An anchor is a device made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current. The word derives from Latin ancora, which itself comes from the Greek ἄγκυρα. Anchors can either be permanent. Permanent anchors are used in the creation of a mooring, are moved. Vessels carry one or more temporary anchors, which may be of different weights. A sea anchor is a drogue, not in contact with the seabed, it is used to control a drifting vessel, or to limit the speed of a sailing yacht running "under bare poles" in a storm. Anchors achieve holding power either by "hooking" into the seabed, or sheer mass, or a combination of the two. Permanent moorings use large masses resting on the seabed. Semi-permanent mooring anchors and large ship's anchors derive a significant portion of their holding power from their mass, while hooking or embedding in the bottom. Modern anchors for smaller vessels have metal flukes which hook on to rocks on the bottom or bury themselves in soft seabed.
The vessel is attached to a combination of these. The ratio of the length of rode to the water depth is known as the scope. A 10:1 scope gives the greatest holding power, but allows for much more drifting due to the longer amount of cable paid out. Anchoring with sufficient scope and/or heavy chain rode brings the direction of strain close to parallel with the seabed; this is important for light, modern anchors designed to bury in the bottom, where scopes of 5:1 to 7:1 are common, whereas heavy anchors and moorings can use a scope of 3:1, or less. Some modern anchors, such as the Ultra will hold with a scope of 3:1. Since all anchors that embed themselves in the bottom require the strain to be along the seabed, anchors can be broken out of the bottom by shortening the rope until the vessel is directly above the anchor. If necessary, motoring around the location of the anchor helps dislodge it. Anchors are sometimes fitted with a tripping line attached to the crown, by which they can be unhooked from rocks or coral.
The term aweigh is not resting on the bottom. This is linked to the term to weigh anchor, meaning to lift the anchor from the sea bed, allowing the ship or boat to move. An anchor is described as aweigh when it has been broken out of the bottom and is being hauled up to be stowed. Aweigh should not be confused with under way, which describes a vessel, not moored to a dock or anchored, whether or not the vessel is moving through the water; the earliest anchors were rocks, many rock anchors have been found dating from at least the Bronze Age. Pre-European Maori waka used one or more hollowed stones, tied with flax ropes, as anchors. Many modern moorings still rely on a large rock as the primary element of their design. However, using pure mass to resist the forces of a storm only works well as a permanent mooring; the ancient Greeks used baskets of stones, large sacks filled with sand, wooden logs filled with lead. According to Apollonius Rhodius and Stephen of Byzantium, anchors were formed of stone, Athenaeus states that they were sometimes made of wood.
Such anchors held the vessel by their weight and by their friction along the bottom. Iron was afterwards introduced for the construction of anchors, an improvement was made by forming them with teeth, or "flukes", to fasten themselves into the bottom; this is the iconic anchor shape most familiar to non-sailors. This form has been used since antiquity; the Roman Nemi ships of the 1st century AD used this form. The Viking Ladby ship used a fluked anchor of this type, made of iron; the Admiralty Pattern anchor, or "Admiralty" known as a "Fisherman", consists of a central shank with a ring or shackle for attaching the rode. At the other end of the shank there are two arms, carrying the flukes, while the stock is mounted to the shackle end, at ninety degrees to the arms; when the anchor lands on the bottom, it will fall over with the arms parallel to the seabed. As a strain comes onto the rode, the stock will dig into the bottom, canting the anchor until one of the flukes catches and digs into the bottom.
The Admiralty Anchor is a reinvention of a classical design, as seen in one of the Nemi ship anchors. This basic design remained unchanged for centuries, with the most significant changes being to the overall proportions, a move from stocks made of wood to iron stocks in the late 1830s and early 1840s. Since one fluke always protrudes up from the set anchor, there is a great tendency of the rode to foul the anchor as the vessel swings due to wind or current shifts; when this happens, the anchor may be pulled out of the bottom, in some cases may need to be hauled up to be re-set. In the mid-19th century, numerous modifications were attempted to alleviate these problems, as well as improve holding power, including one-armed mooring anchors; the most successful of these patent anchors, the Trotman Anchor, introduced a pivot where the arms jo
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
The Nautical Club of Vouliagmeni, or "NOV" is a major aquatic sports club, founded by local sportsmen in 1937 in the seaside resort of Vouliagmeni, south of Athens city centre, Greece. The club is located on the eastern edge of the Mikro Kavouri peninsula, adjacent to the Astir Palace Hotel and overlooking the bay and lake of Vouliagmeni; the club takes particular pride in being an "extended family" for all its past and present athletes. All its coaches and sports staff are past club athletes, members are encouraged to involve their children in club sports from the youngest age possible; the club admits members and their guests and operates a marina, a waterskiing school and Olympic competition sailing boats and facilities, an open-air, heated swimming pool, two rocky beaches, members' indoor and outdoor lounges and conference rooms, a first-aid station, a gym, an upscale restaurant. The club publishes the "Tríaina", distributed free; as part of the celebrations for the club's seventy years, a memorial volume, "In Search of the Sporting Ideal", was published in 2008, in commemoration of the club's history.
The volume chronicles the club's foundation and development, pays particular tribute to the many club athletes who have taken part in Olympic Games and won Olympic medals. The most notable Olympic athlete to have been fostered at the club is windsurfer Nikolaos Kaklamanakis; the outdoor, heated pool hosts swimming, synchronized swimming and water polo teams and the respective training schools for children. The club hosts two annual competition meetings for youngsters, the "Tzeláteia" swimming gala and the "Chatzitheodórou" water polo Cup, as well as annual water skiing and sailing events. In addition to regular training for its young athletes, the club organises training schools for beginners, open to all children interested in swimming, water polo, boat sailing, synchronized swimming, waterskiing. Four periods are offered per year in total, two during school season and two more during the summer vacations. Sports activities for members include aquarobics, martial arts classes, long-distance sea swimming, water skiing, Olympic and recreational sailing and windsurfing.
The club provides mooring for recreational boats owned by members. Several social events and functions are held at the club, including concerts, art exhibitions, receptions, dinner parties, the Christmas Eve and New Year's Eve balls, the all-day "May Day at the Club" barbecue, the midsummer "Full Moon Ball"; the club crest depicts a blue anchor set inside a white lifebuoy with eight red stripes. The women's and men's water polo teams are a traditional force in European water polo and have won many Greek and several European Championships and Cups; the club hosts LEN Euroleague and LEN Cup tournaments, its star players being capped for the Greek men's and women's national teams. The women's team are the reigning Greek champions and the reigning European champions for the second consecutive year. In 2009 they won the LEN Champions' Cup in Kirishi, defeating the Italian champions, Orizzonte Catania, in the final. In 2010 they won the LEN Champions' Cup in Corfu, defeating the Russian champions, Kinef Kirishi, in the final.
In addition to the men's and women's teams, the club maintains water polo teams for girls and boys aged 9 and upwards, participates in all relevant youth competitions. All teams train under the supervision of head coaches Ioannis Giannouris and Alexia Kammenou, both former NOV players. Men: Greek water polo championships: 1991, 1997, 1998, 2012 Greek water polo cups: 1996, 1999, 2012, 2017 Double: 2012 Greek Super Cup: 1996 LEN Cup Winners' Cup: 1997 LEN Euro Cup Runners-up: 2004 Women: Greek water polo championships: 1991, 1993, 1994, 1997, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012 Women's LEN Champions' Cup: 2009, 2010 Runners-up: 2008, 2012, 2014 Women's LEN Trophy: 2003 Runners-up: 2000, 2005, 2016 LEN Women's Supercup: 2009, 2010 Nautical Club of Vouliagmeni The photographic archive of NOV, tracking the club's course from the 1940s to the present "La regina Alexia" - news item from the Water Polo Development World website
Finswimming is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming with the use of fins either on the water's surface using a snorkel with either monofins or bifins or underwater with monofin either by holding one's breath or using open circuit scuba diving equipment. Events exist over distances similar to swimming competitions for both swimming pool and open water venues. Competition at world and continental level is organised by the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques; the sport's first world championship was held in 1976. It has been featured at the World Games as a trend sport since 1981 and was demonstrated at the 2015 European Games in June 2015. Competitors are described within the International Rules as'swimmers' rather than as finswimmers or divers. Competition is divided in two classes: long distance. A swimming pool must be 50 m long by 21 m wide and 1.8 m deep, i.e. an Olympic-size swimming pool suitable for the holding of swimming races for either the Olympic Games and a FINA world championships.
The International Rules do not permit the use of 25m length pools although these are used in regional and national competition. Long distance sites include both the sea and natural water bodies such as freshwater rivers and lakes. Site selection criteria include'low current and tides' and water quality'appropriate for swimming' as certified by a local authority; the site, when in use for competition, will be marked by buoys, patrolled by safety boats and will have observation points for judges to oversee any turns present in the course. Surface swimming is swimming on the surface of water using mask and monofins. SF races are held for distances of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500, 4 × 100 relay and 4 × 200 relay in swimming pools and over various long distances in the open water environment. Swimmers must remain on the surface of the water at all times for the duration of the race except when starting or make a turns at the end of a swimming pool where an immersion over a distance of 15m is permitted.
Apnoea finswimming is underwater swimming in a swimming pool using mask and holding one's breath. AP races are held for the distance of 50m. A swimmer's face must be immersed for the duration of the risk disqualification. AP races are not conducted in open water for'safety and security reasons'. Immersion swimming with breathing apparatus is underwater swimming using mask and underwater breathing apparatus conducted in a swimming pool. While there are no requirements on how a breathing apparatus is carried, it cannot be exchanged or abandoned during a race. IM races are held for distances of 400 m. A swimmer's face must be immersed for the duration of the risk disqualification. IM races are not conducted in open water for'safety and security reasons'. IM swims were conducted in openwater up to distances of 1000m. Bi-fins is swimming on the surface of water with mask, snorkel and a pair of fins using a crawling style. BF races are held for distances of 50, 100 and 200 m in swimming pools and over various long distances in the openwater environment such as 4 km and 6 km.
It is reported that BF was introduced in 2006 to provide the opportunity for competition by swimmers who cannot afford to purchase a set of monofins. Swimmers must remain on the surface of the water at all times for the duration of the race except when starting or make a turns at the end of a swimming pool where an immersion of a distance of 15m is permitted. Finswimming, compared to sports swimming differs from that sport in the use of masks, fins and underwater breathing apparatus; this reflects the sport’s origins in the underwater diving techniques of snorkelling, breath-hold diving and open circuit scuba diving. Apart from requiring the use of a mask for protection of the eyes and for the ability to see underwater, the international rules have no requirements regarding selection. Centre-mounted snorkels are the only type approved for use subject to meeting minimum and maximum requirements in tube length and internal diameter. Fins are regulated by the international rules. Monofins have a maximum size which can be checked by the use of a template while bi-fins must be one of the brands certified by CMAS.
Underwater breathing apparatus is restricted to open circuit scuba using compressed atmospheric air as the breathing gas. The use of oxygen enriched. Cylinders are limited by maximum cylinder pressure rating of 200 bar and a minimum cylinder capacity of 0.4 litres. While there are no requirements for regulators, swimmers appear to be free to modify these to remove any unnecessary parts. Garments such as swimsuits, swim caps and wetsuits, the use of logos printed on these garments and the equipment are subject to the requirements of the international rules; the following age groupings and associated restrictions for both men and women are mandated by the International Rules. The sport developed in Europe following the ready availability of the first rubber fins during the 1930s. Luigi Ferraro, Italian diving pioneer, is reported as organising the first fin-swimming competition in the sea during 1951 followed by a 100 kilometres ocean swim in 1955; the first competition in the Soviet Union was held during 1958.
The first European Championship, a multi sport event involving both finswimming and underwater orienteering was held under the title
Swimming is an individual or team sport that requires the use of one's entire body to move through water. The sport takes place in open water. Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports, with varied distance events in butterfly, breaststroke and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. A medley relay consists of four swimmers; the order for a medley relay is: backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle. Swimming each stroke requires a set of specific techniques. There are regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps and injury tape that are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport, such as tendinitis in the shoulders or knees, there are multiple health benefits associated with the sport. Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Age paintings from around 10,000 years ago.
Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first book about swimming, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public. By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London; the recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association was formed, there were over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country. In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England.
His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today. Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel, in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles in 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T. W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries established swimming federations; the first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892. Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavill introduced freestyle to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation, was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century.
The goal of high level competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. An athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition; the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. Tapering is used to give the swimmer's body some rest without stopping exercise completely. A final stage is referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water. Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath.
This helps to "shave" off mere milliseconds on your time. Swimming is an event at the Summer Olympic Games, where male and female athletes compete in 16 of the recognized events each. Olympic events are held in a 50-meter pool, called a long course pool. There are forty recognized individual swimming events in the pool; the international governing body for competitive swimming is the Fédération Internationale de Natation, better known as FINA. In open water swimming, where the events are swum in a body of open water, there are 5 km, 10 km and 25 km events for men and women. However, only the 10 km event is included in the Olympic schedule, again for both women. Open-water competitions are separate to other swimming competitions with the exception of the World Championships and the Olympics. In competitive swimming, four major styles have been established; these have been stable over the last 30–40 years with minor improvements. They are: Butterfly Backstroke
A mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured. Examples include quays, jetties, anchor buoys, mooring buoys. A ship is secured to a mooring to forestall free movement of the ship on the water. An anchor mooring fixes a vessel's position relative to a point on the bottom of a waterway without connecting the vessel to shore; as a verb, mooring refers to the act of attaching a vessel to a mooring. The term stems from the Dutch verb meren, used in English since the end of the 15th century; these moorings are used instead of temporary anchors because they have more holding power, cause less damage to the marine environment, are convenient. Where there is a row of moorings they are termed a tier, they are occasionally used to hold floating docks in place. There are several kinds of moorings: Swing moorings known as simple or single-point moorings, are the simplest and most common kind of mooring. A swing mooring consists of a single anchor at the bottom of a waterway with a rode running to a float on the surface.
The float allows a vessel to connect to the anchor. These anchors are known as swing moorings because a vessel attached to this kind of mooring swings in a circle when the direction of wind or tide changes. For a small boat, this might consist of a heavy weight on the seabed, a 12 mm or 14 mm rising chain attached to the "anchor", a bridle made from 20 mm nylon rope, steel cable, or a 16 mm combination steel wire material; the heavy weight should be a dense material. Old rail wagon wheels are used in some places for this purpose. In some harbours heavy chain may be placed in a grid pattern on the sea bed to ensure orderly positioning of moorings. Ropes should be "non floating" to reduce likelihood of a boat's prop being fouled by one. Pile moorings are poles driven into the bottom of the waterway with their tops above the water. Vessels tie mooring lines to two or four piles to fix their position between those piles. Pile moorings are rare elsewhere. While many mooring buoys are owned, some are available for public use.
For example, on the Great Barrier Reef off the Australian coast, a vast number of public moorings are set out in popular areas where boats can moor. This is to avoid the massive damage. There are four basic types of permanent anchors used in moorings: Dead weights are the simplest type of anchor, they are made as a large concrete block with a rode attached which resists movement with sheer weight. In New Zealand old railway wheels are sometimes used; the advantages are that they are cheap. A dead weight mooring that drags in a storm still holds well in its new position; such moorings are better suited to rocky bottoms. The disadvantages are that they are heavy and awkward. Mushroom anchors are the most common anchors and work best for softer seabeds such as mud, sand, or silt, they are shaped like an upside-down mushroom which can be buried in mud or silt. The advantage is that it has up to ten times the holding-power-to-weight ratio compared to a dead weight mooring. Pyramid anchors are pyramid-shaped anchors known as Dor-Mor anchors.
They work in the upside-down position with the apex pointing down at the bottom such that when they are deployed, the weight of wider base pushes the pyramid down digging into the floor. As the anchors are encountered with lateral pulls, the side edges or corners of the pyramids will dig deeper under the floor, making them more stable. Screw-in moorings are a modern method; the anchor in a screw-in mooring is a shaft with wide blades spiraling around it so that it can be screwed into the substrate. The advantages include small size; the disadvantage is that a diver is needed to install and maintain these moorings. Multiple anchor mooring systems use two or more light weight temporary-style anchors set in an equilateral arrangement and all chained to a common center from which a conventional rode extends to a mooring buoy; the advantages are minimized mass, ease of deployment, high holding-power-to-weight ratio, availability of temporary-style anchors. A vessel can be made fast to any variety of shore fixtures from trees and rocks to specially constructed areas such as piers and quays.
The word pier is used in the following explanation in a generic sense. Mooring is accomplished using thick ropes called mooring lines or hawsers; the lines are fixed to deck fittings on the vessel at one end and to fittings such as bollards and cleats on the other end. Mooring requires cooperation between people on a vessel. Heavy mooring lines are passed from larger vessels to people on a mooring by smaller, weighted heaving lines. Once a mooring line is attached to a bollard, it is pulled tight. Large ships tighten their mooring lines using heavy machinery called mooring winches or capstans; the heaviest cargo ships may require more than a dozen mooring lines. Small vessels can be moored by four to six mooring lines. Mooring lines are made from manila rope or a synthetic material such as nylon. Nylon is easy to work with and lasts for years, but it is elastic; this elasticity has advantag