaper based in Springfield, Massachusetts. It is owned by Newhouse Newspapers, a division of Advance Publications, from the beginning it had a focus on local news. It achieved national renown in the 19th century under the tenure of Samuel Bowles III, in 1855, Bowles III called for the founding of a new party that would abolish slavery. Once abolitionists founded a party by name, The Republican became one if its most unrelenting supporters. Bowles III believed that the newspaper should be a power in the moral and literary, as well as the life of the community. With the aid of J. G. Holland and others who joined the staff the paper attained excellent literary quality and its opinions soon reached all New England, and after the formation of the Republican party they extended far beyond the limits of any section. The Springfield Republican prices are, $1.00 daily, $2.50 Sunday, Bowles was succeeded as publisher and editor-in-chief of the Republican by his son Samuel Bowles.
Charles Dow, founder of Dow Jones and The Wall Street Journal, the pronoun Ms. was first suggested by an anonymous 1901 letter to The Republican. The letter read, in part, To call a maiden Mrs. is only a shade worse than to insult a matron with the inferior title Miss, yet it is not always easy to know the facts. The abbreviation Ms. is simple, it is easy to write, the second half of the 20th century saw the consolidation of Springfields newspapers. The Republican became part of two local papers. The Springfield Daily News and the Morning Union merged in the 1970s, briefly operating as separate papers, eventually the two editions were combined into The Union-News in 1988, with The Sunday Republican being published on Sundays. An organization called the Springfield Newspapers became the division of the Newhouse family empire. The newspaper was known as The Springfield Union News & Sunday Republican. I. E. Sy Sanborn, longtime Chicago sportswriter and one of the organizers of the Baseball Writers Association of America in 1908.
The newspaper reverted to its historical, pre-Union-News name of The Republican around 2001, george Arwady became publisher of The Springfield Republican on December 31,2009, he was previously publisher of The Newark Star-Ledger. Republican Block, the home from 1858 to 1867 History of American newspapers Parts of this article come from Cambridge History of English. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Cross country running
Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. Sometimes the runners are referred to as harriers, the course, typically 4–12 kilometres long, may include surfaces of grass, and earth, pass through woodlands and open country, and include hills, flat ground and sometimes gravel road. It is both an individual and a sport, runners are judged on individual times and teams by a points-scoring method. Cross country running is one of the disciplines under the sport of athletics. Although open-air running competitions are pre-historic, the rules and traditions of cross country racing emerged in Britain, the English championship became the first national competition in 1876 and the International Cross Country Championships was held for the first time in 1903. Since 1973 the foremost elite competition has been the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, Cross country courses are laid out on an open or woodland area.
The IAAF recommends that courses be grass-covered, and have rolling terrain with frequent, courses consist of one or more loops, with a long straight at the start and another leading to the finish line. Because of variations in conditions, international standardization of cross country courses is impossible, part of cross country runnings appeal is the natural and distinct characteristics of each venues terrain and weather. Terrain can vary from open fields to forest hills and even across rivers and it includes running down and up hills. According to the IAAF, a cross country course has a loop of 1,750 to 2,000 metres laid out on an open or wooded land. It should be covered by grass, as much as possible, while it is perfectly acceptable for local conditions to make dirt or snow the primary surface, courses should minimize running on roads or other macadamized paths. Parks and golf courses often provide suitable locations, a course at least 5 metres full allows competitors to pass others during the race.
Clear markings keep competitors from making wrong turns, and spectators from interfering with the competition, markings may include tape or ribbon on both sides of the course, chalk or paint on the ground, or cones. Some classes use colored flags to indicate directions, red flags for left turns, yellow flags for right turns, courses commonly include distance markings, usually at each kilometer or each mile. The course should have 400 to 1,200 m of level terrain before the first turn, to reduce contact, many courses at smaller competitions have their first turn after a much shorter distance. Courses for international competitions consist of a loop between 1750 and 2000 meters, athletes complete three to six loops, depending on the race. Senior men compete on a 12-kilometre course, senior women and junior men compete on an 8-kilometre course. Junior women compete on a 6-kilometre course, in the United States, college men typically compete on 8 km or 10 km courses, while college women race for 5 km or 6 km