Helter Skelter is a 1992 rock opera by Fred Frith and François-Michel Pesenti. It was their first collaborative album and was recorded in Marseille, France in February 1992; the music was composed by Frith, with libretto by Pesenti, was conducted by Frith and Jean-Marc Montera. Frith and Pesenti do not perform on this album. In 1990, English multi-instrumentalist and improvisor Fred Frith spent six months in Marseille, France working with Que d'la Gueule, a group of young unemployed rock musicians, he composed Helter Skelter for them to perform, a rock opera for two sopranos, one contralto and a large electric ensemble. Their style of playing and abilities varied but Frith found that this was what contributed to the success of the project, he said, "Somehow all their personalities infected the kind of music we ended up making together." To add to the mix, Frith encouraged them to create and play homemade instruments. Helter Skelter was billed as an "operatic tragedy", was first performed in December 1990 at Theatre Toursky in Marseille.
The work was performed in Zagreb, Hamburg, St. Brieuc and Paris; the opera was recorded in February 1992 by Christian Noêl at Studio Cactus in Marseille, mixed in July 1992 by Benedykt Grodon, Fred Frith and Jean-Marc Montera at Sound Fabrik in Munich using additional material taken from concert performances. In his book Plunderphonics,'pataphysics & pop mechanics: an introduction to musique actuelle, Andrew Jones said that Que d'la Gueule "show themselves to be a powerful ensemble bristling with talent and volatile contradictions", that in Helter Skelter they "sketch a broad canvas of despair and hope, an urban maelstrom with moments of pure beauty peering through the shards of electroacoustic reality." Jones added that "Listening to is like a ride on a subway and a stroll through a bustling market while listening to music on a walkman: striated fragments upon fragments leak through, from Eastern European jigs and dances …, samples of street life, radio broadcasts, plaintive chords arising from the horns, a soprano singer launching into Catalani's La Romance, all layered in an astonishing dense, chaotic mix and anchored by two airtight drummers."
Music by Fred Frith, lyrics by François-Michel Pesenti. Source: Discogs, liner notes Fred Frith – conductor Jean-Marc Montera – conductor Dalila Khatir – soprano vocals Danielle Stephan – soprano vocals Frederique Wolf-Michaux – contralto vocals Claude Monteil – soprano saxophone, tuyaux Edmond Hosdikian – alto saxophone, tenor saxophone Fred Giuliani – samples, klavier Kiwi – electric piano, analog synthesizer Nadine Laporte – digital synthesizer Richard Peter – electric guitar Christophe Costabel – electric guitar Laurent Luci – electric guitar Farid Khenfouf – electric bass Denis Cabacho – metal percussions, newspapers Jean-Christophe Ville – 1-string banjo, chains, food Didier Roth – home-made instruments, radio, lungs Ahmed Compaore – drums Mathias Mopty – drumsSource: Discogs, liner notes Recorded February 1992 by Christian Noêl at Studio Cactus, Marseille Mixed July 1992 by Benedykt Grodon, Fred Frith and Jean-Marc Montera at Sound Fabrik, Munich using additional material taken from performances in Zagreb, Hamburg, St. Brieuc and Paris Digital editing by Andy Fuchs at Silent Movie Music, Munich Produced by Fred Frith Liner notes by Gabriel Vialle Photography by Heike Liss Design by Peter BäderSource: Discogs, liner notes Works citedJones, Andrew.
"Fred Frith". In Jones, Andrew. Plunderphonics,'pataphysics & pop mechanics: an introduction to musique actuelle. SAF Publishing Ltd. pp. 33–34. ISBN 0-946719-15-2. Helter Skelter at MusicBrainz Helter Skelter at Discogs
Emotion is defined as any mental experience with high intensity and high hedonic content. The existence and nature of emotions in animals are believed to be correlated with those of humans and to have evolved from the same mechanisms. Charles Darwin was one of the first scientists to write about the subject, his observational approach has since developed into a more robust, hypothesis-driven, scientific approach. Cognitive bias tests and learned helplessness models have shown feelings of optimism and pessimism in a wide range of species, including rats, cats, rhesus macaques, chicks, starlings and honeybees. Jaak Panksepp played a large role in the study of animal emotion, basing his research on the neurological aspect. Mentioning seven core emotional feelings reflected through a variety of neuro-dynamic limbic emotional action systems, including seeking, rage, care and play. Through brain stimulation and pharmacological challenges, such emotional responses can be monitored. Emotion has been observed and further researched through multiple different approaches including that of behaviourism, anecdotal Darwin's approach and what is most used today the scientific approach which has a number of subfields including functional, cognitive bias tests, self-medicating, spindle neurons and neurology.
While emotions in animals is still quite a controversial topic it has been studied in a extensive array of species both large and small including primates, elephants, birds, cats and crayfish. The word "emotion" dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means "to stir up". However, the earliest precursors of the word date back to the origins of language. Emotions have been described as discrete and consistent responses to internal or external events which have a particular significance for the organism. Emotions are brief in duration and consist of a coordinated set of responses, which may include physiological and neural mechanisms. Emotions have been described as the result of evolution because they provided good solutions to ancient and recurring problems that faced ancestors, it has been proposed that negative, withdrawal-associated emotions are processed predominantly by the right hemisphere, whereas the left hemisphere is responsible for processing positive, approach-related emotions.
This has been called the "laterality-valence hypothesis". In humans, a distinction is sometimes made between "basic" and "complex" emotions. Six emotions have been classified as basic: anger, fear, happiness and surprise. Complex emotions would include contempt and sympathy. However, this distinction is difficult to maintain, animals are said to express the complex emotions. Prior to the development of animal sciences such as comparative psychology and ethology, interpretation of animal behaviour tended to favour a minimalistic approach known as behaviourism; this approach refuses to ascribe to an animal a capability beyond the least demanding that would explain a behaviour. The behaviourist argument is, why should humans postulate consciousness and all its near-human implications in animals to explain some behaviour, if mere stimulus-response is a sufficient explanation to produce the same effects? Some behaviourists, such as John B. Watson, claim that stimulus–response models provide a sufficient explanation for animal behaviours that have been described as emotional, that all behaviour, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus-response association.
Watson described that the purpose of psychology was "to predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take place. The cautious wording of Dixon exemplifies this viewpoint: Moussaieff Masson and McCarthy describe a similar view: Because of the philosophical questions of consciousness and mind that are involved, many scientists have stayed away from examining animal and human emotion, have instead studied measurable brain functions through neuroscience. In 1903, C. Lloyd Morgan published Morgan's Canon, a specialised form of Occam's razor used in ethology, in which he stated: Charles Darwin planned to include a chapter on emotion in The Descent of Man but as his ideas progressed they expanded into a book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Darwin proposed that emotions are adaptive and serve a communicative and motivational function, he stated three principles that are useful in understanding emotional expression: First, The Principle of Serviceable Habits takes a Lamarckian stance by suggesting that emotional expressions that are useful will be passed on to the offspring.
Second, The Principle of Antithesis suggests that some expressions exist because they oppose an expression, useful. Third, The Principle of the Direct Action of the Excited Nervous System on the Body suggests that emotional expression occurs when nervous energy has passed a threshold and needs to be released. Darwin saw emotional expression as an outward communication of an inner state, the form of that expression carries beyond its original adaptive use. For example, Darwin remarks that humans present their canine teeth when sneering in rage, he suggests that this means that a human ancestor utilized their teeth in aggressive action. A domestic dog's simple tail wag may be used in subtly different ways to convey many meanings as illustrated in Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals published in 1872. Example
Manners Hill Park is a public park in Peppermint Grove, Western Australia. Manners Hill park is located in an affluent suburb of Perth, it is surrounded by Bay View Terrace, Keane Street and Lilla Street. The land was owned by Edward Keane, the Mayor of Perth from 1891 to 1892, who used it as a cow paddock. In 1903, architect Talbot Hobbs designed a pavilion, built that year, it obtained its current name in April 1934 when the Peppermint Grove Road Board named it in honour of its chairman and his sixteen years service to it, J. Manners Hill. Prior to that, it was known as Kean's Point reserve. Several other amenities were added, such as a dog exercise area, public toilets, the tennis courts of the Peppermint Grove Tennis Club
The Svalbard Rocket Range or SvalRak as it is named, is a launch site for sounding rockets at Ny-Ålesund in Svalbard, Norway. The site has been in use since 1997 and is owned by Andøya Space Center, owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Fisheries and the Kongsberg Group. SvalRak's location at the 79th parallel north makes it well-suited for launching rockets to investigate Earth's magnetic field, it is used by American and Norwegian researchers. It is the world's northernmost launch site. Planning of a launch site in Ny-Ålesund started in 1993, a location chosen because of its ideal location to study the polar cusp. Construction of the site started in the summer of 1997; the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, which conducts air measurements in Ny-Ålesund, was concerned that the rockets could pollute their measurements. A test rocket was launched on 15 November; the first proper launch was an Indian Rohini RH-300 MkII sounding rocket purchased from ISRO and christened Isbjørn 1. This rocket contained instruments from University Centre in Svalbard, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment.
The 510-kilogram rocket reached 120 kilometers altitude. It was followed by two Black Brant rockets for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration which reached an altitude of 500 kilometers. SvalRak held permission to fire four rockets every two years. Forty-one rockets had been launched with a peak altitude of 1,108 kilometers; the site was upgraded in 2018. SvalRak is the world's northern-most rocket launch site, is located at the 79th parallel north; this makes it an ideal location for sending instruments into Earth's magnetic field and the polar cups and cup. It is used for studying the Magnetopause and aurora borealis, for which Ny-Ålesund is the most convenient location because of its ease of access, it is owned by Andøya Space Center, owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Fisheries and the Kongsberg Group. SvalRak has no permanent staff in Ny-Ålesund; the main users are American, Japanese and to a less extent Norwegian scientists
In the context of political aspects of Islam, the term political quietism has been used for the religiously motivated withdrawal from political affairs, or skepticism that mere mortals can establish true Islamic government. As such it would be the opposite of political Islam, which holds that religion and politics are inseparable, it has been used to describe Muslims who believe that Muslims should support Islamic government, but that it is "forbidden to rebel against a ruler". The Wahhabi of Saudi Arabia and Salafi are sometimes described as having "quietist" and "radical" wings. According to scholar Bernard Lewis, quietism is contrasted with "activist" Islam. There are in particular two political traditions, one of which might be called quietist, the other activist; the arguments in favour of both are based, as are most early Islamic arguments, on the Holy Book and on the actions and sayings of the Prophet. The quietist tradition rests on the Prophet as sovereign, as judge and statesman, but before the Prophet became a head of state, he was a rebel.
Before he traveled from Mecca to Medina, where he became sovereign, he was an opponent of the existing order. He led an opposition against the pagan oligarchy of Mecca and at a certain point went into exile and formed what in modern language might be called a "government in exile," with which he was able to return in triumph to his birthplace and establish the Islamic state in Mecca... The Prophet as rebel has provided a sort of paradigm of revolution—opposition and rejection and departure, exile and return. Time and time again movements of opposition in Islamic history tried to repeat this pattern; some analysts have argued that "Islamic political culture promotes political quietism" and cite a "famous Islamic admonition: `Better one hundred years of the Sultan's tyranny than one year of people's tyranny over each other.`" Other scripture providing grounding for quietism in Islam includes the ayat `Obey God, obey his Prophet and obey those among you who hold authority` and the hadith: `Obey him who holds authority over you if he be a mutilated Ethiopian slave` Contrasting Salafi quietists to the Jihadists of the Islamic State, journalist Graeme Wood notes that while both believe that God’s law is the only law and are "committed" to expanding Dar al-Islam, Salafi quietists share other quietist Muslims' concern about disunity in the Muslims' community.
Wood quotes a Salafi preacher as saying: “The Prophet said: as long as the ruler does not enter into clear kufr, give him general obedience,” if he is a sinner. Classic “books of creed” all warn against causing social upheaval. Wood describes these quietists as believing "Muslims should direct their energies toward perfecting their personal life, including prayer and hygiene," rather than jihad and conquest, he compares the "inordinate amount of time" spent on debating issues such as the proper length of trousers and whether beards may be trimmed in some areas, to ultra-Orthodox Jews who "debate whether it’s kosher to tear off squares of toilet paper on the Sabbath" Sidney Jones of ICG report that Salafism is not political activism and may be more of a barrier to the expansion of jihadist activities than a facilitator. Scholar Joas Wagemakers describes Salafist Quietists as focusing "on the propagation of their message through lessons and other missionary activities and stay away from politics and violence, which they leave to the ruler.”
Another scholar—Quintan Wiktorowicz—uses the term “purist,” to describe Salafists who sound similar to what Wagemakers describes as quietist: “they emphasize a focus on nonviolent methods of propagation and education. They view politics as a diversion that encourages deviancy.”Scholar Jacob Olidort describes Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Albani as "the most prominent quietist Salafist of the last century". His slogan "later in life" was: “the best policy is to stay out of politics.” His students include "Madkhalis" — who are "absolute" in their quietism urging their followers to "observe strict obedience to Muslim rulers and silence on political matters"—but very un-quietist jihadis. Javad Nurbakhsh writing at nimatullahi.org web site states: "In sufi practice and seclusion – sitting in isolation, occupying oneself day and night in devotions – are condemned." Sufis should have "active professional lives", be in "service to the creation", i.e. be serving in the world giving "generously to aid others".
However, in the past some Sufi masters have "retired from mainstream society in order to avoid harassment by mobs incited by hostile clerics who had branded all sufis as unbelievers and heretics." On the other hand, Inayat Khan published on wahiduddin.net states "Sufism is the ancient school of wisdom, of quietism, it has been the origin of many cults of a mystical and philosophical nature." Scholar Nikki Keddie states that traditionally Sufis were "generally noted more for political quietism than for activism found in the sects". In Twelver Shia Islam, religious leaders who have been described as "quietist" include.