The NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision known as Division I-A, is the top level of college football in the United States. The FBS is the most competitive subdivision of NCAA Division I, which itself consists of the largest and most competitive schools in the National Collegiate Athletic Association; as of 2018, there are 10 conferences and 130 schools in FBS. College football is one of the most popular spectator sports throughout much of the United States, the top schools generate tens of millions of dollars in yearly revenue. Top FBS teams draw tens of thousands of fans to games, the ten largest American stadiums by capacity all host FBS teams or games. College athletes are not paid, but colleges are allowed to provide players with non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books. Unlike other NCAA divisions and subdivisions, the NCAA does not award an FBS football national championship, nor does it sanction a playoff tournament to determine such a champion on the field.
Instead, organizations such as the Associated Press and AFCA have sought to rank the teams and crown a national champion, by taking a vote of sports writers and coaches, respectively. In place of such a playoff, various cities across the United States hold their own post-season contests, called bowl games, in which they traditionally invite teams to participate in them; these bowl games were considered to be exhibition games involving a payout to participating teams. However, in the modern era they are considered the de facto post-season. There have been agreements in recent decades by the premier FBS conferences and bowl games to organize matchups so that the FBS national championship is decided on the field; the FBS is the highest level of college football in the United States, FBS players make up the vast majority of the players picked in the NFL Draft. For every sport but football, the NCAA divides schools into three major divisions: NCAA Division I, NCAA Division II, NCAA Division III. However, in football, Division I is further divided into two sub-divisions: the Bowl Subdivision, abbreviated as the FBS, the Championship Subdivision, abbreviated as the FCS.
Divisions are themselves further divided up into conferences, which are groupings of schools that play each other in contention for a conference championship. The FBS has ten conferences, which are divided into the "Power Five conferences" and the less prominent "Group of Five". Although FCS programs can draw thousands of fans per game, many FCS schools attempt to join the FBS in hopes of increased revenue, corporate sponsorship, alumni donations and national exposure. However, FBS programs face increased expenses in regards to staff salaries, facility improvements, scholarships; the athletic departments of many FBS schools lose money every year, these athletic departments must rely on subsidies from the rest of the university. The 2014 decision by UAB to discontinue the football program generated national headlines, other FBS programs have considered discontinuing their football program. In many states, the highest-paid public employee is the head coach of an FBS team. FBS schools are limited to a total of 85 football players receiving financial assistance.
Nearly all FBS schools that are not on NCAA probation give 85 full scholarships. In order to retain FBS membership, schools must meet several requirements. FBS schools must have an average home attendance of at least 15,000. An FBS school must sponsor a minimum of 16 varsity intercollegiate teams, with at least six men's or coeducational teams and at least eight all-female teams. Across all sports, each FBS school must offer at least 200 athletic scholarships per year, FBS football teams must provide at least 90% of the maximum number of football scholarships; the FBS season begins in late August or early September and ends in January with the College Football Playoff National Championship game. Most FBS teams play 12 regular season games per year, with eight or nine of those games coming against conference opponents. All ten FBS conferences hold a conference championship game to determine the winner of the conference. Between conference games, non-conference games, a conference championship game, one bowl game, a top FBS team could play 14 games in a season.
A team that plays in the national championship game could play up to 15 games, as any team playing in the national championship must first win a playoff semifinal bowl game. The Hawaii Rainbow Warriors and teams that play at Hawaii get a special exemption and are allowed to play a thirteenth regular season game in order to defray travel costs, so an FBS team that plays 13 regular season games, a conference championship game, a semifinal bowl game, in the national championship game could theoretically play 16 games in a season. For non-conference regular season games, FBS teams are free to schedule match-ups against any other FBS team, regardless of conference. A small number of FBS teams are independent, have total control over their own schedule. Non-conference games are scheduled by mutual agreement and involve "home and homes" and long-established rivalries. A 2014 study found that teams from the stronger conferences play non-conference games against teams from the weaker conferences or against FCS teams.
FBS teams are free to schedule up to fo
The Museo di Roma in Trastevere was established in 1977 in the restored Carmelite convent of Sant'Egidio. It was known as the Museo del Folklore e dei Poeti Romaneschi. Following a period of closure it was reopened under its present name in 2000. In addition to a permanent collection related to the recent culture of Rome the museum houses temporary exhibitions, including the annual World Press Photo exhibition, it is part of the Museo di Roma. The material on exhibition includes the so-called “Roman Scenes”, life-size models which were exhibited in the Museo di Roma at Palazzo Braschi. There was limited space for them at that museum and it was thought appropriate to transfer them to Trastevere, a part of Rome where popular Roman culture is considered to remain strong; the museum's permanent exhibition focuses on Roman life in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Major themes are costume, folk dancing and crafts; the collection includes paintings, prints and watercolours, including the series on Roma sparita by Ettore Roesler Franz, life-size representations of day-to-day life, known as "Roman Scenes".
Exhibition of the Franz water colours is rotated. Other painters represented include Samuel Prout, Bartolomeo Pinelli, Adriano Trojani, Guillaume Frédéric Ronmy, Arnoldo Corrodi. There is a gallery of photographs; the “Roman Scenes” show a chemist’s, a room where a wine cart is stored, the courtyard of an inn where dancing is taking place, the inside of an inn, a square with a public scribe, two pipers in front of a votive kiosk. The museum has some manuscripts of the Roman dialect poet Giuseppe Gioachino Belli, contains some of the personal possessions of another Italian dialect poet, which were donated to Rome after his death; the “Trilussa Room” consists of a video installation together with paintings and other items belonging to the poet. List of museums in Rome
Superstition is any belief or practice, considered irrational or supernatural: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that, unknown. It is applied to beliefs and practices surrounding luck and certain spiritual beings the belief that future events can be foretold by specific unrelated prior events; the word superstition is used to refer to a religion not practiced by the majority of a given society regardless of whether the prevailing religion contains alleged superstitions. Identifying something as superstition is pejorative. Items referred to as such in common parlance are referred to as folk belief in folkloristics; the word superstition was first used in English in the 15th century, borrowed from French superstition which continues Latin superstitio. The earliest known use as an English noun is found in Friar Daw's Reply, where the foure general synnes are enumerated as Cediciouns, supersticions, þe glotouns, & þe proude.
While the formation of the Latin word is clear, from the verb super-stare, "to stand over, stand upon. It can be interpreted as "‘standing over a thing in amazement or awe", but other possibilities have been suggested, e.g. the sense of excess, i.e. over scrupulousness or over-ceremoniousness in the performing of religious rites, or else the survival of old, irrational religious habits. The earliest known use as a noun is found in Plautus, Ennius and by Pliny, with the meaning of art of divination. From its use in the Classical Latin of Livy and Ovid, it is used in the pejorative sense that it holds today, of an excessive fear of the gods or unreasonable religious belief, as opposed to religio, the proper, reasonable awe of the gods. Cicero derived the term from superstitiosi, lit; those who are "left over", i.e. "survivors", "descendants", connecting it with excessive anxiety of parents in hoping that their children would survive them to perform their necessary funerary rites. While Cicero distinguishes between religio and superstitio, Lucretius uses only the word religio.
Throughout all of his work, he distinguished only between religio. The Latin verb superstare itself is comparatively young, being "perhaps not ante-Augustan", first found in Livy, the meaning "to survive" is younger, found in late or ecclesiastical Latin, for the first time in Ennodius; the use of the noun by Cicero and Horace thus predates the first attestation of the verb. It doesn't exclude; the word superstitio, or superstitio vana "vain superstition", was applied in the 1st century to the outlawed religious cults in the Roman Empire. This concerned the religion of the druids in particular, described as a superstitio vana by Tacitus, Early Christianity, outlawed as a superstitio Iudaica in AD 80 by Domitian. Greek and Roman polytheists, who modeled their relations with the gods on political and social terms, scorned the man who trembled with fear at the thought of the gods, as a slave feared a cruel and capricious master; such fear of the gods was what the Romans meant by "superstition". Diderot's Encyclopédie defines superstition as "any excess of religion in general", links it with paganism.
In his Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, Martin Luther accuses the popes of superstition: For there was scarce another of the celebrated bishoprics that had so few learned pontiffs. For the men who occupied the Roman See a thousand years ago differ so vastly from those who have since come into power, that one is compelled to refuse the name of Roman pontiff either to the former or to the latter; the current Catechism of the Catholic Church considers superstition sinful in the sense that it denotes "a perverse excess of religion", as a demonstrated lack of trust in divine providence, a violation of the first of the Ten Commandments. The Catechism is a defense against the accusation that Catholic doctrine is superstitious: Superstition is a deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes, it can affect the worship we offer the true God, e.g. when one attributes an importance in some way magical to certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand is to fall into superstition.
Cf. Matthew 23:16–22 In 1948, behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner published an article in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, in which he described his pigeons exhibiting what appeared to be superstitious behaviour. One pigeon was making turns in its cage, another would swing its head in a pendulum motion, while others displayed a variety of other behaviours; because these behaviors were all done ritualistically in an attempt to receive food from a dispenser though the dispenser had been programmed to release food at set time intervals regardless of the pigeons' actions, Skinner believed that the pigeons were trying to influence their feeding schedule by performing these actions. He extended this as a proposition regarding the nature of superstitious behavior in humans. Skinner's theory regarding superstition being the nature of the pigeons' behaviour has been challenged by other psychologists such as Staddon and Simmelhag, who theorised an alternative explanation for the pigeons' behaviour.
Despite challenges to Skinner's in